ArticleLiterature Review

Core Stability Training: Applications to Sports Conditioning Programs

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Abstract

In recent years, fitness practitioners have increasingly recommended core stability exercises in sports conditioning programs. Greater core stability may benefit sports performance by providing a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities. Traditional resistance exercises have been modified to emphasize core stability. Such modifications have included performing exercises on unstable rather than stable surfaces, performing exercises while standing rather than seated, performing exercises with free weights rather than machines, and performing exercises unilaterally rather than bilaterally. Despite the popularity of core stability training, relatively little scientific research has been conducted to demonstrate the benefits for healthy athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to critically examine core stability training and other issues related to this topic to determine useful applications for sports conditioning programs. Based on the current literature, prescription of core stability exercises should vary based on the phase of training and the health status of the athlete. During preseason and in-season mesocycles, free weight exercises performed while standing on a stable surface are recommended for increases in core strength and power. Free weight exercises performed in this manner are specific to the core stability requirements of sports-related skills due to moderate levels of instability and high levels of force production. Conversely, during postseason and off-season mesocycles, Swiss ball exercises involving isometric muscle actions, small loads, and long tension times are recommended for increases in core endurance. Furthermore, balance board and stability disc exercises, performed in conjunction with plyometric exercises, are recommended to improve proprioceptive and reactive capabilities, which may reduce the likelihood of lower extremity injuries.

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... Si depuis nous savons que les lombalgies ne sont pas uniquement une affaire de biomécanique (O'Sullivan et al., 2017), la compréhension des mécanismes de stabilisation du rachis a permis d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients lombalgiques (Barr et al., 2005). Le premier modèle de Panjabi (1992) (Willardson, 2007). L'auteur précise qu'un bon fonctionnement de ces 3 aspects est nécessaire afin d'assurer une stabilité optimale au rachis. ...
... Modélisation du Core Stability de Willardson (2007), adaptée de Panjabi (1992). ...
... Aussi, certains muscles locaux comme les muscles multifidi ont une fonction proprioceptive du fait de leur grande densité de fuseaux neuromusculaires et permettraient de faciliter les activations des muscles « globaux » pour stabiliser la colonne vertébrale. Par conséquent, les muscles du Core, qu'ils soient locaux ou globaux, agissent de manière coordonnée en fonction des situations rencontrées (Lederman, 2010;Willardson, 2007). ...
Thesis
Lors des interactions posture-mouvement, le Core Stability va être central pour assurer la stabilité du corps en équilibre et permettre une production de mouvement efficace. Le Core Stability est défini comme la capacité de contrôler la position et le mouvement du tronc par rapport au pelvis grâce aux muscles du Core lors de mouvements dynamiques, perturbés ou non, afin de permettre le transfert ou la production de force optimale vers les segments terminaux. L’objectif général de cette thèse est d’étudier le Core Stability dans un continuum de tâches posturo-motrices, de la station bipodale instable aux mouvements dynamiques, chez les sportifs. Le contrôle postural orthostatique est principalement modélisé comme un double pendule inversé, autour de l’articulation de la cheville et de la hanche. Cette modélisation ne permet cependant pas de comprendre le rôle du tronc, qui, de par son inertie et sa position centrale, doit être analysé séparément de la hanche. C’est pourquoi le premier objectif de cette thèse est de déterminer le poids du tronc dans la régulation posturale et les mécanismes neuromusculaires permettant de le contrôler, lors d’une tâche d’équilibre challengée. Nous avons mis en avant que la cheville est l’articulation qui contribue globalement le plus au contrôle postural, suivie du tronc, de la hanche et enfin du genou. Les déplacements du tronc semblent être majoritairement contrôlés par les muscles erector spinae mais les abdominaux pourraient avoir un rôle de stabilisateurs du rachis. La régulation posturale consécutive à une perturbation externe implique des stratégies motrices (et donc des mécanismes de contrôle neuromusculaire) du Core Stability, qui ne sont pas clairement identifiées. L’étude des mécanismes de co-contractions neuromusculaires pourraient permettre de mieux appréhender la cinématique du Core Stability. Le deuxième objectif est par conséquent de mettre en évidence les stratégies motrices et les mécanismes de contrôle neuromusculaire du Core Stability lors de situations posturales perturbées. Nous avons mis en avant que les inclinaisons du Core Stability étaient la résultante d’une stratégie active et que l’utilisation de variables de co-contractions neuromusculaires permettaient de décrire la cinématique du Core Stability. Lors de mouvements sportifs très dynamiques tels que les changements de direction non-anticipés, l’expertise peut avoir un impact sur le risque de rupture du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA) et sur le Core Stability. Aussi, certains comportements cinématiques du tronc augmentent le risque de blessure mais le rôle précis du Core Stability sur ce risque reste à déterminer. Le troisième objectif de ce manuscrit est donc de comprendre l’impact de l’expertise et du Core Stability sur le risque de rupture du LCA ainsi que les mécanismes de contrôle neuromusculaire du Core. Nous montrons que les experts avaient des contraintes articulaires supérieures aux non-experts, sans qu’elles soient associées à un risque de blessure plus élevé. Aussi, la cinématique en trois dimension du Core Stability impacte le risque de blessure, et elle peut être expliquée, du moins dans le plan frontal et sagittal par les co-contractions des muscles agonistes et antagonistes.
... Trunk muscles provide proximal stability for distal mobility, facilitating transfer of torque and angular momenta between the limbs [12,14]. Consequently, the trunk has been described as a "powerhouse" due to its capacity to transfer, absorb, and redirect kinetic energy during functional activities [4,5,10]. ...
... Consequently, the trunk has been described as a "powerhouse" due to its capacity to transfer, absorb, and redirect kinetic energy during functional activities [4,5,10]. As a kinetic link, connecting upper and lower extremities during whole-body movements, the trunk plays a crucial role in acquisition and execution of sport-specific skills, as well as during sports performance, fitness training, and activities of daily living [4,14,15]. Despite the number of studies acknowledging the importance of TMT for sportspecific performance, the available evidence is inconclusive [16,17]. ...
... During the last decades, original papers and reviews of different TMT strategies have been conducted [3,12,14,15,21,22]. However, several of these studies included healthy and active participants of low sport-specific expertise level, rather than competitive athletes [12,15,23]. ...
Article
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Background The role of trunk muscle training (TMT) for physical fitness (e.g., muscle power) and sport-specific performance measures (e.g., swimming time) in athletic populations has been extensively examined over the last decades. However, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of TMT on measures of physical fitness and sport-specific performance in young and adult athletes is lacking. Objective To aggregate the effects of TMT on measures of physical fitness and sport-specific performance in young and adult athletes and identify potential subject-related moderator variables (e.g., age, sex, expertise level) and training-related programming parameters (e.g., frequency, study length, session duration, and number of training sessions) for TMT effects. Data Sources A systematic literature search was conducted with PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus, with no date restrictions, up to June 2021. Study Eligibility Criteria Only controlled trials with baseline and follow-up measures were included if they examined the effects of TMT on at least one measure of physical fitness (e.g., maximal muscle strength, change-of-direction speed (CODS)/agility, linear sprint speed) and sport-specific performance (e.g., throwing velocity, swimming time) in young or adult competitive athletes at a regional, national, or international level. The expertise level was classified as either elite (competing at national and/or international level) or regional (i.e., recreational and sub-elite). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods The methodological quality of TMT studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A random-effects model was used to calculate weighted standardized mean differences (SMDs) between intervention and active control groups. Additionally, univariate sub-group analyses were independently computed for subject-related moderator variables and training-related programming parameters. Results Overall, 31 studies with 693 participants aged 11–37 years were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the included studies was 5 on the PEDro scale. In terms of physical fitness, there were significant, small-to-large effects of TMT on maximal muscle strength (SMD = 0.39), local muscular endurance (SMD = 1.29), lower limb muscle power (SMD = 0.30), linear sprint speed (SMD = 0.66), and CODS/agility (SMD = 0.70). Furthermore, a significant and moderate TMT effect was found for sport-specific performance (SMD = 0.64). Univariate sub-group analyses for subject-related moderator variables revealed significant effects of age on CODS/agility ( p = 0.04), with significantly large effects for children (SMD = 1.53, p = 0.002). Further, there was a significant effect of number of training sessions on muscle power and linear sprint speed ( p ≤ 0.03), with significant, small-to-large effects of TMT for > 18 sessions compared to ≤ 18 sessions (0.45 ≤ SMD ≤ 0.84, p ≤ 0.003). Additionally, session duration significantly modulated TMT effects on linear sprint speed, CODS/agility, and sport-specific performance ( p ≤ 0.05). TMT with session durations ≤ 30 min resulted in significant, large effects on linear sprint speed and CODS/agility (1.66 ≤ SMD ≤ 2.42, p ≤ 0.002), whereas session durations > 30 min resulted in significant, large effects on sport-specific performance (SMD = 1.22, p = 0.008). Conclusions Our findings indicate that TMT is an effective means to improve selected measures of physical fitness and sport-specific performance in young and adult athletes. Independent sub-group analyses suggest that TMT has the potential to improve CODS/agility, but only in children. Additionally, more (> 18) and/or shorter duration (≤ 30 min) TMT sessions appear to be more effective for improving lower limb muscle power, linear sprint speed, and CODS/agility in young or adult competitive athletes.
... This form of training concentrates on increasing strength in the core muscles on the basis that a stronger core is beneficial to overcome the unstable and dynamic nature of the water and is necessary to produce and transfer force between the trunk and upper and lower extremities [52]. Swimming differs from other ground-based sports in that the core becomes the reference point for all movements [52]. ...
... This form of training concentrates on increasing strength in the core muscles on the basis that a stronger core is beneficial to overcome the unstable and dynamic nature of the water and is necessary to produce and transfer force between the trunk and upper and lower extremities [52]. Swimming differs from other ground-based sports in that the core becomes the reference point for all movements [52]. The core muscles in these studies include the hip flexors, pelvis, trunk and shoulders. ...
Article
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Background Strength training is widely used in swimming for improvement in performance. There are several ways to embark on strength training, which to different degrees follows the principle of specificity. There are disagreements in the literature on which training methods lead to the greatest performance improvements and to what degree resistance training must be specific to swimming to transfer to swimming performance. Objective The study was undertaken to examine (1) how different approaches to strength training for competitive swimmers can improve swimming performance and (2) which form of strength training resulted in the largest improvement in swimming performance. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the following databases: PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Scopus. Studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: (1) a training intervention lasting longer than 3 weeks that investigates the effects strength training has on swimming performance, (2) involves youth or older experienced swimmers, (3) involves in-water specific resistance training, dry-land swim-like resistance training or non-specific dry-land strength training and (4) interventions with clear pre- and posttest results stated. Non-English language articles were excluded. Percent change and between-group effect size (ES) were calculated to compare the effects of different training interventions. Results A range of studies investigating different strength training methods were examined. The percent change in performance and between-group ES were calculated; 27 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review revealed no clear consensus on which method of strength training was the most beneficial to swimming performance. All methods had intervention groups that increased their swimming performance. Conclusions This review shows that swimming differs from other sports as it is performed in water, and this demands a specific way of training. The results show that a combined swimming and strength training regimen seemed to have a better effect on swimming performance than a swim-only approach to training. Based on the principle of specificity and gains in swimming performance, there is not a clear conclusion, as the three main methods of strength training revealed similar gains in swimming performance of 2–2.5%.
... Haugen, Haugvad, & Røstad (2016) searched for scientific publications of RT used in athletic populations and found that many different sports will include core RT, but fail to describe a detailed exercise prescription of the RT. According to Willardson (2007) increasing core stability and strength should be a priority for all sports conditioning programs, but certainly applies to sports that are played on unstable surfaces or may require the athlete to perform skills in unstable body positions. ...
... Studies by Shaffer et al. (1993) and Watkins et al. (1989) both suggest a need for core RT in respective baseball training regimens to maximize sport-specific skill outcomes based on the EMG of hitting and throwing. McGill (2010), Hibbs et al., (2008), and Willardson (2007) all agree that core RT should be a part of an athlete"s training regimen to optimize performance and minimize injury. Following the principle of specificity, implementing a core RT program that challenges the body in a way that is sport-specific should result in the greatest training adaptations. ...
Article
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The current issue is the third of the seventh volume of the Athens Journal of Sports, published by the Sport, Exercise, & Kinesiology Unit of the ATINER under the aegis of the Panhellenic Association of Sports Economists and Managers (PASEM).
... The authors did note that the stability exercises likely only aided athletes by decreasing their risk for injury, whereas the higher threshold exercises were more involved in performance enhancement. Willardson (2007) suggested that since most sport skills are ground based, with moderate amounts of instability, that traditional resistance exercises (i.e., barbell exercises) should be prescribed for the "highest possible transfer to occur". He also advocated for shifting the focus of the desired adaptation throughout the year, with core strength and power emphasized during the pre-and in-season, while the off-season should emphasize increases in core endurance using modalities such as swiss ball exercises, isometrics, low loads and long durations (Willardson, 2007). ...
