The development of a scale to measure personal reflection in medical practice and education

Center for Research and Innovation of Medical Education, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
Medical Teacher (Impact Factor: 1.68). 04/2007; 29(2-3):177-82. DOI: 10.1080/01421590701299272
Source: PubMed


Personal reflection is important for acquiring, maintaining and enhancing balanced medical professionalism. A new scale, the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS), was developed to measure the personal reflection ability of medical students.
Explorative literature study was conducted to gather an initial pool of items. Item selection took place using qualitative and quantitative methods. Medical teachers screened the initial item-pool on relevance, expert-analysis was used for screening the fidelity to the criterion and large samples of medical students and medical teachers were used to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the items. Finally, explorative factor analysis was used to investigate the structure of the scale.
The psychometric quality and content validity of the GRAS are satisfactory. The items cover three aspects of personal reflection: self-reflection, empathetic reflection and reflective communication. The 23-item scale proved to be easy to complete and to administer.
The GRAS is a practical measurement instrument that yields reliable data that contribute to valid inferences about the personal reflection ability of medical students and doctors, both at individual and group level.

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    • "The shared variance (25%) between the Groningen and Jefferson scales was not high enough to indicate that the two measures are redundant but at the same time it was not so low as to indicate that the two measures are independent. We would expect to find some relationship between them, because they share elements in the definitions of empathy (i.e., understanding another person's experiences, concerns, and suffering) (Hojat et al., 2002c) and self-reflection (i.e., appraisal of one's own and other people's experiences) (Aukes et al., 2007). Limitations of this study include the fact that it is a singleinstitution study, which limits the external validity (generalization ) of the findings. "

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    • "This assesses the perception, appraisal and expression of emotion, emotional facilitation of thinking, understanding, analysis and employment of emotional knowledge, and the regulation of emotion. Reflective ability was assessed by a 23-item scale developed by Aukes et al. (2007), encompassing self-reflection, empathetic reflection and reflective communication. Empathy was measured using a 21-item scale adapted from a measure developed by Davis (1983). "
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    ABSTRACT: The need for social workers to be resilient is widely emphasised. Although enhancing resilience in social work trainees presents a challenge to educators, they are nonetheless responsible for developing professionals who are able to cope with the emotional demands of the job. This paper argues that building resilience in the future workforce should be a key element of social work education. However, as little is known about the competencies and support structures that underpin resilience or the extent to which resilience protects the wellbeing of trainees, an evidence-based approach is required to inform curriculum development.Recent research conducted by the authors of this paper has highlighted the protective nature of resilience in social work trainees. Emotional intelligence and associated competencies, such as reflective ability, aspects of empathy and social confidence, were found to be key predictors of this important quality. The important role played by social support from various sources was also emphasised. The present paper summarises this research, and presents interventions based on the findings that have the potential to promote resilience and wellbeing in social work trainees. Also considered are ways in which the curriculum might be further enhanced to provide trainees with an internal ‘tool-box’ of strategies that will help them manage their wellbeing more effectively in their future career.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Social Work Education
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    • "declare that personal reflection is the examination of one's experiences to help clarify and create meaning of the experiences, and to promote learning [11]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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