Children with hyperdiploid but not triple trisomy (+4, +10, +17) acute lymphoblastic leukemia have an increased incidence of extramedullar relapse on current therapies: A single institution experience

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
American Journal of Hematology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 01/2008; 83(1):34-40. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.21011
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the outcome of children with high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (hHDALL) treated at the author's institution. One hundred thirty-five consecutive children with B-precursor ALL were diagnosed between 1991 and 2002: 38 (28.1%) hHDALL and 97 (71.9%) non-hHDALL. In the hHDALL group, 11/38 (28.9%) relapsed at a median interval of 2.8 years (range: 0.8-5.0 years) with 9/11 relapses occurring at the end or after the completion of therapy. Three (27.3%) relapses were isolated hematopoietic (BM), while eight (72.7%) were either isolated extramedullary (EM) relapses (n=6; Testis: 4; CNS: 2) or combined hematopoietic and extramedullary relapses (n=2; BM + CNS: 1; BM + Testis: 1). For the non-hHDALL group, 29/97 (29.9%) relapsed. Unlike the hHDALL group, the non-hHDALL group experienced hematopoietic relapses (62%; n=18) more frequently than isolated extramedullary (27.5%; n=8: Testis: 1; CNS: 7) or combined hematopoietic and extramedullary relapses (10.3%; CNS + BM: 3), with 24/29 (82.8%) of the relapses occurring on therapy. Relapses in hHDALL frequently involved EM sites (P=0.053). Presence of triple trisomy of +4,+10,+17 at diagnosis had a protective effect against relapse (P<0.05). Five-year EFS for the hHDALL and non-hHDALL patients was similar, 70.5+/-7.5% and 66.4+/-4.9%, respectively. Five-year OS for the hHDALL patients was significantly higher than for the non-hHDALL patients, 92+/-4.5% vs. 74.1+/-4.5%, P=0.038. Biologically significant differences exist between relapse patterns of hHDALL and non-hHDALL cases related to relapse sites and time periods when relapses occur. hHDALL relapses continue to be chemo-sensitive.

    • "Giemsa banded karyotypes were analyzed by one of us (LK) and the chromosomes were counted and identified using standard International System for Cytogenetic nomenclature 2005 method.[6] FLT3 internal tandem duplication and tyrosine kinase domain (ITD and TKD) mutations were tested using standard techniques which were already applied in this laboratory.[7] "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Hyperdiploid pre-B-cell acute lymhoblastic leukemia (pre-B-ALL) is a common form of childhood leukemia with very good prognosis with present day chemotherapy. However, the chromosomal composition of the hyperdiploidy has not been extensively studied and possible mechanism for this pathology remains so far conjectural.OBJECTIVE:To analyze the pattern of chromosome involvement in a cohort of childhood hyperdiploid pre-B-ALL from India and from this pattern to develop an understanding on the causation of such pathology. Whether such patients also carry translocations and FLT3 mutations in addition to their hyperdiploid karyotype.MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and twenty-six childhood pre-B-ALL patients were studied. Bone marrow aspirate of these patients were evacuated for morphology, FAB classification, immunophenotyping and both conventional and molecular cytogenetics.RESULTS:Of 126 patients with pre-B-ALL (age 2-15 years), 90 patients with abnormal karyotype showed 50 with hyperdiploid karyotype (50/90 i.e. 55.5%). Chromosomes 9, 10, 14, 17, 18, 20 and 21 were more often involved in hyperdiploidy. Chromosome 21 duplication was present in 92% of the cases. Chromosomes 5, 15, 16, 17 and Y were less often involved (18-20%) in hyperdiploidy. About 44% of patients with hyperdiploidy had additional karyotypic abnormality of which TEL-AML1 was predominant (24%). Chromosome loss was rare and accounted for 20% of the cases only. We did not find any FLT3 mutation in our patients.CONCLUSION:In this study, the pattern of chromosome involvement in hyperdiploid karyotype of ALL patients is same as other studies except some chromosomes like 1, 6, 11, 12, 19 and 22 have some more frequent involvement than other studies. This study also showed the occurrence of TEL/AML1 fusion is more (19.8%) than other reports from India.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Indian Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: High hyperdiploidy (51-67 chromosomes) is the most common cytogenetic abnormality pattern in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), occurring in 25-30% of such cases. High hyperdiploid ALL is characterized cytogenetically by a nonrandom gain of chromosomes X, 4, 6, 10, 14, 17, 18, and 21 and clinically by a favorable prognosis. Despite the high frequency of this karyotypic subgroup, many questions remain regarding the epidemiology, etiology, presence of other genetic changes, the time and cell of origin, and the formation and pathogenetic consequences of high hyperdiploidy. However, during the last few years, several studies have addressed some of these important issues, and these, as well as previous reports on high hyperdiploid childhood ALL, are reviewed herein.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the success of contemporary treatment protocols in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), relapse within the central nervous system (CNS) remains a challenge. To better understand this phenomenon, we have analysed the changes in incidence and pattern of CNS relapses in 5564 children enrolled in four successive Medical Research Council-ALL trials between 1985 and 2001. Changes in the incidence and pattern of CNS relapses were examined and the relationship with patient characteristics was assessed. The factors affecting outcome after relapse were determined. Overall, relapses declined by 49%. Decreases occurred primarily in non-CNS and combined relapses with a progressive shift towards later (> or =30 months from diagnosis) relapses (P<0.0001). Although isolated CNS relapses declined, the proportional incidence and timing of relapse remained unchanged. Age and presenting white blood cell (WBC) count were risk factors for CNS relapse. On multivariate analysis, the time to relapse and the trial period influenced outcomes after relapse. Relapse trends differed within biological subtypes. In ETV6-RUNX1 ALL, relapse patterns mirrored overall trends whereas in high hyperdiploidy (HH) ALL, these seem to have plateaued over the latter two trial periods. Intensive systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy have decreased the overall CNS relapse rates and changed the patterns of recurrence. The heterogeneity of therapeutic response in the biological subtypes suggests room for further optimization using currently available chemotherapy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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