Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and HIV Coinfection: Relationship between Prolonged Efficacy of HAART and HBV Surface and Early Antigen Seroconversion

Hôtel-Dieu, Service d'Hépatologie et de Gastroentérologie, Lyon, France.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 10/2007; 45(5):624-32. DOI: 10.1086/520752
Source: PubMed


Coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is common. However, little is known about the natural history of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected populations, especially the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the outcome of HBV early antigen (HBeAg) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) status.
The characteristics of 92 patients coinfected with HIV and HBV were retrospectively assessed before and after HAART and lamivudine treatment to determine the impact of treatment on chronic hepatitis B and factors associated with HBeAg and/or HBsAg seroconversion.
During follow-up, 82 patients received antiretroviral therapy, 79 of whom received HAART. Twenty-eight of the 76 patients who were administered lamivudine therapy developed lamivudine resistance mutations. While receiving antiretroviral therapy, 10 of 59 HBeAg-positive patients developed antibody to HBeAg, 3 of 10 cleared HBsAg, and 2 of 3 developed antibody to HBsAg. Two of 23 HBeAg-negative patients cleared HBsAg and developed antibody to HBsAg. HBeAg and/or HBsAg seroconversion combined with an undetectable HBV DNA level (i.e., an HBV response) correlated with a sustained HIV response (P=.001), shorter duration of antiretroviral therapy (P=.058), and more-severe disease, as evaluated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staging (for stage B vs. stage A, P=.029; for stage C vs. stage A, P=.069). For patients with elevated baseline alanine aminotransferase levels, the HBV response correlated significantly with a greater increase in CD4 cell count while receiving HAART.
In HIV-HBV-coinfected patients, HBV response correlated with a sustained HIV response to antiretroviral therapy, usually HAART including lamivudine.

