Combining insulins for optimal blood glucose control in type 1 and 2 diabetes: Focus on insulin glulisine

Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80232, USA.
Vascular Health and Risk Management 02/2007; 3(3):245-54.
Source: PubMed


Normalization of blood glucose is essential for the prevention of diabetes mellitus (DM)-related microvascular and macrovascular complications. Despite substantial literature to support the benefits of glucose lowering and clear treatment targets, glycemic control remains suboptimal for most people with DM in the United States. Pharmacokinetic limitations of conventional insulins have been a barrier to achieving treatment targets secondary to adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed modification of the insulin molecule to produce insulin analogues that overcome these pharmacokinetic limitations. With time action profiles that more closely mimic physiologic insulin secretion, rapid acting insulin analogues (RAAs) reduce post-prandial glucose excursions and hypoglycemia when compared to regular human insulin (RHI). Insulin glulisine (Apidra) is a rapid-acting insulin analogue created by substituting lysine for asparagine at position B3 and glutamic acid for lysine at position B29 on the B chain of human insulin. The quick absorption of insulin glulisine more closely reproduces physiologic first-phase insulin secretion and its rapid acting profile is maintained across patient subtypes. Clinical trials have demonstrated comparable or greater efficacy of insulin glulisine versus insulin lispro or RHI, respectively. Efficacy is maintained even when insulin glulisine is administered post-meal. In addition, glulisine appears to have a more rapid time action profile compared with insulin lispro across various body mass indexes (BMIs). The safety and tolerability profile of insulin glulisine is also comparable to that of insulin lispro or RHI in type 1 or 2 DM and it has been shown to be as safe and effective when used in a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). In summary, insulin glulisine is a safe, effective, and well tolerated rapid-acting insulin analogue across all BMIs and a worthy option for prandial glucose control in type 1 or 2 DM.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insulin glulisine (Apidra) is a human insulin analogue approved for the improvement of glycaemic control in adults, adolescents and children with diabetes mellitus. It has similar binding properties, and is associated with a faster onset but similar level of glucose disposal, to regular human insulin (RHI). Insulin glulisine and insulin lispro have similar effects on glucose levels. Insulin glulisine is effective when compared to other short- and rapid-acting insulins, demonstrating either noninferiority, no significant difference, or superiority in primary endpoints in studies involving patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is more effective and has a faster onset and shorter duration of activity than RHI. Insulin glulisine is as effective as insulin lispro in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, there is a need for further, well designed head-to-head comparisons with insulin lispro in patients with type 2 diabetes and with insulin aspart in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes to fully establish the place of insulin glulisine in the management of diabetes. Insulin glulisine has a flexible administration period, as it can be administered immediately before or after meals. Hypoglycaemia, a common risk with insulins, occurs at a similar rate among recipients of insulin glulisine to that seen with other insulins. Thus, insulin glulisine is an effective and well tolerated option for the treatment of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Drugs
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continues to increase throughout the world with an expected doubling of documented cases between 2006 and 2030, diabetes deaths are expected to increase by more than 50% from 2006 to 2015. Therapeutic interventions should be based on scientific evidence, including earlier insulin initiation and use of a basal-bolus approach that better mimics normal physiology. This review focuses on insulin glulisine in the basal-bolus approach. It details pharmacological data, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability, and potential effects on current treatment regimens. Insulin glulisine offers a more rapid onset of action and shorter duration of action compared with regular human insulin. These characteristics result in an action profile that closely mimics the normal postmeal endogenous insulin response, thus fulfilling the prandial insulin requirement and making the basal-bolus treatment approach clinically achieveable.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Expert opinion on biological therapy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This phase 1 study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and glucodynamics of insulin lispro (Humalog; Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN) or regular human insulin (Humulin R; Eli Lilly and Co.) administered with or without (+/-) recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20). Healthy male volunteers (n = 26), 18-55 years old with body mass index 18-28 kg/m(2), weight >70 kg, and normal fasting glucose, were randomized to a crossover sequence of two subcutaneous injections, each followed by a 6-h euglycemic clamp targeting glucose 90-110 mg/dL: Cohort 1 received 20 U of Humalog +/- 300 U of rHuPH20 (11.3 microg/mL), whereas Cohort 2 received 20 U of Humulin R +/- 240 U of rHuPH20 (10 microg/mL). Pharmacokinetic parameters included peak serum insulin concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (t(max)), and area under the curve (AUC) of serum concentration versus time. Glucodynamic parameters included time to maximal glucose infusion rate (tGIR(max)) and area under the GIR-versus-time curve (G). For Humalog and Humulin R, respectively, rHuPH20 co-administration reduced t(max) by 51% (P = 0.0006) and 58% (P = 0.0002), increased C(max) by 90% (P = 0.0003) and 142% (P < 0.0001), increased early exposure (AUC(0-2h)) by 85% (P < 0.0001) and 211% (P < 0.0001), and reduced late exposure (AUC(4-6h)) by 41% (P < 0.0001) and 48% (P < 0.0001). Similarly, rHuPH20 reduced tGIR(max) by 41% (P = 0.006) and 35% (P = 0.01), increased early metabolism (G(0-2h)) by 52% (P = 0.001) and 127% (P < 0.0001), and reduced late metabolism (G(4-6h)) by 29% (P = 0.002) and 26% (P = 0.03) for Humalog and Humulin R, respectively. Injections were well tolerated. Co-administration of rHuPH20 accelerated the PK and glucodynamics of both insulin formulations. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings in patients with diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Show more