The epidemiological situation in Iraq

Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Gdynia, Poland.
Przegla̧d epidemiologiczny 02/2006; 60(4):845-55.
Source: PubMed


This article presents information on the health condition of the Iraqi population as well as the situation of the country's health care and education system over the course of recent decades. Author has discussed a number ofriskfactors which influence the incidence of diseases among the country " population paying particular attention to environmental factors. In the 1980's the epidemiological situation of Iraq and its citizens was comparable with the situation in average developed countries. Over the last two decades the country, rich in natural resources, having one of the worlds richest crude oil deposits, has been turned into an economic ruin. Warfare, famine and catastrophic sanitary conditions are now widespread and they all intensify the growth of incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases.

Download full-text


Available from: Krzysztof Korzeniewski
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory diseases are one of the most common health problems among service personnel assigned to contemporary military operations which are conducted in areas characterized by adverse environmental conditions. This article reviews the results of the studies into the prevalence of acute respiratory tract diseases among soldiers of the Polish Military Contingent deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The article also discusses a number of factors which increase the prevalence of diseases diagnosed in the population of soldiers on a military mission in different climatic and sanitary conditions. Retrospective analysis was based on medical records of Polish troops treated on an outpatient basis in Iraq in 2003-2004 (n = 871) and in Afghanistan in 2003-2005 (n = 400), 2009 (n = 2,300), and 2010 (n = 2,500). The intensity rates were calculated and were then used to calculate the prevalence of diseases per 100 persons in a given population of the military personnel. We found that acute respiratory tract diseases were one of the most common health problems treated in outpatient medical facilities in all four study populations. The incidence rate was 45.6 cases in Iraq in 2003-2004, and in Afghanistan it amounted to 61.8 in 2003-2005, 45.3 in 2009, and 54.8-100 persons in 2010. In conclusion, the prevalence of respiratory diseases was closely related to the environmental factors, such as sand and dust storms, extreme temperature changes, unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, and common disregard of basic principles concerning disease prevention.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Population health and disease profiles are diverse across Iran's neighboring countries. Borrowing the results of the country-level Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2010 Study (GBD 2010), we aim to compare Iran with 19 countries in terms of an important set of population health and disease metrics. These countries include those neighboring Iran and a few other countries from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We show the pattern of health transition across the comparator countries from 1990 through 2010. We use classic GBD metrics measured for the year 2010 to indicate the rank of Iran among these nations. The metrics include disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost as a result of premature death (YLLs), years of life lost due to disability (YLDs), health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE), and age-standardized death rate (ASD). Considerable and uniform transition from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMMN) conditions to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) was seen between 1990 and 2010. On average, ischemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, and road injuries were the three principal causes of YLLs, while low back pain and major depressive disorders were the top causes of YLDs in these countries. Iran ranked 13th in HALE and 12th in ASD. The function of Iran's health care, measured by DALYs, was somewhat in the middle of the HALE spectrum for the comparator countries. This intermediate position becomes rather highlighted when Afghanistan, as outlier, is taken out of the comparison. Effective policies to reduce NCDs need to be formulated and implemented through an integrated health care system. Our comparison shows that Iran can learn from the experience of a number of these countries to devise and execute the required strategies.
    No preview · Article · May 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Typhoid fever is common in developing countries, with an estimated 120 million infections and 700 000 annual deaths, worldwide. Fluoroquinolones have been the treatment of choice for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). However, alarming reports of fluoroquinolone-resistance and failure of typhoid fever treatment have recently been published. To determine the proportion of S. Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC) from six countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, 968 S. Typhi isolates collected between 2002 and 2007 from Egypt, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Jordan and Iraq were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to five antibiotics using the disc-diffusion method. MDR was defined as resistance to amicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The E-test was employed to determine the MIC of ciprofloxacin only. Nalidixic acid resistance was evaluated as a marker for RSC. Interpretations were made according to CLSI guidelines. MDR strains were considerably more prevalent in Iraq (83%) and Pakistan (52%) compared with the other countries studied (13–52%). Nearly all isolates were susceptible (99.7%) to ceftriaxone. RSC was detected in a total of 218 isolates (22%), mostly from Iraq (54/59, 92%), Uzbekistan (98/123, 80%), Qatar (23/43, 54%) and Pakistan (31/65, 47%). Many of these (21%) were also MDR. Use of nalidixic acid resistance as an indicator for RSC was 99% sensitive and 98% specific. This study reinforces the need for routine antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of enteric fever isolates and close review of current therapeutic policies in the region.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
Show more