Flavonols and Pancreatic Cancer Risk The Multiethnic Cohort Study

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 11/2007; 166(8):924-31. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwm172
Source: PubMed
Only a few prospective studies have investigated flavonols as risk factors for cancer, none of which has included pancreatic cancer. The latter is usually fatal, rendering knowledge about prevention particularly important. The authors estimated intakes of three flavonols-quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin-for 183,518 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study and examined associations with incidence of pancreatic cancer. Baseline data were collected in Hawaii and California in 1993-1996. Diet was assessed by using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 8 years of follow-up, 529 cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer occurred. Multivariate Cox regression models were calculated to estimate relative risks. Intake of total flavonols was associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk (relative risk for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.03; p trend = 0.046). Of the three individual flavonols, kaempferol was associated with the largest risk reduction (relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.05; p trend = 0.017). Total flavonols, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin were all associated with a significant inverse trend among current smokers (relative risks for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.41, 0.55, 0.27, 0.55, respectively) but not never or former smokers. This study provides evidence for a preventive effect of flavonols on pancreatic cancer, particularly for current smokers.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    • "There is no epidemiological information on the relationship of alcohol-free beer consumption and cancer incidence. In a large cohort, flavonol intake (a group of polyphenols present in beer) reduced the risk for developing pancreatic cancer [139]. The chalcone xanthohumol a characteristic hop-derived polyphenol of beer, protects against DNA damage and liver and colon cancer at physi- ological concentrations [68]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large evidence-based review on the effects of a moderate consumption of beer on human health has been conducted by an international panel of experts who reached a full consensus on the present document.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
  • Source
    • "In this study, quercetin was found to contribute most of total flavonol intake (ß70%), followed by kaempferol (ß25%). The authors found that all three flavonols in diet, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin were associated with a decrease in the incidence of pancreatic cancer among current smokers, but not in never or former smokers, suggesting a potential chemopreventive effect of flavonols (in combination) against pancreatic cancer [32]. Interestingly, resveratrol and kaempferol both are natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists and estrogen receptor (ER) agonists [33] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well-studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape-ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
  • Source
    • "Protective effects against gastric cancer were reported for quercetin and EGCG [183, 184], whereas an increased risk for higher isoflavone intake was described in Japanese women simultaneously using exogenous hormones [185] . Total flavonol and particularly kaempferol intake was reported to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.78) [186]. In line, the large prospective study of Zamora-Ros and colleagues suggested a protective association between dietary intake of flavonols and the risk of bladder cancer (HR = 0.74) [174]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant epigenetic modifications are described in an increasing number of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity and cancer. The general reversibility of epigenetic changes makes them an attractive and promising target e.g. in the treatment of cancer. Thus, a growing number of epigenetically active compounds are currently tested in clinical trials for their therapeutic potential. Interestingly, many phytochemicals present in plant foods, particularly flavonoids, are suggested to be able to alter epigenetic cellular mechanisms. Flavonoids are natural phenol compounds that form a large group of secondary plant metabolites with interesting biological activities. They can be categorized into six major subclasses, which display diverse properties affecting the two best characterized epigenetic mechanisms: modulation of the DNA methylation status and histone acetylation. High dietary flavonoid intake has strongly been suggested to reduce the risk of numerous cancer entities in a large body of epidemiological studies. Established health-promoting effects of diets rich in fruit and vegetables are faced by efforts to use purified flavonoids as supplements or pharmaceuticals, whereupon data on the latter applications remain controversial. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of current research on flavonoids to further elucidate their potential in cancer prevention and therapy, thereby focusing on their distinct epigenetic activities.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
Show more