Frozen Section Analysis for Intraoperative Margin Assessment During Breast-Conserving Surgery Results in Low Rates of Re-excision and Local Recurrence

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.93). 10/2007; 14(10):2953-60. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-007-9437-1
Source: PubMed


Negative surgical margins minimize the risk of local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery. Intraoperative frozen section analysis (FSA) is one method for margin evaluation. We retrospectively analyzed records of patients who received breast-conserving therapy with intraoperative FSA of the lumpectomy cavity to assess re-excision rates and local control.
Records were retrospectively reviewed for individuals who underwent breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive carcinoma between 1993 and 2003. Inclusion criteria were a minimum of 2 years follow-up and intact tumor at the time of operation. The major outcome measure was local recurrence. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to evaluate local recurrence rates between groups.
290 subjects with an average age of 57.2 years (range 27-89) underwent 292 lumpectomies with FSA. 11.3% had DCIS, 73.3% had infiltrating ductal, 5.8% had infiltrating lobular, and 9.6% exhibited other forms of invasive carcinoma. 70 subjects underwent additional resection at the time of breast surgery, 16 underwent subsequent re-excision, and 17 underwent subsequent mastectomy. At a median follow-up of 53.4 months (range 5.8-137.8), there were six local recurrences (2.74%) in patients who had breast-conserving procedures and two local recurrences in patients who underwent mastectomy. There were no statistically significant associations among local recurrence rate, tumor size, nodal status, or overall stage. Local recurrences were higher in patients with DCIS compared with invasive carcinoma, and tumors >2cm.
Intraoperative FSA allows resection of suspicious or positive margins at the time of lumpectomy and results in low rates of local recurrence and re-excision. The low local recurrence rate reported here is comparable to those reported with other margin assessment techniques.

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    • "frozen section analysis (FSA) [13] [14], radio-frequency spectroscopy (RFS) [15], tomography (TM) [2], and Raman spectroscopy (RS) [16] [17], each of which have various limitations with false negative diagnoses in 20–50% of the patients or prolong surgical time [18]. Although RFS, TM, and RS are more sensitive than TPC, they are limited by their dependence on tissue homogeneity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Positive margins have been a critical issue that hinders the success of breast- conserving surgery. The incidence of positive margins is estimated to range from 20% to as high as 60%. Currently, there is no effective intraoperative method for margin assessment. It would be desirable if there is a rapid and reliable breast cancer margin assessment tool in the operating room so that further surgery can be continued if necessary to reduce re-excision rate. In this study, we seek to develop a sensitive and specific molecular probe to help surgeons assess if the surgical margin is clean. The molecular probe consists of the unique aqueous quantum dots developed in our laboratory conjugated with antibodies specific to breast cancer markers such as Tn-antigen. Excised tumors from tumor-bearing nude mice were used to demonstrate the method. AQD-Tn mAb probe proved to be sensitive and specific to identify cancer area quantitatively without being affected by the heterogeneity of the tissue. The integrity of the surgical specimen was not affected by the AQD treatment. Furthermore, AQD-Tn mAb method could determine margin status within 30 minutes of tumor excision, indicating its potential as an accurate intraoperative margin assessment method.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · International Journal of Surgical Oncology
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    • "The 10% re-excision rate at our institution is comparable with the rates reported previously, despite an intraoperative frozen section for resection margin not being performed at our institution. Studies that involved an assessment of intraoperative frozen sections have reported re-excision rates ranging from 11.3% to 20% [16,17]. Of the 51 patients who underwent a second BCS for the first re-excision, 12 (23.5%) "
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    ABSTRACT: Re-excisions after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer cause delays in the adjuvant treatment, increased morbidity, and leads to poor aesthetic results. Thus, efforts to reduce the re-excision rate are essential. This study aimed to conclusively determine the re-excision rate and the factors associated with re-excision after BCS. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and pathological reports of 711 cases that underwent BCS for early-stage breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Of the 711 cases of BCS, 71 (10.0%) required re-excision. Patients in the re-excision group were younger than those in the no re-excision group. Non-palpable lesions, the presence of non-mass-like enhancement at magnetic resonance imaging, multifocality, the presence of a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) component, and an infiltrative tumor border were also significantly associated with re-excision. Multivariate analysis indicated that younger age, non-palpable lesions, multifocal lesions, and the presence of a DCIS component were factors which were independently associated with re-excision. Tumors located in the lower inner quadrant had a relatively high involved resection margin rate as well as a narrow resection margin width, especially at the superior and medial margins. Lateral margins showed a tendency toward a wider resection margin width. At our institution, the rate of re-excision was low despite the lack of an intraoperative frozen section. Patients with non-palpable or multifocal tumors, a DCIS component, or those who were younger than 50 years were more likely to require re-excision after BCS. These factors should be considered when planning surgical management of early-stage breast cancer. Positive resection margin rates and margin widths differed on a directional basis based on tumor location, and these differences were considerable.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • "FSA is reported as the most commonly applied technique in confirming the surgical margin of tumors during surgery and has a sensitivity and specificity of 65% to 78% and 98% to 100%, respectively [21,22]. FSA significantly reduces the rate of re-operation by confirming the surgical margin during the first surgery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oncoplastic surgery has revolutionized the field of breast conserving surgery (BCS). The final aims of this technique are to obtain an adequate resection margin that will reduce the rate of local recurrence while simultaneously improving cosmetic outcomes. To obtain successful results after oncoplastic surgery, it is imperative that patients be risk-stratified based on risk factors associated with positive margins, that relevant imaging studies be reviewed, and that the confirmation of negative margins be confirmed during the initial operation. Patients who had small- to moderate-sized breasts are the most likely to be dissatisfied with the cosmetic outcome of surgery, even if the defect is small; therefore, oncoplastic surgery in this population is warranted. Reconstruction of the remaining breast tissue is divided into volume displacement and volume replacement techniques. The use of the various oncoplastic surgeries is based on tumor location and excised breast volume. If the excised volume is less than 100 g, the tumor location is used to determine which technique should be used, with the most commonly used technique being volume displacement. However, if the excised volume is greater than 100 g, the volume replacement method is generally used, and in cases where more than 150 g is excised, the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap may be used to obtain a pleasing cosmetic result. The local recurrence rate after oncoplastic surgery was lower than that of conventional BCS, as oncoplastic surgery reduced the rate of positive resection margins by resecting a wider section of glandular tissue. If the surgeon understands the advantages and disadvantages of oncoplastic surgery, and the multidisciplinary breast team is able to successfully collaborate, then the success rate of BCS with partial breast reconstruction can be increased while also yielding a cosmetically appealing outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
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