Anterior Regions of Monkey Parietal Cortex Process Visual 3D Shape

Lab Neuro- en Psychofysiologie, K.U. Leuven, Medical School, Campus Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.05). 09/2007; 55(3):493-505. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.06.040
Source: PubMed


The intraparietal cortex is involved in the control of visually guided actions, like reach-to-grasp movements, which require extracting the 3D shape and position of objects from 2D retinal images. Using fMRI in behaving monkeys, we investigated the role of the intraparietal cortex in processing stereoscopic information for recovering the depth structure and the position in depth of objects. We found that while several areas (CIP, LIP, and AIP on the lateral bank; PIP and MIP on the medial bank) are activated by stereoscopic stimuli, AIP and an adjoining portion of LIP are sensitive only to depth structure. Furthermore, only these two regions are sensitive to both the depth structure and the 2D shape of small objects. These results indicate that extracting 3D spatial information from stereo involves several intraparietal areas, among which AIP and anterior LIP are more specifically engaged in extracting the 3D shape of objects.

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Available from: Guy A Orban
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    • "This means that the three-dimensional identity of an object that affords a particular action is represented in the parietal cortex of the dorsal visual pathway. Supporting this idea, visual neurons in AIP are sensitive to binocular disparity (Durand et al., 2007; Srivastava et al., 2009; Janssen and Scherberger, 2015). The source of the efferent visual information is thought to be the caudal intraparietal area (CIP) (Taira et al., 2000; Tsutsui et al., 2001) or the inferior temporal cortex (IT) (Uka et al., 2000), where three-dimensional visual cues activate neurons. "
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    ABSTRACT: The network between the parietal cortex and premotor cortex has a pivotal role in sensory-motor control. Grasping-related neurons in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (F5) showed complementary properties each other. The object information for grasping is sent from the parietal cortex to the premotor cortex for sensory-motor transformation, and the backward signal from the premotor cortex to parietal cortex can be considered an efference copy/corollary discharge that is used to predict sensory outcome during motor behavior. Mirror neurons that represent both own action and other's action are involved in this system. This system also very well fits with body schema that reflects online state of the body during motor execution. We speculate that the parieto-premotor network, which includes the mirror neuron system, is key for mapping one's own body and the bodies of others. This means that the neuronal substrates that control one's own action and the mirror neuron system are shared with the "who" system, which is related to the recognition of action contribution, i.e., sense of agency. Representation of own and other's body in the parieto-premotor network is key to link between sensory-motor control and higher-order cognitive functions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Neuroscience Research
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    • "LIP is structurally connected to multiple visual areas (Lewis & Van Essen, 2000; Felleman & Van Essen, 1991) and to several oculomotor structures (Prevosto, Graf, & Ugolini, 2010; Field, Johnston, Gati, Menon, & Everling, 2008; Ferraina, Pare, & Wurtz, 2002; Lewis & Van Essen, 2000; Stanton, Bruce, & Goldberg, 1995), making it perfectly situated to gather and combine various sources of visual information with the objective of guiding visual orienting. LIP has been found to respond selectively to differently shaped visual objects ( Janssen, Srivastava, Ombelet, & Orban, 2008; Konen & Kastner, 2008a, 2008b; Durand et al., 2007; Lehky & Sereno, 2007; Sereno & Amador, 2006; Sereno, Trinath, Augath, & Logothetis, 2002; Sereno & Maunsell, 1998). This is akin to many regions within the ventral visual stream (Palmeri & Gauthier, 2004; Logothetis & Sheinberg, 1996; Milner & Goodale, 1995; Goodale & Milner, 1992; Ungerleider & Mishkin, 1982), although the responses of LIP to visual objects are far less studied and understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: The lateral intraparietal area (LIP) is thought to play an important role in the guidance of where to look and pay attention. LIP can also respond selectively to differently shaped objects. We sought to understand to what extent short-term and long-term experience with visual orienting determines the responses of LIP to objects of different shapes. We taught monkeys to arbitrarily associate centrally presented objects of various shapes with orienting either toward or away from a preferred spatial location of a neuron. The training could last for less than a single day or for several months. We found that neural responses to objects are affected by such experience, but that the length of the learning period determines how this neural plasticity manifests. Short-term learning affects neural responses to objects, but these effects are only seen relatively late after visual onset; at this time, the responses to newly learned objects resemble those of familiar objects that share their meaning or arbitrary association. Long-term learning affects the earliest bottom-up responses to visual objects. These responses tend to be greater for objects that have been associated with looking toward, rather than away from, LIP neurons' preferred spatial locations. Responses to objects can nonetheless be distinct, although they have been similarly acted on in the past and will lead to the same orienting behavior in the future. Our results therefore indicate that a complete experience-driven override of LIP object responses may be difficult or impossible. We relate these results to behavioral work on visual attention.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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    • "Further along the ventral stream, the activity of neurons in the lower bank of the STS in the anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex correlates with perceptual decisions made by monkeys during 3-D shape categorization ( Verhoef, Vogels, & Janssen, 2010), and microstimulation of these neurons strongly and predictably influences 3-D shape categorization behavior ( Verhoef, Vogels, & Janssen, 2012). However, neurons in the dorsal visual stream also signal 3-D structure information (Theys, Srivastava, van Loon, Goffin, & Janssen, 2012; Srivastava, Orban, De Mazière, & Janssen, 2009; Preston, Li, Kourtzi, & Welchman, 2008; Durand et al., 2007; Nguyenkim & DeAngelis, 2003; Tsao et al., 2003; Tsutsui, Jiang, Yara, Sakata, & Taira, 2001), and neurons in several dorsal stream areas (e.g., MT, MST, CIP, and LIP) have been implicated in perceptual decisions (Swaminathan & Freedman, 2012; Hanks, Ditterich, & Shadlen, 2006; Tsutsui et al., 2001; Britten & van Wezel, 1998; DeAngelis, Cumming, & Newsome, 1998; Salzman, Britten, & Newsome, 1990). These findings raise the possibility that some dorsal stream areas, such as the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) with its 3-D shapeselective neurons (Srivastava et al., 2009), are also involved in 3-D shape perception. "
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    ABSTRACT: The anterior intraparietal area (AIP) of macaques contains neurons that signal the depth structure of disparity-defined 3-D shapes. Previous studies have suggested that AIP's depth information is used for sensorimotor transformations related to the efficient grasping of 3-D objects. We trained monkeys to categorize disparity-defined 3-D shapes and examined whether neuronal activity in AIP may also underlie pure perceptual categorization behavior. We first show that neurons with a similar 3-D shape preference cluster in AIP. We then demonstrate that the monkeys' 3-D shape discrimination performance depends on the position in depth of the stimulus and that this performance difference is reflected in the activity of AIP neurons. We further reveal correlations between the neuronal activity in AIP and the subject's subsequent choices and RTs during 3-D shape categorization. Our findings propose AIP as an important processing stage for 3-D shape perception.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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