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Available from: Patrick Miailhes, Oct 28, 2014
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    • "Reasons may be the high incidence of adverse effects, along with the very low sero-conversion rates of HBeAg or HBsAg observed among HIV/HBV co-infected patients receiving curative regimens as interferon [27,28]. Meanwhile, evidences showed a correlation between prolonged period of cART with dual activity and HBeAg or HBsAg sero-conversion [29,30]. Accordingly, two-thirds of our patients who had been previously on either lamivudine or interferon experienced a switch to TDF plus LAM/FTC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A survey was performed in 2008 to evaluate the profiles of patients with chronic hepatitis B cared for by Italian Infectious Diseases Centers (IDCs). This analysis describes: i) factors associated with access to the anti-HBV treatment in a cohort of HIV/HBV co-infected patients cared for in tertiary centers of a developed country with comprehensive coverage under the National Health System (NHS); ii) consistency of current anti-HBV regimens with specific European guidelines in force at the time of the study and factors associated with the receipt of sub-optimal regimens. Methods: The study focuses on 374 (87.6%) treated patients at some point in their life out of the 427 tested HIV/HBV positive. It is multicentre, cross-sectional in the design. To account for missing values, a Multiple Imputation method is used. Results: Three hundred and thirty-four (89.3%) patients were currently treated. The most common current regimen was combination therapy of tenofovir (TDF) plus LAM/FTC (lamivudine/emtricitabine) (n = 235, 70.4%), as part of antiretroviral treatment. In the multivariate analysis, an increased chance of getting treated was independently associated with increasing years since HBV diagnosis (2-10 years, p <0.001; >10 years, p <0.001). Patients consistently treated with European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) 2008 guidelines were 255 (76.6%), of whom 202 (79.2%) with an indication to an anti-HIV treatment, 30 (11.8%)without an indication, and 21 (8.2%) with cirrhosis. Among the 78 not-consistent patients, LAM mono-therapy (n = 60, 76.9%) was the most common regimen, 34 (56.7%) of them showing HBV DNA load below 1x10(3) IU/mL. Previous anti-HBV treatment (p = 0.01) and a triple HDV co-infection (p = 0.03) reduced the chance of not-consistent regimens. Conversely, HCV co-infection was independently associated with an increased odds ratio of being inconsistently treated (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Our study shows that Italian IDCs treat for HBV infection the vast majority of HIV/HBV co-infected patients with no disparities limiting access to antiviral therapy. In approximately two-thirds of the patients on treatment, anti-HBV regimens are consistent with 2008 EACS guidelines. Finally, our study identifies scenarios in which clinical practice deviates from recommendations, as in case of sub-optimal regimens with effective anti-HBV response.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "This finding, well described previously in HBV monoinfection [21] [22], confirms that individuals in the immunoactive phase of HBV disease are those most likely to respond to therapy, although it does not explain why rates in our study were so high. A previous retrospective study in a Western cohort of 82 HIV-HBV coinfected individuals treated with LMV also identified ALT as a significant predictor of seroconversion, but additionally found an association with HIV CDC stage [23]. Our findings suggest that it is likely the combination of efficient immunorestoration after HAART, together with active anti-HBV therapy that may be driving the high rates of seroconversion in our study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-HBe seroconversion and HBsAg loss are important therapeutic endpoints in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Quantitative measures of hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) and e antigen (qHBeAg) have been identified as potentially useful indicators of therapeutic response in HBV monoinfection. The aim of this study was to examine serological change including quantitative biomarkers in HIV-HBV coinfected patients initiating HBV active antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV-HBV coinfected individuals from Thailand were followed for up to 168 weeks post ART. Rates and associations of qualitative serological change were determined. Longitudinal changes in qHBsAg and qHBeAg were measured and their utility as predictors of response examined. Forty seven patients were included of whom 27 (57%) were HBeAg positive at baseline. Median CD4 count was 48 cells/mm(3). Over a median follow-up of 108 weeks 48% (13/27) lost HBeAg, 12/27 (44%) achieved anti-HBe seroconversion and 13% (6/47) HBsAg loss. Anti-HBe seroconversion was associated with higher baseline ALT (p = 0.034), lower qHBsAg (p = 0.015), lower qHBeAg (p = 0.031) and greater HBV DNA decline to week 24 (p = 0.045). Sensitivity and specificity for qHBsAg and qHBeAg decline of >0.5 log at week 12 and >1.0 log at week 24 were high for both anti-HBe seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Rates of serological change in these HIV-HBV coinfected individuals with advanced immunodeficiency initiating HBV-active ART were high. Baseline and on treatment factors were identified that were associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent anti-HBe seroconversion, including both quantitative HBsAg and HBeAg, suggesting these biomarkers may have utility in this clinical setting.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Even in previously treated or in currently treated patients, the rate of 3TC-resistance reached only 35%. These data could be explained by a low viral replication before treatment initiation, as low viral replication or an HBe-negative status was shown protective for resistance development in a previous study [28]. The cross-sectional nature of our study did not allow us to collect this information. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a clinical concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals due to substantial prevalence, difficulties to treat, and severe liver disease outcome. A large nationwide cross-sectional multicentre analysis of HIV-HBV co-infected patients was designed to describe and identify parameters associated with virological and clinical outcome of CHB in HIV-infected individuals with detectable HBV viremia. Methods A multicenter collaborative cross-sectional study was launched in 19 French University hospitals distributed through the country. From January to December 2007, HBV load, genotype, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 223 HBV-HIV co-infected patients with an HBV replication over 1000 IU/mL were investigated. Results Patients were mostly male (82%, mean age 42 years). Genotype distribution (A 52%; E 23.3%; D 16.1%) was linked to risk factors, geographic origin, and co-infection with other hepatitis viruses. This genotypic pattern highlights divergent contamination event timelines by HIV and HBV viruses. Most patients (74.7%) under antiretroviral treatment were receiving a drug with anti-HBV activity, including 47% receiving TDF. Genotypic lamivudine-resistance detected in 26% of the patients was linked to duration of lamivudine exposure, age, CD4 count and HIV load. Resistance to adefovir (rtA181T/V) was detected in 2.7% of patients. Advanced liver lesions were observed in 54% of cases and were associated with an older age and lower CD4 counts but not with viral load or genotype. Immune escape HBsAg variants were seldom detected. Conclusions Despite the detection of advanced liver lesions in most patients, few were not receiving anti-HBV drugs and for those treated with the most potent anti-HBV drugs, persistent replication suggested non-optimal adherence. Heterogeneity in HBV strains reflects epidemiological differences that may impact liver disease progression. These findings are strong arguments to further optimize clinical management and to promote vaccination in HIV-infected patients.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Virology Journal
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