Reactions to Health-Related Social Control in Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

ArticleinJournal of Behavioral Medicine 31(2):93-103 · September 2007with3 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s10865-007-9125-4 · Source: PubMed
Health-related social control refers to individuals' attempts to influence another's health behavior. We describe social control experienced by 109 adults aged 18-35 with Type 1 diabetes, and examine the influence of different types of social control on behavioral and psychological outcomes. Using a self-administered questionnaire, telephone interview, and chart review, we assessed individuals' social control experiences, behavioral and psychological reactions, psychological adjustment, metabolic control, socio-demographics, and clinical factors at baseline, and psychological adjustment and metabolic control at 6-months follow-up. Most participants (85%) reported experiencing social control. Regression analyses revealed that more frequent negative control predicted less behavior change and more negative cognitive reactions concurrently, and decreases in psychological adjustment over time. More frequent reinforcement/modeling and structural changes predicted more positive emotional reactions, but were not associated with behavior change, psychological adjustment, or metabolic control. Use of direct persuasion was associated with more pretending of behavior change. These results suggest that negative social control attempts by social network members may be counter-productive.
    • "Some studies show evidence for the relationship between received social control and psychological distress (e.g. Helgeson et al., 2004; Lewis & Rook, 1999; Thorpe et al., 2008) while others do not (e.g. August & Sorkin, 2010; Rook, Thuras, & Lewis, 1990). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dual-effects model of social control assumes that social control leads to better health practices, but also arouses psychological distress. However, findings are inconsistent. The present study advances the current literature by examining social control from a dyadic perspective in the context of smoking. In addition, the study examines whether control, continuous smoking abstinence, and affect are differentially related for men and women. Before and three weeks after a self-set quit attempt we examined 106 smokers (77 men, mean age: 40.67, average number of cigarettes smoked per day: 16.59 (SD = 8.52, range = 1-40) at baseline and 5.27 (SD = 6.97, range = 0-40) at follow-up) and their non-smoking heterosexual partners, assessing received and provided control, continuous abstinence, and affect. With regard to smoker's affective reactions, partner's provided control was related to an increase in positive and to a decrease in negative affect, but only for female smokers. Moreover, the greater the discrepancy between smoker received and partner provided control was, the more positive affect increased and the more negative affect decreased, but again only for female smokers. These findings demonstrate that female smokers' well-being was raised over time if they were not aware of the control attempts of their non-smoking partners, indicating positive effects of invisible social control. This study's results emphasize the importance of applying a dyadic perspective and taking gender differences in the dual-effects model of social control into account.
    Article · Feb 2014
    • "Some studies find evidence of improved adherence to a medical regimen (Fekete et al., 2009; Stephens, Fekete, Franks, Rook, Druley, & Greene, 2009), whereas other studies find evidence of worse health behaviors (Franks et al., 2006; Helgeson et al., 2004; Thorpe et al., 2008). In terms of the impact on recipients' psychological health, preliminary evidence suggests that patients do experience psychological distress, or negative emotions, in response to social control in the context of a chronic illness (Helgeson et al., 2004; Stephens et al., 2009; Thorpe, 2008). For example, in a study by Stephens and colleagues (2009) of older adults with osteoarthritis who were recovering from knee replacement, more coercive forms of social control were related to negative emotions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attempts of social network members to regulate individuals' health behaviors, or health-related social control, is one mechanism by which social relationships influence health. Little is known, however, about whether this process varies in married versus unmarried individuals managing a chronic illness in which health behaviors are a key component. Researchers have proposed that social control attempts may have dual effects on recipients' well-being, such that improved health behaviors may occur at the cost of increased emotional distress. The current study accordingly sought to examine marital status differences in the sources, frequency, and responses to health-related social control in an ethnically diverse sample of 1477 patients with type 2 diabetes from southern California, USA. Results from two-way ANCOVAs revealed that married individuals reported their spouses most frequently as sources of social control, with unmarried women naming children and unmarried men naming friends/neighbors most frequently as sources of social control. Married men reported receiving social control most often, whereas unmarried men reported receiving social control least often. Regression analyses that examined behavioral and emotional responses to social control revealed that social control using persuasion was associated with better dietary behavior among married patients. Results also revealed a complex pattern of emotional responses, such that social control was associated with both appreciation and hostility, with the effect for appreciation most pronounced among women. Findings from this study highlight the importance of marital status and gender differences in social network members' involvement in the management of a chronic illness.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010
    • "Research on the effects of social control strategies consistently find negative social control tactics to be unrelated to health behavior change (including smoking cessation) and to predict negative psychological reactions, such as hostility/irritation or sadness/ guilt (Lewis & Rook). The effects of positive social control strategies , however, are less consistent, with studies showing either positive (Lewis & Rook; Tucker et al.) or null effects on behavior change (Helgeson, Novak, Lepore, & Eton, 2004; Thorpe, Lewis, & Sterba, 2008). Although not depicted inFigure 1, positive and negative social control tactics may influence quitting not only through their effects on affect (as examined in prior research) but possibly by influencing motivation to quit as well. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The majority of smokers attempt to quit smoking on their own, but in any given year, only 5% or less are successful. To improve cessation rates, tapping social networks for social support during quitting has been recommended or tested in some interventions. Prior reviews of this research, however, have concluded that there is little to no evidence that partner support interventions are effective. Discussion: Given the theoretical importance of the concept of social support, its demonstrated value in treatments that are implicitly supportive (e.g., telephone counseling), and the general lack of a guiding conceptual framework for research on the effects of peer or partner support for cessation, we describe theoretical models that explicitly incorporate social support constructs in predicting motivation for and success in quitting. Conclusion: Better differentiation of support concepts and elucidating causal pathways will lead to studies that demonstrate the value of social relationships in improving smokers' likelihood of cessation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010
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