Flavonols and Pancreatic Cancer Risk The Multiethnic Cohort Study

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 11/2007; 166(8):924-31. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwm172
Source: PubMed


Only a few prospective studies have investigated flavonols as risk factors for cancer, none of which has included pancreatic cancer. The latter is usually fatal, rendering knowledge about prevention particularly important. The authors estimated intakes of three flavonols-quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin-for 183,518 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study and examined associations with incidence of pancreatic cancer. Baseline data were collected in Hawaii and California in 1993-1996. Diet was assessed by using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 8 years of follow-up, 529 cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer occurred. Multivariate Cox regression models were calculated to estimate relative risks. Intake of total flavonols was associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk (relative risk for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.03; p trend = 0.046). Of the three individual flavonols, kaempferol was associated with the largest risk reduction (relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.05; p trend = 0.017). Total flavonols, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin were all associated with a significant inverse trend among current smokers (relative risks for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.41, 0.55, 0.27, 0.55, respectively) but not never or former smokers. This study provides evidence for a preventive effect of flavonols on pancreatic cancer, particularly for current smokers.

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    • "Among specific components of the Mediterranean diet, vegetables and fruits have been reported to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in a few studies, possibly on account of their high content in vitamin C, folate, and phenolic compounds (Larsson et al, 2006; World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research, 2007; Nothlings et al, 2007b; Hart et al, 2008; Bae et al, 2009; Rossi et al, 2012). However, the evidence is not consistent and a recent report of the World Cancer Research Association has judged the evidence for fruit and vegetables on pancreatic cancer ‘limited–not conclusive' (Koushik et al, 2012; World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Mediterranean diet has been shown to have a beneficial role on various neoplasms, but data are scanty on pancreatic cancer. Methods: We analysed data from two case–control studies conducted in Italy between 1983 and 2008, including 362 and 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 1552 and 652 hospital-controls, respectively. A Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) summarising major characteristics of the Mediterranean diet was used in the two studies separately and overall. Two further scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were applied in the second study only, the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence Index (MDP) and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI). Results: Odds ratios (ORs) for increasing levels of the scores (i.e., increasing adherence) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Odds ratio for a MDS score ⩾6 compared with <3 was 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34–0.95) in the first study, 0.51 (95% CI 0.29–0.92) in the second study, and 0.48 (95% CI 0.35–0.67) overall. A trend of decreasing risk was observed also for the MDP and MAI the ORs for the highest vs the lowest quintile being 0.44 (95% CI 0.27–0.73) for MDP and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42–1.11) for the MAI. The results were consistent across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and diabetes. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that a priori-defined scores measuring adherence to the Mediterranean diet are favourably associated with pancreatic cancer risk.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · British Journal of Cancer
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    • "Such consumption pattern has helpful to prevent about some kind of disease (cardiovascular disease, ischemic stroke, type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancers) (Jones, 2006; Maggiolini et al., 2005). Epidemiological evidence shows that increased levels of fruit and vegetables in the diet reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease (Block et al., 1992; Nothling et al., 2007). Numerous studies show that the high correlations were observed between total phenols and antioxidant activity (Dykes and Rooney, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The cereal grain crops have strong flexibility against adverse environment and they have various functional compounds. The objective of the present study was to screen phenolic compounds in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], foxtail millet (Setaria italica), common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector. Sorghum contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds among three different crops (sorghum, foxtail millet, common millet). Especially Moktaksusu showed the highest amount of phenolic compounds concentrations and biggest regional differences. The comparison of average phenolic compounds in sorghums by regions showed order to Milyang (), Yeongyang (), Gijang () and Bonghwa (). Among the sorghum cultivars, Moktaksusu () had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. The average phenolic compounds of foxtail millets showed similar amount among Milyang (), Gijang () and Bonghwa () areas. The phenolic compounds of Yeongyang () slightly low and that showed similar concentrations among three different regions. The concentration of phenolic compounds in foxtail millets, Chungchajo () showed the highest concentrations. The average phenolic compounds of common millets showed the highest concentrations in Milyang (), Bonghwa (), Gijang (), Yeongyang () in decreasing order. The concentration of phenolic compounds of common millets was the highest in the Norangchalgijang (), Hwanggumgijang () was also relatively higher than others. The results of this study will provide basic information for breeding sorghums, foxtail millets and common millets with higher phenolic compound concentrations.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2011
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    • "To date, a number of ATP competitive inhibitors have been identified against RSKs including BI-D1870, SL0101, and kaempferol; however, none have been tested in clinical trials [38, 39, 43]. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, was one of the first RSK inhibitors to be described and has recently been shown to significantly reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer [44]. We envision that this could translate into breast cancer where the drug would be used for patients who have been diagnosed with DCIS and are at risk of subsequently developing invasive breast cancer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Surprisingly little is known about the underlying genetic events that trigger the progression of a normal cell into a cancerous cell. We recently developed a YB-1-driven model of pre-malignancy where we uncovered that the oncogene promotes genomic instability through cell cycle checkpoint slippage and centrosome amplification. In this research perspective, we describe a possible mechanism by which YB-1 instigates preneoplastic transformation. Using Kinex antibody microarrays with coverage of 800 proteins, we discovered that pre-malignant cells exhibit deregulated signal transduction along the HER2-MAPK-RSK axis. We will discuss the implications of these finding in regard to early intervention strategies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Oncotarget
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