Association between Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002

Article (PDF Available)inEnvironmental Health Perspectives 115(8):1204-9 · August 2007with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1289/ehp.10184 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
There is now increasing evidence that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can contribute to the development of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to examine associations of serum concentrations of POPs with self-reported history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional associations of serum POPs concentrations with the prevalence of self-reported CVD were investigated in 889 adults >or= 40 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. We selected 21 POPs [3 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 3 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 5 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 nondioxin-like PCBs, and 4 organochlorine (OC) pesticides] because they were detectable in >or= 60% of participants. Dioxin-like PCBs, nondioxin-like PCBs, and OC pesticides were positively associated with the prevalence of CVD only among females. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of serum concentration, the odds ratios for CVD across increasing quartiles were 0.9, 2.0, and 5.0 for dioxin-like PCBs (p for trend < 0.01), 1.2, 1.2, and 3.8 for nondioxin-like PCBs (p for trend < 0.01), and 1.9, 1.7, and 4.0 for OC pesticides (p for trend = 0.03). PCDDs showed positive trends with the prevalence of CVD in both males and females; adjusted odds ratios were 1.4, 1.7, and 1.9 (p for trend = 0.07, males and females combined). Our findings need to be carefully interpreted because of the cross-sectional design and use of self-reported CVD. Prospective studies are needed to clarify these associations.
    • "As OC pesticides easily cross the blood brain barrier [21], it is reasonable to assume that the chronic presence of these chemicals in blood can influence neurological effects of high blood pressure. Furthermore, various lipophilic chemicals coexisting with OC pesticides as mixtures in human are linked to atherosclero- sis222324 and stroke [25], which are considered as pathological mechanisms linking hypertension and cognitive impairment. Thus, these lipophilic chemicals in blood can directly and indirectly affect hypertension-related cognitive impairment. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "The nondioxin-like (ndl) PCBs group includes the remaining congeners (US EPA, 2003). These compounds have been demonstrated to cause toxic effects on human being and animal reproduction, development and immunological function, endocrine and nervous systems as well as carcinogenetic/mutagenic potential (Suchan et al., 2004; Langer et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2006; Ha et al., 2007 ). Although banned in most industrial countries for several decades, PCBs are still widely spread in the marine and terrestrial biota and biomagnify throughout food chain (Covaci et al., 2002; Letcher et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulated by semipermeable membrane device (SPMD)-based virtual organisms (VOs) and local feral fish were studied in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. VOs were deployed at seven sites in TGR for two periods in 2009 and 5 species of fish with different living habitats and feeding habits collected in the same periods from two counties in TGR. The concentration and profile of PAHs and PCBs in fish were quite different fromthose in VOs. Most high-molecular-weight-PAHswere detected in VOs, while theywere undetected in fish.Most PCBs were undetected inVOs,whilemost of them were detected in fish. Low-molecular-weight-PAHs were predominant contaminants of PAHs and nondioxin-like-PCBs were the main PCBs in fish. The levels of PAHs and PCBs in the few fish samples were low and were not of concern based on chemical contaminant limits of non-carcinogenic effect.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    • "In the current study, we did not find any associations of POPs with CRP, and other investigators have inconsistently detected effects of POPs on CRP. Occupational PCB exposure was associated with elevated CRP in women (Persky et al., 2011), but not men (Persky et al., 2012); Organochlorine pesticides were positively and PCBs were inversely associated with CRP in NHANES participants (Ha et al., 2007; Kim et al., 2012); and dioxin-like chemicals, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides did not affect CRP in two other studies (Kumar et al., 2014b; Turunen et al., 2013). Our findings of inverse associations of saltwater fish meals and total fish meals with CRP are consistent with observational and intervention studies (He et al., 2009; Ouellet et al., 2008; Ramel et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is associated with increased diabetes risk, although the mechanism of action is not well delineated. We investigated established diabetes biomarkers that could implicate potential mechanistic pathways, including C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation; gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), a liver enzyme associated with oxidative stress; and adiponectin, an adipokine modulating glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation. These biomarkers as well as hemoglobin A1c (HA1c), and POPs [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)] were measured in a cohort of Great Lakes sport caught fish (GLSCF) consumers. We examined associations of POPs and fish consumption with HA1c and incident diabetes, and evaluated mediation and moderation by the diabetes biomarkers. Odds of incident diabetes were elevated with exposure to DDE and PCBs. DDE and PCB 118 were positively, and fish meals were inversely, associated with HA1c. CRP was inversely associated with saltwater and total fish meals, particularly in persons with higher adiposity, but did not mediate the associations of fish meals with HA1c. There were few associations of POPs with adiponectin, CRP and GGT, with the exception of positive associations of PCB 118 with GGT, PBDEs with GGT in older persons, and PBDEs with adiponectin. Adiponectin, CRP and GGT did not mediate associations of DDE and PCBs with HA1c or incident diabetes. However, the association of DDE with HA1c was stronger in persons with higher CRP, GGT and BMI, and lower adiponectin, while the association of PCB 118 with HA1c was stronger in persons with higher GGT. These findings suggest that adiponectin, CRP and GGT did not mediate effects of POPs on diabetes or HA1c. However, POPs may have stronger effects on blood glucose in persons at higher risk for diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jul 2015
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