... Willardson (2007) suggested that since most sport skills are ground based, with moderate amounts of instability, that traditional resistance exercises (i.e., barbell exercises) should be prescribed for the "highest possible transfer to occur". He also advocated for shifting the focus of the desired adaptation throughout the year, with core strength and power emphasized during the pre-and in-season, while the off-season should emphasize increases in core endurance using modalities such as swiss ball exercises, isometrics, low loads and long durations (Willardson, 2007). ...
Thesis
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Introduction: Exercises designed to improve the function of the core are a centerpiece of many athletic training programs. Current core stability (CS) ideology, testing protocols, and training methods originated from research into low back pain, yet are commonly applied within the sports performance domain. CS is a controversial concept with significant debate around how effective core stability training (CST) is for athletic populations. The majority of CS exercises and assessments currently emphasize muscular endurance. This exclusive focus may not be appropriate when training or monitoring athletes involved in dynamic sporting activities. To improve our understanding on this topic, the goal of this thesis is to investigate current perspectives and viewpoints, relating to CS and CST, held by practitioners in the sports performance domain. Methods: An online questionnaire and semi-structured interview were performed to gather subjective data from industry experts and professionals working with athletes. Both studies were designed to understand current thoughts and opinions around three key themes; current understanding of CS, how CS is being monitored in practice, and how practitioners are training CS. Results: The online questionnaire was completed by 64 respondents, while 10 industry experts were interviewed. There was a lack of a universal language amongst industry professionals when describing CS and many differing opinions related to key CS concepts. An important finding was that very few practitioners are objectively assessing the core, with little consideration given to monitoring maximal core strength. It was found that nearly all participants implement direct CS exercises, however, opinions on how to best train the core varied significantly. The results of this thesis demonstrate wide ranging viewpoints and opinions related to CS and CST amongst industry professionals, despite over 30 years of related research. Discussion and Practical Implications: The findings from this thesis highlight the extent of divided industry perspectives. Specifically, five key areas were identified to improve our understanding in this area. The alignment of terminology and the development of an evidence-based CST framework are needed to streamline coaching practice. Maximal core strength is an underappreciated area and research exploring its relationship to athletic performance is desperately needed. Moreover, the development of cheap field tests to assess this quality are needed. Finally, longer term intervention studies are also required to substantiate the effectiveness of CS programs. Key Words: Core Stability, Core Stability Training, Trunk, Lumbopelvic Control
... Greater stability may benefit sports performance by providing a foundation for greater force production in the upper and lower extremities [11]. Meanwhile it is also common knowledge that a well-trained postural control can reduce the risk of lower extremity injuries [12][13][14]. ...
... Free weights exercises performed while standing on a stable surface are recommended for increases in core strength and power. Free weight exercises performed in that manner are specific to the core stability requirements of sports-related skills due to moderate levels of instability and high levels of force production [11,19,20]. Balance board and stability disc exercises, performed in conjunction with plyometrics exercises, are recommended to improve proprioceptive and reactive capabilities, which may reduce the risk of lower extremity injuries [21][22][23][24][25]. ...
Chapter
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Postural control is critical for maintaining balance and stability in health-related situations. Core stability is needed for postural control and describes the ability to hold tension in the abdominal and lumbopelvic region and a global and a local stability system distinguished. Several training strategies for improving postural control have been suggested in the past. One of these ideas is 'Slashpipe' training, which involves performing exercises similar to those seen in barbell power fitness programs using a pipe partially filled with liquid. The study's goal was to look into the effects of a Slashpipe training intervention on balance ability. We gathered 31 people, eleven of whom trained for eight weeks with a Slashpipe (intervention group 1, IG-1), eight of whom trained for eight weeks with rigid weights (intervention group 2, IG-2), and eleven who did not get any training (control group, CG). To evaluate single leg postural sway, a Posturomed with a two-dimensional sensor was utilized before and after the 8-week period. The results for IG-1 and IG-2 revealed a considerable improvement. There was no change in postural sway in the CG. As a result, we discovered evidence that Slashpipe training improved stability. Based on the outcomes of this study, Slashpipe could be a useful training tool to use in conjunction with other types of training.
... Konseptet om kjernemuskeltrening utviklet seg fra behandling og rehabilitering av rygglidelser til å inkludere skadeforebygging og bedring av idrettsprestasjoner. På starten av 2000-tallet forekom det en eksplosiv økning i vitenskapelige artikler om kjernemuskeltrening for idrettsutøvere [17,18]. Satt litt på spissen ble kjernemusklene på dette tidspunktet ansett som begrensende for å mestre naer sagt alle bevegelser og teknikker. ...
... Kjernemuskeltrening bygger på premisset om at kjernemusklenes egenskaper er underutviklet og ikke oppfyller idrettens krav [17]. Dette betyr at kjernemusklene ikke makter å overføre kraft mellom muskler og ledd i armer og bein på en e!ektiv måte. ...
Article
Core training promises more than it can hold: A review of current literature and practical experience Introduction: Core training has a significant place in the training program of many athletes, from the recreational exerciser to the elite athlete. But does core training work as intended? Main section: In this article, the authors are critical to the assumptions that core training improves sports performance, while concurrently preventing injuries. Through a literature review and our experiences from working with elite athletes, we question the theoretical framework and documentation of the effects of this type of training, especially for athletes. Summary: Core training is not a defined nor specific training method; it is simply training of a group of muscles. In our opinion, core training has been given far too much importance for athletes at all levels, both as injury prevention and performance-enhancing measures.
... One of the exercises that can be used to train the core muscles is core stability training. This core stability exercise is increasingly emphasized by fitness professionals in sports training programs [4], [13], [14]. According to Kibler [15], core stability is an exercise model that improves the ability to control the position of the torso through the pelvis and legs to allow optimal movement. ...
... Correspondingly, higher core muscle activity was demonstrated when exercising on an unstable surface than when performing the same exercise in a stable condition [30,5]. The results of the Kavcic study [13] Core muscles have been suggested to be the main stabilizer of the spine, both local and global muscles, and work together to achieve spinal stability during movement in exercise. ...
... Proper core-motor control lifting is important for good performance and prevention of spine injury [1][2][3] in athletes or individuals who perform repetitive heavy load lifting. [4][5][6] Improper core-motor control electromyography (EMG) evidence demonstrated over-activation of the erector spinae (ES) and the resulting spinal extension moment, which created excessive anterior shearing and compressive force acting on the lumbar spine during heavy load lifting, 7,8 predisposing athletes or individuals to low back pain (LBP) and poor performance. 4,6 Such use of the super¯cial ES and abdominal muscles may be associated with insu±cient core motor incoordination control between internal (local, deep) and external (global, super¯cial) core muscles that regulate intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and core stabilization. ...
... [4][5][6] Improper core-motor control electromyography (EMG) evidence demonstrated over-activation of the erector spinae (ES) and the resulting spinal extension moment, which created excessive anterior shearing and compressive force acting on the lumbar spine during heavy load lifting, 7,8 predisposing athletes or individuals to low back pain (LBP) and poor performance. 4,6 Such use of the super¯cial ES and abdominal muscles may be associated with insu±cient core motor incoordination control between internal (local, deep) and external (global, super¯cial) core muscles that regulate intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and core stabilization. [9][10][11][12][13] Therefore, it is essential to maintain the upright spine and muscle strength through appropriate IAP and core stabilization during lifting. ...
Article
While the presence of lumbopelvic-hip stabilization has been provided as an importance component of the intra-abdominal pressure and dynamic spinal stabilization prior to movement, no previous study has investigated the effects in nonsymptomatic adults. This study investigated neuromuscular mechanisms and effects by comparing the natural core stabilization (NCS), abdominal bracing stabilization (ABS), and coordinated core stabilization (CCS) techniques in nonsymptomatic adults during lifting movement. A convenience sample of 40 nonsymptomatic adults (mean [Formula: see text] standard deviation, [Formula: see text]; 27 males, 13 females) were randomized into the NCS, ABS, and CCS techniques during lifting movement. The clinical outcomes included the deep and local (transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and gluteus maximus (Gmax)) and superficial and global muscle (thoracic erector spinae (TES), lumbar erector spinae (LES), and external oblique (EO)) activation and balance ratios (IO/LES and Gmax/LES) and onset time co-activation ratios (IO/LES and Gmax/LES). One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction revealed that the IO/LES and Gmax/LES balance and activation ratios were greater in CCS than in NCS and ABS. The onset time co-activation ratio was improved in CCS as compared with NCS and ABS, and ABS dropped equally inversely to NCS. Our results provide novel therapeutic evidence that CCS-based lifting movement is more balanced or coordinated in terms of neuromuscular control than the other techniques and may be used as an alternative exercise for core stabilization.
... Also bands, and pulleys have been some of the approaches to train the core. 8,9,10 Performing conventional exercises on unstable rather than stable surfaces, while standing, with free weights and unilaterally rather than doing exercises on machines, in sitting position or bilaterally provides additional good results. 9 Pilates is considered as physical fitness system which improves strength, flexibility and endurance of body. ...
... 8,9,10 Performing conventional exercises on unstable rather than stable surfaces, while standing, with free weights and unilaterally rather than doing exercises on machines, in sitting position or bilaterally provides additional good results. 9 Pilates is considered as physical fitness system which improves strength, flexibility and endurance of body. Also, it improves breathing, coordination, balance and strengthens the core muscles. 1 Pilates trainings progresses with the 5 basics such as breathing, cervical alignment, rib and scapular stabilization, pelvic mobility and utilizing the transverses abdominis. ...
Article
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Objective: to determine the effectiveness of Pilate training on physical performance of cricket players. Methodology: A two-arm, single-centered, randomized control trial was conducted at LFR I8Active Gym I8, Islamabad for time duration of six months from June 2020 to March 2021. The active male cricketers aged between 19-30, who had practiced for at least 2 years and had normal BMI (ranging in between 18.5 to 24.9) were included in the study. The n=20 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria and recruited through non-probability convenient sampling technique and divided in two groups. The experimental group received Pilate training (PT) with conventional training (CT) exercise plan. However, control group received only CT exercise plan. The 30 feet agility shuttle run test, core strength test, endurance test, underarm throw accuracy test, throw-length test and ground fielding test was performed before and after the intervention. The MANCOVA was applied to see the differences in group while controlling the confounding variables. The level of significance was set at 95% CI (p≤0.05). Results: The mean age of study participants was 23.95±2.7 years, while average BMI was 22.4± 3.79. After running MANCOVA test on combine dependent variables, while controlling BMI and pretest score, statistically significant difference {F (6, 12) = 12.95, p<0.001, ηp2= .866} between groups was observed. All variables except endurance fitness (p=0.217), showed significant improvement in cricketer receiving combined conventional training and Pilates training (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that Pilates with conventional training significantly improved physical performance of cricketers.
... Core exercises-defined as exercises that challenge the core musculature (muscles of the torso proximal to the ball and socket joints that help stabilize the spine)-are a staple among athletically trained individuals and clinical populations because of the exercises' ability to strengthen musculature, 3,4 improve muscular endurance, 5 reduce low back pain (LBP), [6][7][8] and improve sport performance. [9][10][11] The mechanism of how these exercises stabilize the spine is thought to be from enhancing stiffness of the core muscles. 12,13 Greater core stiffness enhances performance through three mechanisms. ...
Chapter
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After reading this chapter, you should be able to understand: • The indications for each major exercise group • How to find the patient’s functional range • How bracing and breathing are used during training • How to train muscular endurance • How to audit correct exercise performance • How to progress patients with functional–stability training • How to troubleshoot if the patient is having trouble with an exercise
... Muscle stability and core training provide a foundation for zmelie99@gmail.com more excellent force production by the upper and lower extremities in sports performance and have been addressed recently [6]. "A strong core will transfer force from the lower body to the upper body with minimal energy dissipation in the torso [5]." ...
Article
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Abstract: The football players must be physically fit, technically adept, strategically well-equipped, and mentally prepared to withstand the pressures of the game. Among those essential components, physical fitness is the basis. So, coaches implemented aerobics, strength, and power training for large muscle groups. However, the core muscles, which assist maintain balance, transform stored energy into explosive strength, and enable robust kicking and leaping activities, have received little attention. The goal of this study is to investigate how core strength training improves soccer players' agility, muscular power, and speed. We utilized a true patterned experimental design and randomly selected 13 players as the control group (CG) and 13 players as the experimental group (EG). A pre-test was conducted by both groups' players (agility, anaerobic power and speed tests). In addition to the standard soccer training program, the EG was utilized for core strength training twice a week for three months, for 30 to 35 minutes each day. The coach only implemented regular soccer training on the CG. We repeated the measurements three months later on the same parameter. And agility grew considerably (MD in TT of EG was 0.738) at P = 0.000, the difference between MD in TT of CG 0.3769 at P = 0.005 and MD in TT of CG 0.3769 at P = 0.005 is reasonably significant. IAT's pre- and post-test mean of EG and CG do not differ significantly, other than their great improvement. However, both groups' IAT results improved significantly (MD and P value of EG in was significantly decreased by a MD of 0.381, P 0.00. and 0.3685, P 0.017 in case of CG). EG’s anaerobic power (before and after MD and P value in VJT) was .06 at P = 0.000, which was larger than CG's MD of .0254 at P = .038. Furthermore, the pre and post MD and P values in the SLJT of EG and CG are .1161 at P = 0.003 and .0308 at P = .052, respectively. Furthermore, in the 10m dash test of EG and CG, the MD and P value of the speed test were .1392 at P .020 and .1206 at P .020, respectively. In the 40-meter dash speed test, EG and CG had pre and post MD of .2015 at P .008 and .1293 at P .010, respectively. Generally, three months of core strength training increased the speed, power, and agility of 14-year-old EG much more than CG. Keywords: Agility, Core-strength, Soccer, Speed, Power (PDF) Melese Ebabu Mossa. The Effect of Core Strength Training on 14-Year-Old Soccer Players' Agility, Anaerobic Power, and Speed. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358885259_Melese_Ebabu_Mossa_The_Effect_of_Core_Strength_Training_on_14-Year-Old_Soccer_Players%27_Agility_Anaerobic_Power_and_Speed [accessed Feb 26 2022].
