To compare the molecular and growth properties of two newly isolated canine distemper virus strains in the Asia 1 and 2 groups with clinico-pathological findings in dogs, nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence comparisons of genes H and P were performed together with comparative growth profiling. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H gene contained 12 cysteine residues that were conserved among the examined Asia 1 and Asia 2 viruses. The hydrophobic region in the H gene of the Asia 2 isolates was one amino acid longer than that of the Asia 1 group. The H gene of the Asia 1 group had nine putative asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites, while there were eight sites in the Asia 2 group. The titers of the cell-associated viruses for the Asia 1 strains were higher than those of the released viruses and were opposite to those of the Asia 2 strains in a previous study. The molecular and growth properties of the Asia 1 and Asia 2 groups seem to vary, although no significant differences were observed in the clinical signs and pathological findings between the two groups.
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"The observed diversity between the vaccine strains and recent wild-type CDVs may be accounted for by several mechanisms, such as adaptation to new host species [30,31], antigenic escape [32-35] and/or genetic recombination between wild-type strains , variously driving the evolution of the virus. It has been described that changes in N-glycosylation of the H protein may affect neutralization by antibodies and replication in vitro [15,37,38]. So, the connected aspartic amide N glycosylation site potentially is a spotlight in H proteins between vaccine and wild strains of CDV. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.
Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species.
These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China.
"Accordingly, given the geographical continuity/proximity, it is safe to assume that 19876-like strains circulate in Mexico and in some geographical areas of USA. It has been described that changes in N-glycosylation of the H protein may affect neutralization by antibodies and replication in vitro (Harder et al. 1996; Iwatsuki et al. 1997; Lan et al. 2007). On the basis of the partial H protein fragment, the Mexican strains differed from the vaccine strain Ondesterpoort, since they retained N-glycosylation potential sites that are conserved in the majority of field CDVs and that are missing in strain Ondesterpoort. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine Distemper is a highly contagious viral systemic disease that affects a wide variety of terrestrial carnivores. Canine Distemper virus (CDV) appears genetically heterogeneous, markedly in the hemagglutinin protein (H), showing geographic patterns of diversification that are useful to monitor CDV molecular epidemiology. In Mexico the activity of canine distemper remains high in dogs, likely because vaccine prophylaxis coverage in canine population is under the levels required to control effectively the disease. By phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleoprotein (N) and on the H genes, Mexican CDV strains collected between 2007 and 2010 were distinguished into several genovariants, all which constituted a unique group, clearly distinct from field and vaccine strains circulating worldwide, but resembling a CDV strain, 19876, identified in Missouri, USA, 2004, that was genetically unrelated to other North-American CDV strains. Gathering information on the genetic heterogeneity of CDV on a global scale appears pivotal in order to investigate the origin and modalities of introduction of unusual/novel CDV strains, as well as to understand if vaccine breakthroughs or disease epidemics may be somewhat related to genetic/antigenic or biological differences between field and vaccine strains.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Veterinary Research Communications