Chronic Kidney Disease: Common, Harmful, and Treatable--World Kidney Day 2007

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 4.61). 04/2007; 2(2):401-5. DOI: 10.2215/CJN.04041206
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Thomas D DuBose, Nov 16, 2015
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    • "prognosis of patients with high-risk features for ACS [8] [9] and in a variety of outpatient settings [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]. However, little is known about the impact of CKD in an observation unit (OU) cohort. "
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of renal disease on risk stratification of patients at low risk for potential acute coronary syndrome has not been well defined. The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of renal dysfunction and assess the association between renal impairment and abnormal cardiac evaluation in observation unit (OU) patients. Retrospective cohort study at an academic medical center OU. Data were abstracted using predetermined definitions of data outcomes by trained abstractors. Patients had symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome and did not have obvious evidence of acute MI or ischemia on electrocardiogram, unstable vital signs, abnormal cardiac markers, serious arrhythmias, or uncontrollable chest pain. Observation patients received serial cardiac markers and electrocardiograms, with the majority receiving stress testing at treating physician discretion. Patients were stratified by glomerular filtration rates (GFR) at cut-off points of less than 60 and less than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Odds ratios were calculated for stress test findings of inducible ischemia or hospital admission. Five hundred and twenty-nine out of 545 patients had complete data and were enrolled. Sixty-nine (13%) patients had a GFR of less than 60 and 300 (56%) patients had a GFR of less than 90. An abnormal cardiac evaluation was found in 64 (12%) patients, of whom 31 (49%) had some renal impairment. The odds ratio of an abnormal cardiac evaluation with a GFR of less than 90 is 1.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.95-2.88) and 1.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-3.28) for GFR less than 60. Renal dysfunction is common in OU patients. In these patients, renal dysfunction did not confer higher risk for abnormal cardiac evaluation.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the role of mesenchymal stem cells in fibrogenesis using a model of chronic renal insufficiency. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from tibias and femurs of Wistar-EPM rats. After three to five passages, the cells were submitted to phenotypic analyses and differentiation. Wistar rats were submitted to the 5/6 nephrectomy model, and 2.10 5 mesenchymal stem cells were administered intravenously to each rat every two weeks until the eighth week. results: Sex-determining region Y was observed in female rats treated with stem cells. Serum and urine analyses showed improvement of functional parameters in mesenchymal stem cells treated animals, such as creatinine, serum urea, and proteinuria. Moreover, hemocrit analysis showed improvement of anemia in mesenchymal stem cells treated animals. Masson's Trichromium and Picrosirius Red staining demonstrated reduced levels of fibrosis in mesenchymal stem cells treated in animals. These results were corroborated by reduced vimentin, collagen I, TGFβ, FSP-1, MCP-1 and Smad3 mRNA expression. Renal IL-6 and TNFα mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased after mesenchymal stem cells treatment, while IL-4 and IL-10 expression were increased. Serum expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 was decreased in mesenchymal cell- treated animals. conclusions: Altogether, these results suggest that mesenchymal stem cells therapy can indeed modulate the inflammatory response that follows the initial phase of a chronic renal lesion. The immunosuppresive and remodeling properties of the mesenchymal stem cells may be involved in the improved fibrotic outcome.
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