... It plays an active role in the application of many movements from core basic movements to sports movements and affects performance. Therefore, core strength and stabilization are very important for many sports branches and for sedentary individuals to perform their daily living activities (10). Core is of great importance for maintaining balance (11). ...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study is to the relationship between core stabilization and balance in the national curling athletes. Materials and Methods: 38 curling player, 19 men and 19 women, whose average of age was 19.67±2.90 were included in the study. İn the study, Body composition were measured to use TANİTA TBF 300 device. To Measure Core stabilization levels were used Sit-Up Test, Biering Sorenson Test and Sport-Specific Core Muscle Strength & Stability Plank Test. Balance were measured with SPORKAT 4000 Dynamic and Static Balance Device.The analysis of acquired datas from study is doneusing SPSS (version 24) for Windows Statistical Programme.Independent t-test was used for the comparison of paired groups while Pearson correlation was used for the control of the association between variables. Significance for statistical datas was selected being p<0.05. Results: Sit-up Test average were 44.31± 7.59 in men and 30.84±6.13- in women, Biering Sorenson Test average were 226.78±74.60 in men and 289.10±111.10 women, Sport-Spesific Core muscle strength & stability plan test average 280.26±113.14 in men and 176.05±47.128 women. Dynamic Balance Test average were 7677.26±1467.12 in men and 5207.94±1436.02 in women. The Static balance average were definitely 7759±1554.98 in men and 5477.63±2004.06 in women. Conclusion: As a result of the study, it is found that there wasn’t a significant relation between back endurance and static, dynamic balance, that there was a significant relation between sit up and static, dynamic balance. There was significantly relation between plank time and dynamic balance. However between Plank time and Static balance was not significantly relation. Keywords: Balance; Body composition; Core; Curling
... This result confirms the relationship between weak core and shoulder instability. Trunk extensors have a very important role in swimming to allow efficient transfer of force from lower limbs to trunk and then to upper limbs, minimizing overload on the shoulder joint [35]. Within time, poor body positioning or weak back muscles can contribute to shoulder pain both during and after workouts. ...
... Lumbopelvic stability is considered a critical factor in the prevention and treatment of injury based on the potential contribution to recovery from injury and subsequent improvement [34]. For humans to maintain a straight posture, it is necessary to produce a force against gravity. ...
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Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a very common symptom experienced by individuals across all age groups. Previous study established that using a device known as Active Therapeutic Movement version 2 (ATM®2) has been developed to improve pain and joint range of motion (ROM) in patients with LBP. However, no study has examined the physiological change in the muscle through ATM®2-based exercise thus far. This study aimed to determine the immediate effects of ATM®2 exercise on the contraction timing, back extension endurance, muscle fatigue, and trunk ROM of lumbar and lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects (mean age=23.16±2.3) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were instructed to perform ROM test using sit and reach test, back extensor endurance test using Biering-Sorensen test, erector spinae (ES), lumbar multifidus (LM) fatigue and onset time of Gluteus maximus (GM) in prone hip extension using electromyography before and after trunk flexion and extension isometric exercises. Results: The ROM in trunk flexion showed a significant increase by 7.9% after exercise compared to that before exercise (p<0.05). Relative GM contraction onset timing significantly decreased after exercise (p<0.05). The result of the Sorensen test after exercise showed a trend of increase in duration time. Muscle fatigue in the LM, however, showed a significant increase (p<0.05), whereas muscle fatigue in the ES was reduced without statistical significance. Conclusions: The results base on this study showed a significant increase in the trunk ROM after trunk flexion and extension isometric exercise using an external compression device, while the relative contraction onset timing in the GM significantly reduced. Furthermore, the muscle endurance test after exercise showed a trend of increase in the duration time with a decreasing trend in muscle fatigue in the ES. Exercise based on ATM®2 is an effective exercise protocol with an effect on biomechanics of healthy subjects. This exercise may be suitable in clinical practice for patients with LBP, for which long-term effects can be expected.
... Athletes who practice movements such as throwing can benefit from this feature. For example, a baseball player with better core strength can hit the baseball faster (Willardson, 2007). ...
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THE EFFECTS OF TEN WEEKS OF CORE TRAINNG ON CORE AND MAXIMAL STRENGTH IN MALE WEIGHTLIFTERS
... D. Wells et al., 2009). It has been proposed that the use of unstable surfaces could increase core muscle recruitment and participation, potentially improving performance (Behm et al., 2015;Willardson, 2007). However, it has also been stated that the use of unstable surfaces in combination with resistance training can impair the ability to generate power and movement velocity while maintaining similar or greater core muscle activation (Behm, Colado, & Colado, 2013). ...
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Effects of 8-weeks of stable vs unstable surface destabilizing training on shot outcome in elite golfers Efectos de 8 semanas de entrenamiento desestabilizador en superficies estables vs inestables sobre el resultado de los golpes en golfistas de élite Abstract. Purpose: This research aimed to compare the effect of two intervention programs using stable or unstable surfaces on speed and hitting distance in golf stroke/swing. Methods: Twenty-five elite golfers (19.20 ± 1.77 years, height = 181.12 ± 4 cm, body mass = 75.35 ± 5.83; kg, BMI = 22.71 ± 1.76 kg.m2, handicap: 2.49 ± 2.56) were randomly assigned to two different 8-week training programs based on unstable surface (n = 12) or stable surface training (n=13). Measurements of carry distance and club head speed were performed using the Trackman Golf® system, with each participant executing five swings and obtaining the average and best distance. Results: No significant changes (p< 0.05) in the club head speed or carry distance were found after the intervention in the stable surface or the unstable surface training group. Conclusions: The proposed intervention using instability surfaces does not provide any additional benefit to training on stable surfaces in the specific performance of the stroke in elite golfers.
... Vücudun duruşunu ayarlamak veya dışarıdan gelen yükü kaldırabilmesi için sürekli olarak değişen dinamik bir konsepttir. Spor performansı açısından, core stabilite ne kadar büyük olursa kol ve bacaklardaki güç üretimi o kadar fazla olur (Willardson, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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Decision making is the process of study and selecting the best alternative based on the values and preferences of the decision-maker. Machine Learning is one of the main ways to make intelligent decisions through the implementation of systems called Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS). Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS) can be implemented through several machine learning algorithms that are used to enable decision support systems (DSS). DSS is designed and used for many sectors like tourism, aviation, medicine, education and sports (like rugby, tennis, basketball & football). In football, DSS is used in different areas such as team selection, scheduling league and identifying talent in football players. But there are few studies about decision support systems or algorithms have been made that could be utilized by decision-makers to aid in the process of forming a strong team. One of the main challenges in team management is a concern on how to choose the preferred available position for each player in the team. Every one of these assignments requires a considerable measure of experience in coaching and make the decision. Generally, there is no formula or scientific equations to identify the most appropriate position for every player in a particular team formation. Where this function is carried out by coaches using their experiences and some personal perceptions about players. Therefore, football managers may need to use a decision support system to aid their decision-making process. In the same context, one of the other challenges for football managers is knowing how the skill of players changed over time because predicting player's skills will help managers to make suitable decisions like sell, buy and contract renewal. In this paper, we seek to design IDSS which have abilities to find the best available squad according to formations of play such as 4-4-2, 3-5- 2, etc. At the same time, the system also has abilities to predict preferred available positions for each player in a team such as center back, wingers, striker, etc. Finally, we will seek through the system to predict dribbling skills for each player (where previous studies indicated the most important technical skill and most discriminating variable among players skills are dribbling).
... In fact, it would be difficult to find a fitness facility without an instability device such the Swiss ball. It is an unstable base, which is considered to be an important piece of equipment that is believed to improve physical fitness (13) and promote motor control adaptations. ...
Article
Brown A, Vianna J, Dias I, Miranda H, Rodrigues Neto G, Novaes J. Acute Joint Range Effects of Exercises at Different Strength Intensities on Unstable and Stable Platforms. JEPonline 2014;17(6): 74-80. The purpose of the study was to compare the joint range effects of bench press (BP) exercises at different strength intensities when using an unstable platform (UP) and a stable platform (SP). Twenty-six men performed BP tests at 60% and 80% of 1RM using an UP and a SP. Joint amplitude was significantly higher at 80% of 1RM than at 60% of 1RM on both platforms when measuring flexion (P<0.001) and abduction (P=0.001). Abduction (P=0.03) and adduction (P=0.005) were significantly higher after exercises performed on an UP than on a SP. The comparison of the pre-test and the post-test results showed that flexion, abduction, and horizontal adduction were significantly higher at 80% of 1RM when using an UP. Thus, the findings indicate that performing the BP exercise at high intensity using an UP can improve the range of movement in trained men.
... Both programmes improved the performance of the swimmers, but the core training had a greater transfer than the traditional programme. Possibly, these gains achieved with core training programmes allowed for improved stability of the lower and upper limbs, transferring energy more efficiently [15,48,49]. ...
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Aims. — Strength training is not usually an important aspect of the training programme forswimmers. Instead, more emphasis is placed on traditional swimming training, which focusesmainly on endurance work.News. — This is why in this study a systematic review is carried out with the aim of observing theeffects that can be caused by a swimming training programme in which strength work is carriedout, while maintaining traditional swimming training. Considering the PRISMA statement, theWeb of Science (WOS) database was used to search for articles, taking those published between2017 and 2022. A total of 387 articles were identified, from which, after passing all criteria,19 were chosen as the study sample. After analysis, it was found that addressing strengthenhancement work within programming can have a positive transfer on short-medium distance swimming performance, improving force transmission and stroke biomechanics. Conclusion. — This indicates that it would be appropriate to plan the training microcycles withstrength sessions separated from the swimming sessions, without increasing the training volumetoo much, so as not to cause greater fatigue in the swimmer.
... Core stability provides a foundation for force production in the lower and upper limbs (Willardson, 2007). This is a requisite for optimal functional movement and consequently also for better athletic performance (Abt et al., 2007;Chaudhari et al., 2011;Anand et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Balance and core stabilization exercises have often been associated with improved athlete performance and/or decreased incidence of injuries. While these exercises seem to be efficient in the prevention of injuries, there is insufficient evidence regarding their role in sport-specific performance and related functional movements. The aim of this scoping review is (1) to map the literature that investigates whether currently available variables of postural and core stability are functionally related to athlete performance in sports with high demands on body balance and spinal posture and (2) to identify gaps in the literature and suggest further research on this topic. The literature search conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases was completed by Google Scholar, SpringerLink, and Elsevier. Altogether 21 articles met the inclusion criteria. Findings revealed that postural stability plays an important role in performance in archery, biathlon, gymnastics, shooting, and team sports (e.g., basketball, hockey, soccer, tennis). Also core stability and strength represent an integral part of athlete performance in sports based on lifting tasks and trunk rotations. Variables of these abilities are associated with performance-related skills in cricket, cycling, running, and team sports (e.g., baseball, football, hockey, netball, soccer, tennis). Better neuromuscular control of postural and core stability contribute to more efficient functional movements specific to particular sports. Training programs incorporating general and sport-specific exercises that involve the use of postural and core muscles showed an improvement of body balance, back muscle strength, and endurance. However, there is controversy about whether the improvement in these abilities is translated into athletic performance. There is still a lack of research investigating the relationship of body balance and stability of the core with sport-specific performance. In particular, corresponding variables should be better specified in relation to functional movements in sports with high demands on postural and core stability. Identifying the relationship of passive, active, and neural mechanisms underlying balance control and spinal posture with athlete performance would provide a basis for a multifaced approach in designing training and testing tools addressing postural and core stability in athletes under sport-specific conditions.
... The core muscles have the role of the fundamental axis in the biological chain of motion to provide a channel for transmission and integration of the upper and lower extremities (27). Greater core stability leads to greater strength in the upper and lower limbs (28). So it appears that the core exercises can reduce unnecessary upper body movement and energy loss during movements. ...
