h-Caldesmon, Calretinin, Estrogen Receptor, and Ber-EP4: A Useful Combination of Immunohistochemical Markers for Differentiating Epithelioid Peritoneal Mesothelioma From Serous Papillary Carcinoma of the Ovary

Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 09/2007; 31(8):1139-48. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e318033e7a8
Source: PubMed


Distinguishing between epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma and papillary serous carcinomas involving the peritoneum may be very difficult, owing to overlapping morphologic features. Immunohistochemistry may facilitate establishing a correct diagnosis, but, as no single antibody has demonstrated absolute sensitivity and specificity for either mesothelioma or serous carcinoma, the differential diagnosis is based mainly on the combined use of several markers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of a series of mesothelial markers [including more recently investigated antigens such as h-caldesmon (h-CD) and D2-40] and, using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, to identify a selected appropriate panel of antibodies for differentiating between epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma and serous papillary carcinoma of the ovary. Fifteen cases of epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma and 40 cases of papillary serous carcinoma of the ovary (25 primary and 15 metastatic to the peritoneum) were immunostained for h-CD, D2-40, calretinin, cytokeratin 5/6, thrombomodulin, estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), Ber-EP4, B72.3, CA19-9, and CD15. h-CD and calretinin showed the highest sensitivity (100%), followed by D2-40 (93.3%) and cytokeratin 5/6 (93.3%); thrombomodulin had the lowest sensitivity (60%). h-CD and thrombomodulin had the best specificity (95%) for mesothelioma, followed by calretinin (87.5%), D2-40 (80%), and cytokeratin 5/6 (72.5%). Among carcinoma markers, ER and Ber-EP4 demonstrated the highest sensitivity (95%) followed by B72.3 (72.5%), PR (65%), CA19.9 (60%), and CD15 (45%). The specificity of the nonmesothelial markers was 100%, except for Ber-EP4 (93.3%). The relationship between the values of sensitivity and specificity of each marker using receiver operating characteristic analysis permitted the identification of h-CD, calretinin, ER, and Ber-EP4 as the markers with the best performance in differentiating epithelioid peritoneal mesothelioma from serous papillary carcinoma of the ovary.

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    • "In some cases they may also stain with cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and D2-40. Higher grade carcinomas are more likely to be positive for p53 and p16.[42434445] The differential diagnosis includes SBTs, other gynecological neoplasms (e.g., endometrioid adenocarcinoma), and metastases (e.g., breast carcinoma). "
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    ABSTRACT: Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.
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    • "RT-PCR analysis of SM genes expression in the freshly isolated UtMCs confirmed their lack of detectable mRNAs encoding for α-SMA, calponin, SM22α, desmin, SM-MHC and smoothelin-B (Fig. 4A). They were however found to express mRNAs encoding for h-caldesmon, a protein that is constitutively expressed in epitheloid mesotheliomas [37]. Consistent with the initiation of their vasculogenic differentiation in SMDM culture, UtMCs cultured for 3 days in SMDM exhibited a robust expression of α-SMA, calponin, SM22α, desmin SM-MHC and smoothelin-B (Fig. 4A). "
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    ABSTRACT: In mammalian visceral organs, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originate from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of embryonic mesothelial cells (MCs). The ability of adult MCs to recapitulate EMT and to acquire smooth muscle (SM) markers upon provasculogenic culture suggested they might retain embryonic vasculogenic differentiation potential. However, it remains unknown whether adult MCs-derived SM-like cells may acquire specific vascular SM lineage markers and the functionality of differentiated contractile VSMCs. Here, we describe how a gentle trypsinization of adult mouse uterine cords could selectively detach their outermost uterine mesothelial layer cells. As other MCs; uterine MCs (UtMCs) uniformly expressed the epithelial markers β-catenin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, CD54, CD29, and CK18. When cultured in a modified SM differentiation media (SMDM) UtMCs initiated a loss of epithelial characteristics and gained markers expression of EMT (Twist, Snail, and Slug), stem and progenitor (Nanog, Sox2, C-kit, Gata-4, Isl-1, and nestin), SM (α-SMA, calponin, caldesmon, SM22α, desmin, SM-MHC, and smoothelin-B) and cardiac (BMP2, BMP4, ACTC1, sACTN, cTnI, cTnT, ANF, Cx43, and MLC2a). UtMCs repeatedly subcultured in SMDM acquired differentiated VSM-like characteristics and expressed smoothelin-B in the typical stress-fiber pattern expression of contractile VSMCs. Relevantly, UtMCs-derived VSM-like cells could generate "mechanical force" to compact collagen lattices and displayed in diverse degree voltage (K(+)) and receptor (endothelin-1, oxytocin, norepinephrine, carbachol and vasopressin)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises and contraction. Thus, we show for the first time that UtMCs could recapitulate in vitro differentiative events of early cardiovascular differentiation and transdifferentiate in cells exhibiting molecular and functional characteristics of VSMCs.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Article: The Ovary

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