Land-Use Allocation Protects the Peruvian Amazon

Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 09/2007; 317(5842):1233-6. DOI: 10.1126/science.1146324
Source: PubMed


Disturbance and deforestation have profound ecological and socioeconomic effects on tropical forests, but their diffuse patterns
are difficult to detect and quantify at regional scales. We expanded the Carnegie forest damage detection system to show that,
between 1999 and 2005, disturbance and deforestation rates throughout the Peruvian Amazon averaged 632 square kilometers per
year and 645 square kilometers per year, respectively. However, only 1 to 2% occurred within natural protected areas, indigenous
territories contained only 11% of the forest disturbances and 9% of the deforestation, and recent forest concessions effectively
protected against clear-cutting. Although the region shows recent increases in disturbance and deforestation rates and leakage
into forests surrounding concession areas, land-use policy and remoteness are serving to protect the Peruvian Amazon.

Download full-text


Available from: David E Knapp
  • Source
    • "Colombia's annual deforestation rate was 0.62% between 1990 and 2005 (Armenteras, Cabrera, Rodríguez, & Retana, 2013), while Bolivia lost 0.48% of its forests per year between 2001 and 2004 (Killeen et al., 2007)Ichikawa, Ricse, Ugarte, & Kobayashi, 2014) and immigrants from other regions (Goy & Waltner-Toews, 2005). Particularly , migration from the Peruvian Andes is known to be an important cause for population growth and a driver of deforestation in the Ucayali region (Guerra, 2009;Oliveira et al., 2007;Perz, Aramburú, & Bremner, 2005). Settlement policies and development programs in the 1940s used to promote Andean migration to the Amazon region. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the relation between primary forest loss and landscape characteristics in the Ucayali region, Peru. Seven variables (rivers, elevation, annual precipitation, soil suitability for agriculture, population density, paved roads, and unpaved roads), were identified as potential deforestation drivers. The variables were converted into spatially explicit layers of continuous data and divided into a 9 km2 grid. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine variable significance. Distance to paved and unpaved roads were strongly associated with deforestation, followed by distance to rivers, annual precipitation and elevation. All significant variables were negatively correlated with deforestation. Variables excluded from the model were population density and soil suitability for agriculture, suggesting that the influence of population density on forest clearing across the study area was not significant, and that deforestation activities were undertaken regardless whether soils are suitable for agriculture or not. Based on the linear regression analysis, the significant variables were selected and added to the Land Change Modeler in order to project primary forest coverage by 2025. The modeling results predict extensive deforestation along the Aguaytia River and at the forest/non-forest interface along the paved highway. The rate of primary forest removal is expected to increase from 4783 ha y−1 (for the 2007–2014 period) to 5086 ha y−1 (for the 2015–2025 period). A preliminary survey questionnaire conducted to explore deforestation intentions by farmers in the region, partly confirmed the overall deforestation trends as projected by the model.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal for Nature Conservation
  • Source
    • "Edición extraordinaria -53- comunidades científicas de investigaciones de cambios globales han recalcado la necesidad de intensificar el enfoque de estudio hacia la evaluación de la dinámica de cambios (Lambin & Geist, 2006; Turner et al., 2004; Fox et al., 2003; Oliveira et al., 2007). La estimación de áreas deforestadas y los estudios de tasas de deforestación son pasos importantes para cuantificar el valor del bosque y los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques tropicales. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in land use and land cover are closely linked with the studies of deforestation rates. Amazonian regions, in particular, have experienced an increase in reports about the rates of deforestation. The Amazon rainforest have a vital role in the equilibrium of the processes of carbon cycles, water cycles and climate processes. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor areas of change and to acquire a better understanding of the drivers and agents of changes in the landscapes. Our study compares estimates of deforestation for the years 2005 and 2010 in the Abujao River basin in the Province of Coronel Portillo of the Callería District in Ucayali, Peru. This region has been exposed to several processes of increase in mining extraction activities. The study included a theoretical and field component based on the methodology developed by RAISG (Amazonian Network for Georeferenced Socioenvironmental Information) for analyzing deforestation and using the software ENVI 4.7, Arcgis 10.0 and ImgTools from IMAZON. In addition, we report detailed field validation. The results show that there is a clear relation between deforestation and mining extraction; however, additional activities have impacted land use and land cover change in the Abujao river basin.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
  • Source
    • "The study region has been connected to Lima and other urban centers in the coast and mountains of Peru by a highway and networks of roads for more than six decades. It has attracted many migrants from elsewhere in Peru in recent years (Uriarte et al., 2012) and has undergone extensive land-use change and deforestation including conversion of forest to oil palm (Gutié rrez-Vé lez and DeFries, 2013; Oliveira et al., 2007). Since the early 1980s, there has been significant rural-to-urban migration, with 75% of the population living in cities as of 2007, up from 56% in 1972 (Instituto, 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence of escaped agricultural fire has recently been increasing in the Western Amazon, driven by climate variability, land use change, and changes in patterns of residency and land occupation. Preventing and mitigating the negative impacts of fire in the Amazon require a comprehensive understanding not only of what the drivers of fire activity are, but also how these drivers interact and vary across scales. Here, we combine multi-scalar data on land use, climate, and landowner residency to disentangle the drivers of fire activity over 10 years (2001–2010) on individual landholdings in a fire-prone region of the Peruvian Amazon. We examined the relative importance of and interactions between climate variability (drought intensity), land occupation (in particular, landowner absenteeism), and land cover variables (cover of fallow and pasture) for predicting both fire occurrence (whether or not fire was detected on a farm in a given year) and fire size. Drought intensity was the most important predictor of fire occurrence, but land-cover type and degree of landowner absenteeism increased fire probability when conditions were dry enough. On the other hand, drought intensity did not stand out relative to other significant predictors in the fire size model, where degree of landowner absenteeism in a village and percent cover of fallow in a village were also strongly associated with fire size. We also investigated to what extent these variables measured at the individual landholding versus the village scale influenced fire activity. While the predictors measured at the landholding and village scales were approximately of equal importance for modeling fire occurrence, only village scale predictors were important in the model of fire size. These results demonstrate that the relative importance of various drivers of fire activity can vary depending on the scale at which they are measured and the scale of analysis. Additionally, we highlight how a full understanding of the drivers of fire activity should go beyond fire occurrence to consider other metrics of fire activity such as fire size, as implications for fire prevention and mitigation can be different depending on the model considered. Drought early warning systems may be most effective for preventing fire in dry years, but management to address the impacts of landowner absenteeism, such as bolstering community fire control efforts in high-risk areas, could help minimize the size of fires when they do occur. Thus, interventions should focus on minimizing fire size as well as preventing fires altogether, especially because fire is an inexpensive and effective management tool that has been in use for millennia.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Global Environmental Change
Show more