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Background: Snooker is a kind of cue sport in which skill plays an important role. To reach a professional level, snooker players must acquire many physical and mental skills. Strengthening the core muscles, which provide a foundation for a successful limb function in skill sports such as snooker, can be achieved by performing Pilates exercises. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of core muscle training on skill and balance for snooker players. Methods: In this study, 30 male snooker players were divided into Pilates (n = 15) and control groups (n = 15) by randomization. The Pilates group performed the mat Pilates exercises three sessions per week consisting of 30 minutes of Pilates training in addition to one hour of routine snooker training per session for six weeks. The control group performed one-hour routine snooker training three sessions per week at the same time period. To assess the players' skills, the line-up test was used to measure the break score, and the foul number test was used to calculate the foul number. Players' balance was evaluated by the stork balance test. All tests were performed pre and post 6 weeks of exercise for between and within- group comparisons. Results: Line-up and stork test scores were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the Pilates group compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the foul numbers between groups after Six weeks of Pilates exercises. Conclusions: Six weeks of mat Pilates exercises improves the snooker players' balance ability and break scores.
... 24 Buna ek olarak, kor kaslarındaki kas lifi tipinin sporun postüral ihtiyaçlarıyla veya karşı konulması hedeflenen dış dirençlerin farklılık göstermesiyle değişebileceği iddia edilmektedir. 25 Karate; aerobik ve anaerobik enerji sistemlerinin birlikte kullanıldığı, müsabaka sırasında kısa ve yüksek yoğunluklu eforların tekrarını ve aynı zamanda güç, hız ve kuvvetin farklı kombinasyonlarını gerektiren bir spor dalıdır. 26,27 Kor dayanıklılık ve kuvvet eğitimlerinin ekstremitelerde maksimum gücü artırdığı ve kasların etkili kullanımını sağladığı, buna ek olarak kor stabilizasyon kaslarının fiziksel aktivite sırasında hızlı yön de-ğiştirebilmek için kuvvetin dengeli ve verimli aktarımından sorumlu olduğu ifade edilmektedir. ...
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Amatör ve profesyonel sporlarda optimum per-formans elde etmek için vücudun yeterli kuvvet ve dayanıklılığa sahip olması önemlidir, buna ek olarak birçok spor dalı iyi bir denge, çeviklik, güç ve vücut simetrisi gerektirmektedir. Bahsedilen tüm bu para-metreler kor bölgesinin stabilizasyonu ile ilişkilidir. 1 ÖZET Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, karate sporcularında kor daya-nıklılık ile reaktif çeviklik performansı arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek-tir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Araştırmaya 17'si (%39,5) kadın 26'sı (%60,5) erkek toplam 43 karate kumite sporcusu dâhil edildi. Çalışma kriterlerine uyan sporcular iki gün içerisinde ölçümlere alındı. İlk gün sporcuların demografik bilgileri alındıktan sonra kor endurans ölçüm-leri yapıldı. İkinci gün ise çeviklik performansı değerlendirildi. Spor-cuların kor dayanıklılığı düz plank, fleksiyon, ekstansiyon, sağ lateral plank ve sol lateral plank pozisyonlarında McGill testi ile değerlendi-rildi. Çeviklik testleri kapalı bir alanda Speed Court™ sisteminde (Globalspeed GmbH, Hemsbach, Almanya) yapıldı. Değişkenler ara-sındaki ilişkiyi incelemek amacıyla; normal dağılım gösteren sayısal değişkenler için Pearson korelasyon analizi, en az biri normal dağılım göstermeyen değişkenler için Spearman korelasyon analizi kullanıldı. İstatistiksel hata düzeyi p<0,05 olarak belirlendi. Bulgular: Sporcu-ların kor dayanıklılık testi sonuçları ile reaktif çeviklik testi sonuçları arasındaki ilişki incelendiğinde; reaktif çeviklik testinin çalışma sü-resi ile sağ ve sol yan plank kor dayanıklılık testi arasında negatif yönde zayıf ve orta derecede ilişki olduğu belirlendi (r=0,344/0,444, p<0,05). Sonuç: Çalışmamız sonucunda, karate sporcularında sağ ve sol kor kaslarının dayanıklılığı arttıkça reaktif çevikliğin arttığı belir-lenmiştir. Karate sporunun performans dinamikleri göz önüne alındı-ğında gerekli olan çeviklik performansının artırılmasında antrenman programlarına lateral plank egzersizlerinin eklenmesinin fayda sağla-yacağı düşünülmüştür. Anah tar Ke li me ler: Reaktif çeviklik; dayanıklılık; çeviklik ABS TRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between core endurance and reactive agility performance in karate athletes. Material and Methods: A total of 43 karate kumite athletes, 17 women (39.5%) 26 men (60.5%) were included in the study. Athletes who met the study criteria were measured within two days. On the first day, after the demographic information of the athletes was obtained, core endurance measurements were made. On the second day, agility performance was evaluated. Core endurance of athletes was evaluated by McGill test in plank position, trunk flexion, trunk extension, right lateral plank and left lateral plank positions. Agility tests were performed in a closed area on the Speed Court™ system (Globalspeed GmbH, Hemsbach, Germany). In order to examine the relationship between the variables; Pearson correlation analysis was used for normally distributed numerical variables, and Spearman correlation analysis was used for at least one of the non-normally distributed variables. Statistical significance level was determined as p<0.05. Results: When the relationship between core endurance test results and reactive agility test results of athletes was examined; it was determined that there is a weak and moderate negative correlation between the working time of the reactive agility test and the right and left side plank core endurance test (r=0.344/0.444, p<0.05). Conclusion: As a result of our study, it was determined that as the endurance of the right and left core muscles increased, reactive agility increased in karate athletes. Considering the performance dynamics of karate sport, it is thought that adding lateral plank exercises to training programs will be beneficial in increasing the necessary agility performance.
... Since the core region is the center of the kinetic chain during an activity, a raise of power in this region increases the power production in the arms and legs, providing balance and control of the movement. For this reason, it has been stated that the strengthening of the core muscles is of great importance to improve physical performance (Willardson, 2007). ...
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In recent years, epidemics and developments in the field of virtual communication have left people with an inactive lifestyle. For this reason, exercises that include all kinds of physical activity, endurance, and strength training have an important role in the lives of people of different ages. The study aimed to find out the effects of the step aerobic exercise and static core training programs on body composition in sedentary females. Totally 30 sedentary volunteer females (Age: 37.03 ± 4.28 years, height: 1.62 ± .07 m, and body weight: 70.48 ± 18.21 kg) were separated into 3 groups randomly: 1) Step-aerobic exercise group (n=10), 2), Step-aerobic + Core training group (n=10), 3) Control group (n=10). Participants in the Step-aerobic exercise group and the Step-aerobic + Core training group performed one of the exercise programs in a gym for 10 weeks. The circumference and body composition measurements were taken before and after the 10-week period. As a result of the study, a significant decrease was observed in the subjects' body weights (Z=-2.803; p=.005) and body fat percentages (p=.000). Statistical significance was observed in body water level (Z=-1.988; p=.047) and muscle amount (Z=-2.809; p=.005) in static core groups. In the study, it was determined that visceral fat ratios decreased statistically in the step-aerobic (Z=-2.121; p=.034) and static core groups (Z=-2.384; p=.017). In both groups, there was a significant decrease in the circumference of both the upper right and left arm and the right and left upper calf (p<0.05). The results of the study suggest that the step-aerobic exercises and core training together enhance body composition and circumference in sedentary female individuals. Future studies might focus on the effect of step-aerobic and core training with exercises of varying intensity and number.
... Ayaklar dengeyi sağlamada en önemli unsurlardan biridir (Podlog ve ark., 2014). Tekniklerin başarılı şekilde uygulanabilmesi için temel stabilite gereklidir (Willardson, 2007). Pieter' a göre ise, TKD tek taraflı duruş stabilitesinin çok önemli olduğu ve başarıyı etkileyen tekme teknikleriyle ünlü olan bir branştır. ...
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z: Bu araştırmada sporculara 8 hafta boyunca bosu ball üzerinde denge çalışması ve PNF germe çalışması yaptırılarak dollyo chagi tekniğinin gelişimi üzerinde etkileri incelenmiştir. Çalışmaya 14 kadın, 26 erkek olmak üzere toplam 40 elit altı taekwondocu gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. 40 sporcu rasgele kontrol ve deney grubu olmak üzere iki gruba ayrılmış ve deney grubuna 8 hafta PNF germe çalışma programı ile bosu ball ile denge çalışma programı uygulatılmıştır. Ön test, ara test ve son test alınarak 3 ayrı zamanda sporcuların esneklik, denge ve dollyo chagi tekniğinin 1. (kendi kafa bölgesi seviyesi), 2. (kendi seviyesinin 10 cm yukarısı) ve 3. (kendi seviyesinin 20 cm yukarısı) seviyelerine yapılan vuruşlar ölçülmüştür. Bu çalışmadan elde edilen verilerin analizi için SPSS 22.0 programı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular incelendiğinde erkeklerde ara test kendi seviyesinde (p<0,05), ara test 10 cm yukarı seviye (p<0,01) ve ara test 20 cm yukarı seviye (p<0,001) istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulgular elde edilmiştir. Kadınlarda ise ön test kendi seviyesinde (p<0,05), ön test 10 cm yukarı seviyede (p<0,001) düzeyinde anlamlı bulgulara rastlanmıştır. Ayrıca kadınlarda da erkeklerde de son test kendi seviyesi, 10 cm yukarı seviye ve 20 cm yukarı seviye değişkenlerinde dollyo chagi tekniğinin 3 seviyesinde de istatistiksel anlamlı sonuçlara rastlanmıştır. Elde edilen bu bulgular değerlendirildiğinde kadınlarda da erkeklerde de 8 haftalık bosu ball denge egzersizleri ve PNF germe çalışmasının dollyo chagi tekniği üzerinde iyileştirici etkileri olduğu söylenebilmektedir. Abstract: In this study, balance studies and PNF stretching studies were performed on bosu ball for 8 weeks and their effects on the development of dollyo chagi technique were examined. A total of 40 elite six-year-old taekwondo students, including 14 women and 26 men, participated in the study as volunteers. 40 athletes were randomly divided into two groups: a control and an experimental group, and a balanced training program with a bosu ball were applied to the experimental group with a PNF stretching training program for 8 weeks. 1th. Flexibility, balance, and dollyo chagi technique of athletes at 3 separate times by taking the pre-test, dec-test, and final test. (the level of its head area), 2nd. (10 cm above their level) and 3rd. strokes to the levels (20 cm above their level) were measured. The SPSS 22.0 program was used to analyze the data obtained from this study. The findings from the research are examined to test their level when Dec in men (p<0.05), level test upper Dec 10 cm (p<0.01) and the Dec Test level up to 20 cm (p<0.001) statistically significant results were obtained. In women, significant findings were found at the level of the preliminary test itself (p<0.05) and at the level of the preliminary test 10 cm higher (p<0.001). In addition, statistically significant results were found at 3 levels of the dollyo chagi technique in the variables of the final test self-level, 10 cm up a level and 20 cm up a level in both women and men. When these findings are evaluated, it can be said that 8-week bosu ball balance exercises and PNF stretching exercises in women and men have a healing effect on dollyo chagi technique.
... Lumbopelvic stability is considered a critical factor in the prevention and treatment of injury based on the potential contribution to recovery from injury and subsequent improvement [34]. For humans to maintain a straight posture, it is necessary to produce a force against gravity. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Sacroiliac joints (SIJs) transmitted trunk load to lower extremities through the lumbopelvic. External compression devices across the SIJs could provide stability to the SIJs. A previous study established that using a device known as Active Therapeutic Movement version 2 (ATM®2) has been developed to improve pain and joint range of motion (ROM) in patients with LBP. However, no study has examined the physiological change in the muscle through ATM®2-based exercise thus far. This study aimed to determine the immediate effects of ATM®2 exercise on the contraction timing, back extension endurance, muscle fatigue, and trunk ROM of lumbar and lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects (mean age=23.16±2.3) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were instructed to perform ROM test using sit and reach test, back extensor endurance test using Biering-Sorensen test, erector spinae (ES), lumbar multifidus (LM) fatigue and onset time of Gluteus maximus (GM) in prone hip extension using electromyography before and after trunk flexion and extension isometric exercises. Results: The ROM in trunk flexion showed a significant increase of 7.9% after exercise compared to that before exercise (p<0.05). Relative GM contraction onset timing significantly decreased after exercise (p<0.05). The result of the Sorensen test after exercise showed a trend of increase in duration time. Muscle fatigue in the LM, however, showed a significant increase (p<0.05), whereas muscle fatigue in the ES was reduced without statistical significance. Conclusions: The results base on this study showed a significant increase in the trunk ROM after trunk flexion and extension isometric exercise using an external compression device, while the relative contraction onset timing in the GM was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the muscle endurance test after exercise showed a trend of increase in the duration time with a decreasing trend in muscle fatigue in the ES. Exercise-based on ATM®2 is an effective exercise protocol with an effect on the biomechanics of healthy subjects. · Clinical trial registration numbers : KCT0006728 · Clinical trial registration date : 09/11/2021
... Many studies have been conducted to strengthen the muscles of the pectoral girdle, but less attention has been paid to strengthening the core muscles to optimally strengthen the function of that region [11,17,18,20,21]. Since a direct relationship exists between the function of the body joints according to the kinetic link principle, the role of the core muscles is vital in creating stability and optimal function, and given that strengthening these muscles requires the support and stability of the joint capsule [22][23][24], the present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of core stability exercises on internal rotator muscle strength and motor function of the glenohumeral joint of male archers. ...
Article
Purpose: Most studies have examined the effect of stretching and strengthening exercises on the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint). However, due to the importance of the relationship between core stability and pectoral girdle, especially in archery athletes, this study aimed to investigate the effect of six weeks of core stability exercises on the internal rotator muscle strength of the glenohumeral joint and its motor function in male archers. Methods: For this purpose, 30 athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups of 15: with core stability exercises (experimental group) and without core stability exercises (control group). The motor function was measured using the upper quarter Y-balance test (UQYBT), and the muscle strength of the lumbar muscles was measured using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Then, the experimental group underwent a selected exercise program for 6 weeks. Both groups were tested again (post-test). SPSS software version 21 was used to analyze the collected data; also, independent and dependent samples t-tests were used to compare the data. The significance level in the test was determined at 95%. Results: Changes in posttest results on internal rotator muscle strength (P=0.001) and motor function (P=0.022) showed a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Therefore, due to the effect of core stability exercises on the above variables, it is recommended that archery athletes, in addition to specific exercises, do such exercises to improve the function of the glenohumeral joint.
... Body control and balance can be improved with core training, and the risk of injury can be reduced by strengthening the muscles (Herrington & Davies, 2005). In addition, core training can increase exercise performance by providing more force production in the upper and lower extremities (Willardson, 2017). Most important, core training in youth plays an important role in maintaining musculoskeletal health, improving bone health, and reducing the risk of sports-related injuries (Allen et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Due to COVID 19, children have not been able to go to school and move enough since March 2020. In this process, the measures taken such as the prolongation of the stay at home, social isolation and quarantine caused children to delay their physical activities and stay away from these activities (Filiz, Konukman, Karaca & Tüfekçioğlu, 2021). As a result, this may have caused weakness in the musculoskeletal system of the children. Therefore, children can be given simple and applicable core exercises to increase their trunk-muscle endurance, improve mobility and flexibility, in online education at home or in physical education classes at school. These exercise drills will be beneficial for protecting children's health, preventing injuries and strengthening the core. Moreover, many of these drills do not require any extra equipment. In conclusion, the purpose of this article is to provide practical ideas about how to apply core training exercises for children at home.
... It is quite common for individuals when training to add additional core exercises (Willardson, 2007b;Hibbs et al., 2008). However, it is consistently documented that a lack of time is perceived as a significant barrier to regular exercise (Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, 2003) and thus exercises that integrate core muscle groups with other muscle strengthening exercises could decrease exercise time. ...
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The objective of this study was to compare the activation of the core (trunk) musculature during quadriceps and hamstrings foam rolling (FR) vs. prone and supine/reverse static planks to determine if FR is a viable means of training the core musculature. Using a randomized allocation, nine recreationally trained, young adults (18-26 years) performed two sets each of quadriceps and hamstrings FR as well as supine/reverse and prone static planks for 30-s each with 1-min rest between sets and 5-min rest between exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower abdominals (LA), external obliques (EO), lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES) muscle groups were normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction and analyzed. Quadriceps FR exhibited a very large magnitude greater LA activity compared to reverse plank (p = 0.033, d = 4.42) and hamstrings FR (p = 0.020, d = 3.49), respectively. The prone plank demonstrated very large magnitude higher EO EMG activity compared to reverse plank (p = 0.001, d = 9.17), hamstrings FR (p = 0.002, d = 8.14), and quadriceps FR (p = 0.011, d = 5.97). Reverse plank (p = 0.003, d = 12.06), and quadriceps FR (p = 0.002, d = 7.84) induced greater ULES activity compared to the prone plank and hamstrings FR, respectively. Reverse plank also exhibited very large magnitude higher LSES activity compared to the prone plank (p < 0.001, d = 7.68), hamstrings FR (p = 0.002, d = 4.11), and quadriceps FR (p = 0.005, d = 2.34), respectively. In conclusion, whereas reverse plank was the most effective activator of dorsal core muscles, quadriceps FR may also be a time efficient alternative exercise to activate back (ventral core) muscles. The prone plank is effective for ventral core muscles activation.
... The increase in trunk ROM through exercise suggested a potential intervention effect of the exercise on patients with LBP. Lumbopelvis stability is considered a critical factor in the prevention and treatment of injury based on the potential contribution to recovery from injury and subsequent improvement [34]. For humans to maintain a straight posture, it is necessary to produce a force against gravity. ...
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Libro que describe el qué, el cómo y el por qué se hace lo que se hace en relación a las Ciencias Aplicadas al Deporte en el Deporte de Alto Rendimiento en Chile. Estas ciencias apoyan el proceso de preparación y competencia de los atletas chilenos, con el propósito de mejorar el rendimiento deportivo a nivel internacional.
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Knowledge in the scientific domain of individual medley (IM) swimming training over a competitive season is limited. The purpose of this study was to propose a detailed coaching framework incorporating the key elements of a periodized training regimen for a 400 m IM swimmer. This framework was based on the available coaching and scientific literature and the practical experience and expertise of the collaborating authors. The season has been divided in two or three macrocycles, further divided in three mesocycles each (six or nine mesocycles in total), in alignment with the two or three main competitions in each macrocycle. The principal training contents to develop during the season expressed in blood lactate zones are: aerobic training (~2 mmol·L−1), lactate threshold pace (~4 mmol·L−1) and VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake) (~6 mmol·L−1). Strength training should focus on maximum strength, power and speed endurance during the season. Altitude training camps can be placed strategically within the training season to promote physiological adaptation and improvements in performance. A well-constructed technical framework will permit development of training strategies for the 400 m IM swimmer to improve both training and competitive performance.
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Core exercises have been widely promoted in the last 25 years. However, the scientific debate about its efficacy for improving individual and team sports performance is still open. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the effects of circuit training with a core exercise program on physical performance in competitive amateur soccer players. The training was conducted during the off-season period, two times per week for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-evaluations were conducted using the following tests: Y-Balance Test (YB), standing long jump (SLJ), medicine ball chest press (MBC), curl-up (CU), and Illinois Agility Test (IAT). A total of 19 adults were divided into an experimental group (EG, n = 11, age 22 years, weight 71.2 ± 4.8 kg, height 174 ± 5.8 cm) and a control group (CG, n = 8, age 22 years, weight 73.2 ± 4.1 Kg, height 176 ± 6.3 cm). The EG showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, core endurance and balance, whereas the CG did not report significant changes in the pre- and post-test comparison. Despite study limitations, our positive results show that circuit training with core exercises appears to be a good strategy for performance improvement in adult soccer players.
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Introduction: Taekwondo is a dynamic form of unarmed self defense and generally focused on kicking techniques, which derived from other martial arts. A sudden kick and turn kicking (dollyeo chagi, bandae dollyeo chagietc.) are part of Taekwondo; Player can turn to speed and power to escape from the competitor kicking. Speed and accuracy are two main factors of movement of Taekwondo 2 .
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Objectives: This study aimed to identify a position for core muscle activation (core activate position) for a seated subject and to design an exercise method using this position for rehabilitation during the daily maintenance or maintenance stages. Methods: Thirteen young men participated as subjects in this study. We manufactured a chair in which the seat had an adjustable forward tilt angle. The subjects underwent ultrasonographic measurements of the thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles while sitting in the chair with the seat angle adjusted to 0°, 6°, or 12°. Further, we conducted image analysis to determine the positional relationships of these muscles using the following four points as landmarks: the anterior superior iliac spine, the posterior superior iliac spine, the fourth lumbar vertebra, and the seventh thoracic vertebra. Results: Significant increases in the thickness of the transversus abdominis and external oblique muscles were observed when the seat forward tilt angle was adjusted to 12° (P <0.05). In the core activate position (which demonstrated effective activation of the transversus abdominis), the posterior superior iliac spine, the fourth lumbar vertebra, and the seventh thoracic vertebra were aligned in a straight line that was nearly perpendicular to the line connecting the anterior superior iliac spine and the posterior superior iliac spine. Conclusions: This postural guidance can be applied to core exercise methods during maintenance rehabilitation.
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Abstract Aim of the study was to experimentally validate and determine the effects of 8 - week additional motor control exercise (MCE) based like exercise program on body composition, body posture and some motor abilities. Sample was randomized from football in experimental group 1 (Ex1, n=12; mean (SD): 10.5 (0.5) yrs; 148 (5.4) cm; 39.6 (5.4) kg i 18.04 (1.9) kg/m2) and control group 1 (Kon1, n=11; 10.36 (0.5) yrs; 144 (6.2) cm; 37.9 (5.6) kg i 18.27 (2.1) kg/m2), from karate to experimental group 2 (Ex2, n=11; 12.2 (1.4) yrs; 158.1 (6.2) cm; 46.6 (7.15) kg and 18.63 (2.65) kg/m2) and control group 2 (Kon2, n=10; 11.8 (1.5) yrs; 155.4 (8.97) cm; 48.23 (13.5) kg i 19.6 (3.6) kg/m2) and from athletics to experimental group 3 (Ex3, n=13; 12.15 (1.2) yrs; 145 (6.17) cm; 41.54 (5.02) kg i 19.7 (2.2) kg/m2) and control group 3 (Kon3, n=10; 12.2 (0.9) yrs; 145.5 (6.0) cm; 44.25 (6.54) kg i 21.14 (2.26) kg/m2). Program with average attendance frequency of 2-3 times/week with duration of 20-30 minutes had large effect on Ex1 for overall stability index (OSI, (ES=-0.84; -26%,)), anterior – posterior stability (APSI, (ES=-0.73; -22%)) and flamingo test (ES=1.00; +105%) along with moderate effect on medial – lateral stability (MLSI, (ES=-0.73, -21%)). Ex2 significantly improved OSI (Large effect, ES=-1.22; -27%), and agility (T-test (Large effect, ES=-1.28; -3%)), along with moderate effect on APSI (ES=-0.63; -9%) and MLSI (ES=-0.60 -21%). Small effect was observed for flamingo test (ES=0.21; +28%) and 20 meters sprint (T20m, ES=-0.37; -1%). Ex3 significantly reduced percentage of relative body fat (Small effect, ES=-0.27; 0.2%). No significant changes were observed for the control groups. Results suggested that strength training of core muscles, based on motor control learning to induce changes in contraction intensity, can improve dynamic and static stability in young athletes. Adaptation on the exercise program indirectly improved stability and balance by reducing the latent time to muscle contraction by improving intramuscular coordination of the deep trunk muscles which improved maintaining of optimal body position during stability tasks. Programs with exercises intended to strengthen trunk and spine stabilization muscles, when additionally performed, can improve stability and prevent injuries. Exercise program did not significantly affect nor improved body composition, body posture, flexibility (sit and reach), sprinting performance (T20m), agility (T-test) and power (CMJ). Keywords: Body composition, motor control, postural control, stability
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Öz Amaç: Bu çalışma, adölesan voleybol oyuncularında düzenli core stabilizasyon egzersizlerinin smaç hızına etkisinin araştırılması amacı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yöntem: Çalışmaya 15-18 yaş aralığında, aynı spor kulübünde profesyonel voleybol oynayan toplam 60 sporcu gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. 30 sporcudan oluşan deney grubunun smaç hızı radar tabanca ile ölçüldükten sonra sporcular core stabilizasyon egzersizi programına alınarak 6 haftalık çalışma sonunda smaç hızları tekrar ölçülmüştür. Yine 30 sporcudan oluşan kontrol grubunun ise smaç hızı ilk kez ölçüldükten sonra herhangi bir planlama yapılmaksızın 6 hafta sonra ikinci kez tekrar ölçülmüştür. Bulgular: Altı haftalık düzenli core stabilizasyon egzersizleri yapan deney grubunun ortalama smaç hızının 58,66±10,58 m/s’den 69,50±9,66 m/s’ye (p<0,001) yükselmiş olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, çalışma başında deney ve control grupları arasında ortalama smaç hızı açısından anlamlı fark bulunmazken (p=0,53), çalışma sonunda yapılan ölçümlerde deney grubunda ölçülen değerlerin (69,50±9,66 m/s) kontrol grubundan (64,10±9,57 m/s) anlamlı düzeyde yüksek olduğu (p=0,034) görülmüştür. Sonuç: Altı haftalık core stabilizasyon egzersizi programı, adölesan voleybolcularda smaç hızını arttırabilmektedir. Anahtar Sözcükler: Voleybol, smaç hızı, kor stabilizasyon, smaç, egzersiz. The Effect of Core Stabilization Exercises on Spike Velocity in Adolescent Volleyball Players Abstract Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of regular core stabilization exercises on spike velocity in adolescent volleyball players. Method: A total of 60 athletes between the ages of 15-18 who play professional volleyball in the same sports club voluntarily participated in the study. After measuring the spike velocity of the subject group consisting of 30 athletes with a radar gun, the athletes were included in the core stabilization exercise program and their spike velocity was measured again at the end of the 6-week program. Similarly, the spike speed of the control group consisting of 30 athletes was measured for the first time, and it was measured again after 6 weeks without any further exercise planning. Results: The mean spike velocity of the subject group, who performed regular core stabilization exercises for six weeks, increased from 58.66±10.58 m/s to 69.50±9.66 m/s (p<0.001). Moreover, while there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of average spiking speed at the beginning of the study (p=0.53), the values measured in the subject group (69.50±9.66 m/s) at the end of the study were significantly higher than those of the control group (64.10±9.57 m/s) (p=0.034). Conclusion: A six-week core stabilization exercise program may increase the spike velocity in adolescent volleyball players. Keywords: Volleyball, spike velocity, core stabilization, spike, exercise.
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This study aimed to analyse the impact of an 8-week core strength training (CST) programme in youth karate practitioners on core endurance, agility, flexibility, sprinting, jumping, and kick performance. This study followed a randomized parallel design. Twenty-nine participants (age: 12.86 ± 0.81 years old; height: 152.55 ± 10.37 cm; weight: 42.93 ± 8.85 kg) were allocated to a CST programme (n = 16) performed thrice weekly or to a control group (n = 13) only performing the sport-specific (karate) training. Participants were assessed three times (baseline, mid and post-intervention) for the following tests: (i) flexor endurance test (FET); (ii) back extensor test (BET); (iii) lateral musculature test (LMT); (iv) flexibility; (v) chance of direction (COD); (vi) countermovement jump (CMJ); (vii) back muscle strength (BMS); (viii) horizontal jump (LJ); (ix) sprint test; and (x) karate kick test (KKT). Between-group analysis revealed significant advantages for the CST group on the FET (p < 0.001), BET (p < 0.001), LMT (p < 0.001), 20 m sprint (p = 0.021) and KKT for right (p < 0.006) and left (p < 0.020) legs. No significant differences were found between groups in the remaining physical fitness variables (p > 0.05). The within-group changes revealed significant improvements in the CST group at flexibility (p = 0.002), COD (p < 0.001), CMJ (p < 0.001), BMS (p < 0.002), 20 m sprint (p = 0.033), and KKT (p < 0.001). In addition, within-group changes in the control group were also significant in flexibility (p = 0.024) and right kick (p < 0.042). We conclude that the CST programme improves core endurance and karate kick performance; however, it is not effective enough for other physical performance parameters in KR practitioners.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of static and dynamic core trainings on some motoric characteristics and tennis service velocity of tennis athletes. Thirty-six healthy male (n = 21) and female (n = 15) junior tennis players who were between the ages of 10-14 participated in this study voluntarily. Subjects were randomly and equally divided into control (n = 12), static core training (n = 12) and dynamic core training (n = 12) groups. It was implemented the tests of ages, length, weight, body mass index, vertical jump, flexibility, handgrip strength, 10 m speed, y-balance, seated medicine ball throw tests, velocity analysis and radar specifications to subjects attended to this study.The normality distribution of data was checked with using Shapiro-Wilk test and parametric analysis techniques were employed. The differences between pre and post tests were analyzed using Paired Samples T test and variation ratio of numerical difference between some motoric characteristics and tennis service velocity of the training and control groups were analyzed with Independent Samples T test. While there was a statistically significant increase (p <0.05) between some motoric characteristics and tennis service speed pre-post test values of the training group athletes, there was no significant difference in the control group (p>0.05). Core region strength is very important in terms of being the starting point of force and balance in a branch such as tennis where there is a lot of change of direction, mobility and imbalance. The inclusion of core exercises in the training programs of athletes, trainers and conditioners who work with tennis athletes can contribute to the performance development of athletes.
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It is suggested that core stability (CS) might improve rhythmic gymnasts’ performance. Nevertheless, the effect of core stability training (CST) in CS performance is not clear. Purpose: Evaluating the effect of an eight-week functional CST on young rhythmics gymnasts’ CS performance. Method: A sample of 45 young female rhythmic gymnasts from a competitive team (age = 10.5 ± 1.8 years, height = 144.1 ± 10.6 cm, weight 38.2 ± 8.9 kg, peak height velocity (PHV) = 12.2 ± 0.6 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly allocated into the control group (CG) and experimental group (EG) and completed pre-tests and post-tests of specific CS tests using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU). The CS was assessed by the bent knee fall out (BKFO), the active straight leg raise (ASLR) tests and the pelvic tilt test, all performed on the right and left sides. The EG (n = 23) performed an eight-week functional CST program based on rhythmic gymnastics (RG) technical requirements added to the traditional RG training sessions. Meanwhile, the CG (n = 22) received the traditional RG training sessions. Results: Mixed model analysis showed non-significant interaction effects; however, the ANOVA omnibus test showed a time effect (p < 0.05) in right BKFO (F1,42 = 4.60; p = 0.038) and both pelvic tilt tests (right F1,42 = 22.01, p < 0.001; left F1,42 = 19.13, p < 0.001). There were non-significant interaction effects. The fixed effects estimated parameters for right BKFO showed that both groups had less pressure variation after intervention compared with pre-intervention (β = −1.85 mmHg, 95%CI = [−3.54 to −0.16], t42 = −2.14, p = 0.038). Furthermore, the left pelvic tilt (β = 37.0 s, 95%CI = [20.4 to 53.6], t42 = 4.37, p < 0.001) improved 8.9 s more than the right pelvic tilt (β = 28.1 s, 95%CI = [16.3 to 39.8], t42 = 4.69, p < 0.001) considering both groups together. Conclusions: Adding a functional CST to regular training showed a trend in improving the performance of CS-related variables, which could help improve RG-specific performance. Coaches working with rhythmic gymnasts should consider adding a functional CST to regular training to improve CS performance leading to increased specific RG performance.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the effect on performance related to the exercise of core training methods by examining the core studies in literatures and make reference to the work to be done after this. Core exercises are drills which control and stabilize the abdomen,waist and hip movements.Core training is a method used freguently in trainings of many trunk muscles to balance the spine and hip.These muscles all work together to keep balance of the body during movement. The power generated during movement is transferred efficiently from the leg to the trunk or from the trunk to the leg.This situation is resulted from the increasing the strength of these muscles. Core training method differs from the method of the weight during the application of the movement.In addition it develops the performance and protects the force during the rehabilitation process. This study is a qualitative research. Qualitative research methods have been used in the study to analyze and interpret the studies in the (hot) exercise field in different environments published between 1999 and 2016. Document analysis was used as data collection method in the study. Then the obtained data were analyzed by content analysis method. While there are quite a few scientific findings about core training rehabilitation applications, there are fewer performance training exercises. The fact that core training does not constitute the main part of the training which mostly develops basic motoric features in terms of athletes, it can be considered as the main reason for its application besides main training as healing, healing, protective and auxiliary training. These include joint stabilization exercises aimed at neuromuscular control, contraction-specific exercises, balance exercises, proprioseption exercises, plyometric exercises, and spore-specific athletic exercises. Almost all sport and it would be useful to be included in the core application in training individuals who exercise training programs are planned.
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The trunk (core) muscles are involved in daily functions (i. e., stabilizing the body in everyday tasks) and force generation of the limbs during athletic tasks such as kicking, throwing, or running. Even though trunk training is a popular means for improving physical fitness and athletic performance, the direct relationship of improved trunk function (i.e., stability, strength, or endurance), fitness and sport-specific performance is not conclusive. The aim of this proposed review is to evaluate the effects of trunk training on physical fitness and sport-specific performance, and to examine potential subject-related (e.g., age, sex) and trunk training-related moderator variables (e.g., training period, training frequency) for performance changes. We will conduct a systematic literature search in Web of Science, MEDLINE (via EBSCO) and SportDiscus. Relevant papers will be screened independently by two reviewers in two stages: (1) title and abstracts and (2) the full text of the remaining papers. A third reviewer will resolve possible disagreements. Data extraction and risk of bias of the included studies will be performed in addition to the PEDro scoring to judge the quality of the studies. A meta-analysis will be conducted to determine the efficacy of trunk training to increase physical fitness and sport-specific performance measures. In addition, subgroup univariate analyses were computed for subject-related (i.e., age, sex, performance level) and training-related moderator variables (i.e., training period, training frequency, training sessions, session duration). The results of this proposed systematic review and meta-analysis will assess the effects of trunk training on physical fitness and sport-specific and identify which subject-related and training-related moderate variables of trunk training modality might be beneficial for performance gains. This knowledge has potential importance for athletes and coaches in sports.
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The neutral zone is a region of intervertebral motion around the neutral posture where little resistance is offered by the passive spinal column. Several studies--in vitro cadaveric, in vivo animal, and mathematical simulations--have shown that the neutral zone is a parameter that correlates well with other parameters indicative of instability of the spinal system. It has been found to increase with injury, and possibly with degeneration, to decrease with muscle force increase across the spanned level, and also to decrease with instrumented spinal fixation. In most of these studies, the change in the neutral zone was found to be more sensitive than the change in the corresponding range of motion. The neutral zone appears to be a clinically important measure of spinal stability function. It may increase with injury to the spinal column or with weakness of the muscles, which in turn may result in spinal instability or a low-back problem. It may decrease, and may be brought within the physiological limits, by osteophyte formation, surgical fixation/fusion, and muscle strengthening. The spinal stabilizing system adjusts so that the neutral zone remains within certain physiological thresholds to avoid clinical instability.
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Presented here is the conceptual basis for the assertion that the spinal stabilizing system consists of three subsystems. The vertebrae, discs, and ligaments constitute the passive subsystem. All muscles and tendons surrounding the spinal column that can apply forces to the spinal column constitute the active subsystem. The nerves and central nervous system comprise the neural subsystem, which determines the requirements for spinal stability by monitoring the various transducer signals, and directs the active subsystem to provide the needed stability. A dysfunction of a component of any one of the subsystems may lead to one or more of the following three possibilities: (a) an immediate response from other subsystems to successfully compensate, (b) a long-term adaptation response of one or more subsystems, and (c) an injury to one or more components of any subsystem. It is conceptualized that the first response results in normal function, the second results in normal function but with an altered spinal stabilizing system, and the third leads to overall system dysfunction, producing, for example, low back pain. In situations where additional loads or complex postures are anticipated, the neural control unit may alter the muscle recruitment strategy, with the temporary goal of enhancing the spine stability beyond the normal requirements.
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Unexpected ventral and dorsal perturbations and expected, self-induced ventral perturbations were delivered to the trunk by suddenly loading a vest strapped to the torso. Six male subjects were measured for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-muscular electromyography of the transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI), obliquus externus abdominis (OE) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles. Erector spinae (ES) activity was recorded using surface electromyography. Displacements of the trunk and head were registered using a video-based system. Unexpected ventral loading produced activity in TrA, OI, OE and RA, and an IAP increase well in advance of activity from ES. Expected ventral loading produced pre-activation of all muscles and an increased IAP prior to the perturbation. The TrA was always the first muscle active in both the unexpected and self-loading conditions. Of the two ventral loading conditions, forward displacement of the trunk was significantly reduced during the self-loading. Unexpected dorsal loading produced coincident activation of TrA, OI, OE, RA and ES. These results indicate a response of the trunk muscles to sudden expected and unexpected ventral loadings other than the anticipated immediate extensor torque production through ES activation. It is suggested that the increase in IAP is a mechanism designed to improve the stability of the trunk through a stiffening of the whole segment.
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With the current interest in stability training for the injured low back, the use of labile (movable) surfaces, underneath the subject, to challenge the motor control system is becoming more popular. Little is known about the modulating effects of these surfaces on muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to establish the degree of modulating influence of the type of surface (whether stable or labile) on the mechanics of the abdominal wall. In this study, the amplitude of muscle activity together with the way that the muscles coactivated due to the type of surface under the subject were of interest. Eight men (mean age=23.3 years [SD=4.3], mean height=177.6 cm [SD=3.4], mean weight=72.6 kg [SD=8.7]) volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects were in good health and reported no incidence of acute or chronic low back injury or prolonged back pain prior to this experiment. All subjects were requested to perform 4 different curl-up exercises-1 on a stable surface and the other 3 on varying labile surfaces. Electromyographic signals were recorded from 4 different abdominal sites on the right and left sides of the body and normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) amplitudes. Performing curl-up exercises on labile surfaces increased abdominal muscle activity (eg, for curl-up on a stable surface, rectus abdominis muscle activity was 21% of MVC and external oblique muscle activity was 5% of MVC; for curl-up with the upper torso on a labile ball, rectus abdominis muscle activity was 35% of MVC and external oblique muscle activity was 10% of MVC). Furthermore, it appears that increases in external oblique muscle activity were larger than those of other abdominal muscles. Performing curl-ups on labile surfaces changes both the level of muscle activity and the way that the muscles coactivate to stabilize the spine and the whole body. This finding suggests a much higher demand on the motor control system, which may be desirable for specific stages in a rehabilitation program.
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The objective of this study was to determine differences in isometric force output, muscle activation (interpolated twitch technique), and electromyographic activity of the quadriceps, plantar flexors (PF), and their antagonists under stable and unstable conditions. Instability in subjects was introduced by making them perform contractions while seated on a "Swiss ball." Eight male subjects performed unilateral leg extensor (LE) and PF contractions while seated on a bench (LE), chair (PF), or a ball. Unstable LE and PF forces were 70.5 and 20.2% less than their stable counterparts, respectively. Unstable quadriceps and PF activation averaged 44.3 and 2.9% less than activation under stable conditions. Unstable antagonist/agonist ratios were 40.2 and 30.7% greater than stable ratios in the LE and PF protocols, respectively. The greater decrements with LE can be attributed to the instability of only 2 points of floor contact, rather than 3 points of floor contact as with the PF. Swiss balls may permit a strength training adaptation of the limbs, if instability is moderate, allowing the production of overload forces.
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Controlled single-group pretest/posttest design. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 6-week neuromuscular training program designed to decrease the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries would improve single-limb postural stability in young female athletes. We hypothesized neuromuscular training would result in an improvement in postural stability, with the greatest improvement taking place in the medial-lateral direction. Balance training has become a common component of programs designed to prevent ACL injury. Rehabilitation programs can improve postural stability following ACL injury and reconstruction; however, there is limited information available which quantifies improvement of postural stability following neuromuscular training designed to prevent ACL injuries in a healthy population. Forty-one healthy female high school athletes (mean age, 15.3 years; age range, 13-17 years) participated in this study. Single-limb postural stability for both lower extremities was assessed with a Biodex Stability System. The neuromuscular training program consisted of three 90-minute training sessions per week for 6 weeks. Following the completion of the training program, each subject was re-evaluated to determine change in total, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral single-limb stability. Two-way analysis of variance models were used to determine differences between pretraining and posttraining and between limbs. The subjects showed a significant improvement in single-limb total stability (P = .004) and anterior-posterior stability (P = .001), but not medial-lateral stability (P = .650) for both the right and left lower extremity following training. In addition, the subjects demonstrated significantly better total postural stability on the right side as compared to the left (P = .026). A 6-week neuromuscular training program designed to decrease the incidence of ACL injuries improves objective measures of total and anterior-posterior single-limb postural stability in high school female athletes.
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Swiss Balls used as a platform for training provide an unstable environment for force production. The objective of this study was to measure differences in force output and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, triceps, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominus for isometric and dynamic contractions under stable and unstable conditions. Ten healthy male subjects performed a chest press while supported on a bench or a ball. Unstable isometric maximum force output was 59.6% less than under stable conditions. However, there were no significant differences in overall EMG activity between the stable and unstable protocols. Greater EMG activity was detected with concentric vs. eccentric or isometric contractions. The decreased balance associated with resistance training on an unstable surface may force limb musculature to play a greater role in joint stability. The diminished force output suggests that the overload stresses required for strength training necessitate the inclusion of resistance training on stable surfaces.
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The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of unstable and unilateral resistance exercises on trunk muscle activation. Eleven subjects (6 men and 5 women) between 20 and 45 years of age participated. Six trunk exercises, as well as unilateral and bilateral shoulder and chest presses against resistance, were performed on stable (bench) and unstable (Swiss ball) bases. Electromyographic activity of the upper lumbar, lumbosacral erector spinae, and lower-abdominal muscles were monitored. Instability generated greater activation of the lower-abdominal stabilizer musculature (27.9%) with the trunk exercises and all trunk stabilizers (37.7-54.3%) with the chest press. There was no effect of instability on the shoulder press. Unilateral shoulder press produced greater activation of the back stabilizers, and unilateral chest press resulted in higher activation of all trunk stabilizers, when compared with bilateral presses. Regardless of stability, the superman exercise was the most effective trunk-stabilizer exercise for back-stabilizer activation, whereas the side bridge was the optimal exercise for lower-abdominal muscle activation. Thus, the most effective means for trunk strengthening should involve back or abdominal exercises with unstable bases. Furthermore, trunk strengthening can also occur when performing resistance exercises for the limbs, if the exercises are performed unilaterally.
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The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between specific performance measures and hockey skating speed. Thirty competitive secondary school and junior hockey players were timed for skating speed. Off-ice measures included a 40-yd (36.9-m) sprint, concentric squat jump, drop jump, 1 repetition maximum leg press, flexibility, and balance ratio (wobble board test). Pearson product moment correlations were used to quantify the relationships between the variables. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the dominant vastus lateralis and biceps femoris was monitored in 12 of the players while skating, stopping, turning, and performing a change-of-direction drill. Significant correlations (p < 0.005) were found between skating performance and the sprint and balance tests. Further analysis demonstrated significant correlations between balance and players under the age of 19 years (r = -0.65) but not those over 19 years old (r = -0.28). The significant correlations with balance suggested that stability may be associated with skating speed in younger players. The low correlations with drop jumps suggested that short contact time stretch-shortening activities (i.e., low amplitude plyometrics) may not be an important factor. Electromyographic activities illustrated the very high activation levels associated with maximum skating speed.
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In this study, a 4-item battery of core stability (CS) tests modeled on core stabilization activities used in training and rehabilitation research was developed, and a measurement schedule was established to maximize internal consistency and stability reliabilities. Specifically, we found that 4 test administrations on each of 4 days produced intraclass correlation coefficients that in most instances exceeded 0.90 and stability reliability coefficients on the third and fourth days of testing that exceeded 0.90 for 2 of the tests and 0.80 for the other 2. Thus, it is recommended that in future research, examiners administer the battery for at least 3 days and consider the data collected on day 3 as the best estimate of participant CS.
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Stability ball training (SBT) is believed to improve spinal stability (SS) and could reduce the risk of back pain in sedentary individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SBT on SS. Twenty sedentary individuals were randomly assigned to either an experimental group that performed SBT twice per week for 10 weeks or to a control group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. The experimental group improved significantly (p < 0.05) on the static back-endurance test from pretest (149.3 +/- 72.3 seconds) to posttest (194.6 +/- 56.7 seconds) and the side bridge test from pretest (45.4 +/- 39.4 seconds) to posttest (71.3 +/- 59.7 seconds). Back endurance for the control group did not change from pretest (123.4 +/- 64.9 seconds) to posttest (87.5 +/- 40.2 seconds), nor did the results of the side bridge test change for this group from pretest (41.8 +/- 26.4 seconds) to posttest (51.6 +/- 35.9 seconds). These findings illustrate that SBT may provide improvements in SS within this population. Practitioners might use SBT exercises where the position of the spine is maintained during the early phases of back-pain prevention programs. This type of programming might be beneficial to individuals who spend a good deal of time sitting (i.e., in corporate fitness programs) or for individuals who are prone to back pain and have been cleared to exercise. Also, the side bridge and static back endurance assessments may be good choices for measuring SS in field settings.
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The performance of resistance exercises on unstable equipment has increased in popularity, despite the lack of research supporting their effectiveness. Resistance exercise performed on unstable equipment may not be effective in developing the type of balance, proprioception, and core stability required for successful sports performance. Free weight exercises performed while standing on a stable surface have been proven most effective for enhancing sports related skills.
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Study Design: The contribution of transversus abdominis to spinal stabilization was evaluated indirectly in people with and without low back pain using an experimental model identifying the coordination of trunk muscles in response to a disturbance to the spine produced by arm movement. Objectives: To evaluate the temporal sequence of trunk muscle activity associated with arm movement, and to determine if dysfunction of this parameter was present in patients with low back pain. Summary of Background Data: Few studies have evaluated the motor control of trunk muscles or the potential for dysfunction of this system in patients with low back pain. Evaluation of the response of trunk muscles to limb movement provides a suitable model to evaluate this system. Recent evidence indicates that this evaluation should include transversus abdominis. Methods: While standing, 15 patients with low back pain and 15 matched control subjects performed rapid shoulder flexion, abduction, and extension in response to a visual stimulus. Electromyographic activity of the abdominal muscles, lumbar multifidus, and the contralateral deltoid was evaluated using fine‐wire and surface electrodes. Results: Movement in each direction resulted in contraction of trunk muscles before or shortly after the deltoid in control subjects. The transversus abdominis was invariably the first muscle active and was not influenced by movement direction, supporting the hypothesized role of this muscle in spinal stiffness generation. Contraction of transversus abdominis was significantly delayed in patients with low back pain with all movements. Isolated differences were noted in the other muscles. Conclusions: The delayed onset of contraction of transversus abdominis indicates a deficit of motor control and is hypothesized to result in inefficient muscular stabilization of the spine.
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summary: Balance is an important aspect of athletic and occupational performance, in the elderly, and for injury rehabilitation, where use of a novel domed device can be incorporated to any well rounded program. The use of dynamic, non-dynamic, and core stabilization exercise enhance balance. This article offers exercises to improve balance that are applicable for any exercise professional. (C) 2005 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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summary: The performance of resistance exercises on unstable equipment has increased in popularity, despite the lack of research supporting their effectiveness. Resistance exercise performed on unstable equipment may not be effective in developing the type of balance, proprioception, and core stability required for successful sports performance. Free weight exercises performed while standing on a stable surface have been proven most effective for enhancing sports related skills. (C) 2004 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Objectives: To assess the paraspinal and abdominal muscle activities during different therapeutic exercises and to study how load increment produced by varying limb movements and trunk positions could affect these muscle activities. Design: A cross-sectional study comparing muscle activities between men and women. Setting: Rehabilitation clinic in university hospital. Participants: Twenty-four healthy volunteers (14 women, 10 men) aged 21 to 39 years. Interventions: Subjects performed 16 different therapeutic exercises commonly used to treat low back pain. Main outcome measures: Surface electromyography was recorded from the paraspinal (T9, L5) and abdominal (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus) muscles during these exercises. Average electromyographic amplitudes obtained during the exercises were normalized to the amplitude in maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC) to produce interindividually comparable muscle activity assessments. Results: Mean average normalized electromyographic amplitudes (% MVC) of the exercises were below 50% MVC. At L5 level, the multifidus muscle activities were significantly higher (p <.05) in women than in men, whereas no significant difference was found at T9 level. Similarly, rectus abdominis and obliquus externus activities were significantly higher (p <.001, p <.05) in women than in men. Load increment in hands or unbalanced trunk and limb movements produced higher paraspinal and abdominal muscle activities (p <.05). Conclusions: Simple therapeutic exercises are effective in activating both abdominal and paraspinal muscles. By changing limb and trunk positions or unbalancing trunk movements, it is possible to increase trunk muscle activities. Women were better able to activate their stabilizing trunk muscles than men; but it is also possible that men, having a much higher degree of strength on maximal contraction, only need to activate a smaller amount of that maximum to perform a similar activity.
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Thesis (M.A.)--University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 56-59). "UO 99 225." Microfiche.
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A small short muscle acting across a joint in parallel with vastly larger and longer muscles is clearly unable to play more than a minimal mechanical role in such a "parallel muscle combination" (PMC). This research investigates a feed back role for the small muscles of PMCs, proposing a significantly higher muscle spindle concentration therein to be consistent with this role. Epaxial PMCs (semispinalis and multifidus versus rotatores brevis) from the C5-C6, T6-T7, and L4-L5 regions of three 36-week-old male fetuses and two adult cadavers were removed and fixed in Carnoy's fluid. Tissue samples were embedded in paraffin, cut into 10 microns thick sections perpendicular to the muscle's longitudinal axis and stained by Harris' hematoxylin and eosin. Representative tissue sections were projected onto a sterological grid and the percentage volume of spindles determined. Data were analyzed with Student's unpaired t test. In all PMCs, rotators brevis spindle percentage volumes ranged from 4.58 to 7.30 times higher than those of multifidus and semispinalis. Differences in mean spindle percentage volumes between large and small members of all PMCs were significant (P less than .0001). Our findings are consistent with the notion of a "kinesiological monitor" or feedback role for rotatores brevis.
From the mechanical point of view the spinal system is highly complex, containing a multitude of components, passive and active. In fact, even if the active components (the muscles) were exchanged by passive springs, the total number of elements considerably exceeds the minimum needed to maintain static equilibrium. In other words, the system is statically highly indeterminate. The particular role of the active components at static equilibrium is to enable a virtually arbitrary choice of posture, independent of the distribution and magnitude of the outer load albeit within physiological limits. Simultaneously this implies that ordinary procedures known from the analysis of mechanical systems with passive components cannot be applied. Hence the distribution of the forces over the different elements is not uniquely determined. Consequently nervous control of the force distribution over the muscles is needed, but little is known about how this achieved. This lack of knowledge implies great difficulties at numerical simulation of equilibrium states of the spinal system. These difficulties remain even if considerable reductions are made, such as the assumption that the thoracic cage behaves like a rigid body. A particularly useful point of view about the main principles of the force distributions appears to be the distinction between a local and a global system of muscles engaged in the equilibrium of the lumbar spine. The local system consists of muscles with insertion or origin (or both) at lumbar vertebrae, whereas the global system consists of muscles with origin on the pelvis and insertions on the thoracic cage. Given the posture of the lumbar spine, the force distribution over the local system appears to be essentially independent of the outer load of the body (though the force magnitudes are, of course, dependent on the magnitude of this load). Instead different distributions of the outer load on the body are met by different distributions of the forces in the global system. Thus, roughly speaking, the global system appears to take care of different distributions of outer forces on the body, whereas the local system performs an action, which is essentially locally determined (i.e. by the posture of the lumbar spine). The present work focuses on the upright standing posture with different degree of lumbar lordosis. The outer load is assumed to consist of weights carried on the shoulders. By reduction of the number of unknown forces, which is done by using a few different principles, a unique determination of the total force distributions at static equilibrium is obtained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Article
We interpret the currently available scientific evidence to indicate that strength training should be as specific as possible. The coach or athlete, in designing a strength training programme, should attempt to have the training exercises similate the sport movement as closely as possible, in relation to movement pattern, velocity of movement, muscular contraction type, and contraction force. In the case of sport movements that are performed at high velocity, supplementary training at low velocity may be necessary to induce maximal adaptation within the muscles. Supplementary training with maximal or near maximal eccentric contractions may be beneficial in training for many sports because the large forces generated during this kind of training will stimulate maximal adaptation within the muscles. However, consideration should be given to the greater risk of injury that is associated with eccentric training. Failure to be specific in strength training may result in more than a poor return on the training investment; it may even be counter-productive. For example, the development of increased mass in irrelevant muscle groups may be detrimental in sports which demand a high strength to body mass ratio.
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), force and electromyographic (EMG) activity from the abdominal (intra-muscular) and trunk extensor (surface) muscles were measured in seven male subjects during maximal and sub-maximal sagittal lifting and lowering with straight arms and legs. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to provide five constant velocities (0.12-0.96 m.s-1) of lifting (pulling against the resistance of the motor) and lowering (resisting the downward pull of the motor). For the maximal efforts, position-specific lowering force was greater than lifting force at each respective velocity. In contrast, corresponding IAPs during lowering were less than those during lifting. Highest mean force occurred during slow lowering (1547 N at 0.24 m.s-1) while highest IAP occurred during the fastest lifts (17.8 kPa at 0.48-0.96 m.s-1). Among the abdominal muscles, the highest level of activity and the best correlation to variations in IAP (r = 0.970 over velocities) was demonstrated by the transversus abdominis muscle. At each velocity the EMG activity of the primary trunk and hip extensors was less during lowering (eccentric muscle action) than lifting (concentric muscle action) despite higher levels of force (r between -0.896 and -0.851). Sub-maximal efforts resulted in IAP increasing linearly with increasing lifting or lowering force (r = 0.918 and 0.882, respectively). However, at any given force IAP was less during lowering than lifting. This difference was negated if force and IAP were expressed relative to their respective lifting and lowering maxima.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The contribution of transversus abdominis to spinal stabilization was evaluated indirectly in people with and without low back pain using an experimental model identifying the coordination of trunk muscles in response to a disturbances to the spine produced by arm movement. To evaluate the temporal sequence of trunk muscle activity associated with arm movement, and to determine if dysfunction of this parameter was present in patients with low back pain. Few studies have evaluated the motor control of trunk muscles or the potential for dysfunction of this system in patients with low back pain. Evaluation of the response of trunk muscles to limb movement provides a suitable model to evaluate this system. Recent evidence indicates that this evaluation should include transversus abdominis. While standing, 15 patients with low back pain and 15 matched control subjects performed rapid shoulder flexion, abduction, and extension in response to a visual stimulus. Electromyographic activity of the abdominal muscles, lumbar multifidus, and the surface electrodes. Movement in each direction resulted in contraction of trunk muscles before or shortly after the deltoid in control subjects. The transversus abdominis was invariably the first muscle active and was not influenced by movement direction, supporting the hypothesized role of this muscle in spinal stiffness generation. Contraction of transversus abdominis was significantly delayed in patients with low back pain with all movements. Isolated differences were noted in the other muscles. The delayed onset of contraction of transversus abdominis indicates a deficit of motor control and is hypothesized to result in inefficient muscular stabilization of the spine.
Article
Proprioceptive training has been shown to reduce the incidence of ankle sprains in different sports. It can also improve rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries whether treated operatively or nonoperatively. Since ACL injuries lead to long absence from sports and are one of the main causes of permanent sports disability, it is essential to try to prevent them. In a prospective controlled study of 600 soccer players in 40 semiprofessional or amateur teams, we studied the possible preventive effect of a gradually increasing proprioceptive training on four different types of wobble-boards during three soccer seasons. Three hundred players were instructed to train 20 min per day with 5 different phases of increasing difficulty. The first phase consisted of balance training without any balance board; phase 2 of training on a rectangular balance board; phase 3 of training on a round board; phase 4 of training on a combined round and rectangular board; phase 5 of training on a so-called BABS board. A control group of 300 players from other, comparable teams trained "normally" and received no special balance training. Both groups were observed for three whole soccer seasons, and possible ACL lesions were diagnosed by clinical examination, KT-1000 measurements, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, and arthroscopy. We found an incidence of 1.15 ACL injuries per team per year in the proprioceptively trained group (P < 0.001). Proprioceptive training can thus significantly reduce the incidence of ACL injuries in soccer players.
Article
Activity of the trunk muscles is essential for maintaining stability of the lumbar spine because of the unstable structure of that portion of the spine. A model involving evaluation of the response of the lumbar multifidus and abdominal muscles to leg movement was developed to evaluate this function. To examine this function in healthy persons, 9 male and 6 female subjects (mean age = 20.6 years, SD = 2.3) with no history of low back pain were studied. Fine-wire and surface electromyography electrodes were used to record the activity of selected trunk muscles and the prime movers for hip flexion, abduction, and extension during hip movements in each of those directions. Trunk muscle activity occurring prior to activity of the prime mover of the limb was associated with hip movement in each direction. The transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle was invariably the first muscle that was active. Although reaction time for the TrA and oblique abdominal muscles was consistent across movement directions, reaction time for the rectus abdominis and multifidus muscles varied with the direction of limb movement. Results suggest that the central nervous system deals with stabilization of the spine by contraction of the abdominal and multifidus muscles in anticipation of reactive forces produced by limb movement. The TrA and oblique abdominal muscles appear to contribute to a function not related to the direction of these forces.
Article
Because the structure of the spine is inherently unstable, muscle activation is essential for the maintenance of trunk posture and intervertebral control when the limbs are moved. To investigate how the central nervous system deals with this situation the temporal components of the response of the muscles of the trunk were evaluated during rapid limb movement performed in response to a visual stimulus. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were inserted into transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE) of 15 subjects under the guidance of real-time ultrasound imaging. Surface electrodes were placed over rectus abdominis (RA), lumbar multifidus (MF) and the three parts of deltoid. In a standing position, ten repetitions of shoulder flexion, abduction and extension were performed by the subjects as fast as possible in response to a visual stimulus. The onset of TrA EMG occurred in advance of deltoid irrespective of the movement direction. The time to onset of EMG activity of OI, OE, RA and MF varied with the movement direction, being activated earliest when the prime action of the muscle opposed the reactive forces associated with the specific limb movement. It is postulated that the non-direction-specific contraction of TrA may be related to the control of trunk stability independent of the requirement for direction-specific control of the centre of gravity in relation to the base of support.
Article
Young female players in European handball have a very high injury incidence, up to 50 injuries per 1000 hours of game. More than half of these injuries happen without any external cause. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an intervention programme designed to reduce the number of injuries in young female players in European handball, with special emphasis on injuries in the lower extremities. The programme was created using elite athlete training programmes and those designed for rehabilitation of injured athletes with functional instability of their ankles and rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. It included the use of an ankle disk for 10-15 min at all practice sessions, for one 10-month season (August 1995-May 1996). Twenty-two teams participated in the study, and were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Eleven teams with 111 players were randomised to the intervention group and 11 teams with 126 players to the control group. Data were analysed using a t-test for continuous variables, chi2-analysis and Fisher's exact test for dichotomous variables and multivariate methods to determine odds-ratios. The results indicated that using the intervention programme decreased the numbers of both traumatic and overuse injuries significantly. The differences in injuries between the groups were 80% during games and 71% during practice. In addition, the players in the control group had a 5.9 times higher risk of acquiring an injury than the players in the intervention group.
Article
Treatment techniques involving perturbations of support surfaces may induce compensatory muscle activity that could improve knee stability and increase the likelihood of returning patients to high-level physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of augmenting standard nonoperative anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation programs with a perturbation training program. Twenty-six patients with acute ACL injury or ruptures of ACL grafts participated in the study. Subjects had to have a unilateral ACL injury, be free of concomitant multiple ligament or meniscal damage requiring surgical repair, and pass a screening examination designed to identify patients who had the potential to return to high-level physical activity with nonoperative treatments. Subjects also had to be regular participants in level I activities (eg, soccer, football, basketball) or level II activities (eg, racquet sports, skiing, construction work). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a group that received a standard rehabilitation program (standard group) or a group that received the standard program augmented with a perturbation training program (perturbation group). Treatment outcome was determined from scores on the Knee Outcome Survey's Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS) and Sports Activity Scale, a global rating of knee function, scores on a series of single-limb hop tests, measurements of maximum isometric quadriceps femoris muscle force output, and the group frequency of unsuccessful rehabilitation. Unsuccessful rehabilitation was defined as the occurrence of an episode of giving way of the knee or failure to maintain the functional status of a rehabilitation candidate on retesting. More subjects had unsuccessful rehabilitation in the standard group compared with the perturbation group. There was a within-group x time interaction for the ADLS, global rating of knee function, and crossover hop test scores. These scores decreased from posttraining to the 6-month follow-up for the standard group. Although both the standard program and the perturbation training program may allow subjects to return to high-level physical activity, the perturbation training program appears to reduce the risk of continued episodes of giving way of the knee during athletic participation and allows subjects to maintain their functional status for longer periods.
Article
Low back stability: from formal description to issues for performance and rehabilitation. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 26-31, 2001. The concept of stability, together with notions of design and the application of stabilization exercise, is briefly synthesized. The objective is to challenge muscle systems to achieve sufficient functional stability but in a way that spares the spine of excessive exacerbating load.
Article
To compare the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine. Quantification of spine stability with a biomechanical model. Modern low back rehabilitation techniques focus on muscles that stabilize the lumbar spine. However, the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to spine stability is currently unknown. Eight male subjects performed isometric exertions in trunk flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, and isometric exertions under vertical trunk loading and in a lifting hold. Each isometric trial was repeated three times at 20%, 40%, and 60% of the maximum trunk flexion force or with a load of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of body weight for the latter two exertions. Surface EMG data from 12 major trunk muscles were used in the biomechanical model to estimate stability of the lumbar spine. A simulation of each trial was performed repeatedly with one of the 10 major trunk muscle groups removed from the model. Relative contribution of each muscle to spine stability was significantly affected by the combination of loading magnitude and direction (3-way interaction). None of the removed muscles reduced spine stability by more than 30%. A single muscle cannot be identified as the most important for the stability of the lumbar spine. Rather, spine stability depends on the relative activation of all trunk muscles and other loading variables. This study will improve our understanding of individual trunk muscles' contribution to overall stability of the lumbar spine.
Article
To assess the effect of a neuromuscular training program on the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female team handball players. Prospective intervention study. Female team handball: Division I-III in Norway. Players from the three top divisions: control season (1998-1999), 60 teams (942 players); first intervention season (1999-2000), 58 teams (855 players); second intervention season (2000-2001), 52 teams (850 players). A five-phase program (duration, 15 min) with three different balance exercises focusing on neuromuscular control and planting/landing skills was developed and introduced to the players in the autumn of 1999 and revised before the start of the season in 2000. The teams were instructed in the program and supplied with an instructional video, poster, six balance mats, and six wobble boards. Additionally, a physical therapist was attached to each team to follow up with the intervention program during the second intervention period. The number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during the three seasons and compliance with the program. There were 29 anterior cruciate ligament injuries during the control season, 23 injuries during the first intervention season (OR, 0.87; CI, 0.50-1.52; p = 0.62), and 17 injuries during the second intervention season (OR, 0.64; CI, 0.35-1.18; p = 0.15). In the elite division, there were 13 injuries during the control season, six injuries during the first intervention season (OR, 0.51; CI, 0.19-1.35; p = 0.17), and five injuries in the second intervention season (OR, 0.37; CI, 0.13-1.05; p = 0.06). For the entire cohort, there was no difference in injury rates during the second intervention season between those who complied and those who did not comply (OR, 0.52; CI, 0.15-1.82; p = 0.31). In the elite division, the risk of injury was reduced among those who completed the anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program (OR, 0.06; CI, 0.01-0.54; p = 0.01) compared with those who did not. This study shows that it is possible to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries with specific neuromuscular training.
Article
The intention of this paper is to introduce some of the issues surrounding the role of muscles to ensure spine stability for discussion -- it is not intended to provide an exhaustive review and integration of the relevant literature. The collection of works synthesized here point to the notion that stability results from highly coordinated muscle activation patterns involving many muscles, and that the recruitment patterns must continually change, depending on the task. This has implications on both the prevention of instability and clinical interventions with patients susceptible to sustaining unstable events.