Article

Anthropometry and Body Composition in Soccer and Volleyball Players in West Bengal, India

School of Health Sciences (PPSK), Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. /
Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (Impact Factor: 1.27). 06/2007; 26(4):501-5. DOI: 10.2114/jpa2.26.501
Source: PubMed
ABSTRACT
50 sedentary males and 128 sports persons (volleyball=82, soccer=46) of 20-24 years were selected from West Bengal, India, to evaluate and compare their anthropometry and body composition. Skinfolds, girth measurements, body fat percentage (%fat), and endomorphy were significantly higher among sedentary individuals, but lean body mass (LBM) and mesomorphy were significantly (p<0.001) higher among the sports persons. Soccer and volleyball players were found to be ectomorphic mesomorph, whereas sedentary subjects were endomorphic mesomorph. The soccer and volleyball players had higher %fat with lower body height and body mass than their overseas counterparts. %fat exhibited a significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) and thus prediction equations for %fat from BMI were computed in each group. The present data will serve as a reference standard for the anthropometry and body composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players and the prediction norms for %fat will help to provide a first-hand impression of body composition in the studied population.

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Available from: Amit Bandyopadhyay, Feb 04, 2015
Abstract 50 sedentary males and 128 sportspersons
(volleyball82, soccer46) of 20–24 years were selected
from West Bengal, India, to evaluate and compare their
anthropometry and body composition. Skinfolds, girth
measurements, body fat percentage (%fat), and endomorphy
were significantly higher among sedentary individuals, but lean
body mass (LBM) and mesomorphy were significantly
(p0.001) higher among the sportspersons. Soccer and
volleyball players were found to be ectomorphic mesomorph,
whereas sedentary subjects were endomorphic mesomorph.
The soccer and volleyball players had higher %fat with lower
body height and body mass than their overseas counterparts.
%fat exhibited a significant correlation with body mass index
(BMI) and thus prediction equations for %fat from BMI
were computed in each group. The present data will serve
as a reference standard for the anthropometry and body
composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players and the
prediction norms for %fat will help to provide a first-hand
impression of body composition in the studied population. J
Physiol Anthropol 26(4): 501–505, 2007 http://www.jstage.jst.
go.jp/browse/jpa2
[DOI: 10.2114/jpa2.26.501]
Keywords: anthropometry, body composition, skinfolds, %fat,
girths, somatotyping, soccer, volleyball
Introduction
Body composition, anthropometric dimensions, and
morphological characteristics play a vital role in determining
the success of a sportsperson (Wilmore and Costill, 1999;
Keogh, 1999; Reco-Sanz, 1998). These parameters are
sensitive indicators of the growth progress and nutritional
status of a population that is ultimately relevant to a specific
event in which the subject excels (Chatterjee et al., 2006;
Wilmore and Costill, 1999). These indicators of prospective
sports performance largely depend on heredity and are
correlated with age, gender, ethnicity, food habit, and
exercise practice (Bouchard and Lortie, 1984; Fagard et al.,
1991). Proper evaluation of these parameters reflects the
quantification of the body’s major structural components,
which are required in different proportions for various games
to achieve excellence (McArdle et al., 1986).
Despite concern about the fact that morphological
parameters are an essential part of the evaluation and selection
of sportspersons for diverse fields of sports, standard data on
such parameters are still lacking in the Indian context of soccer
and volleyball games. The present study was therefore aimed
at evaluating the physical parameters, anthropometric
measurements, body composition and somatotype of soccer
and volleyball players in West Bengal, India, and to compare
the data with their sedentary counterparts.
Methods
178 healthy young male subjects (sedentary50, soccer
player46, volleyball player82) of 20–24 years and having
similar socio-economic background were investigated for the
study. Sedentary individuals were selected by simple random
sampling from the postgraduate section of the University of
Calcutta, whereas the state level sportspersons were recruited
from various sports academies in West Bengal, India. The age
of each subject was calculated from the date of birth as
recorded in his institute. The body mass and body height of
each subject were measured by using a weighing scale (Inco,
Ambala, India, Model No. 4516 PXL) fitted with a height
measuring stand. Body surface area (BSA) and body mass
index (BMI) were calculated by the following formulae :
BSA (m
2
)
(Body mass in Kg)
0.425
(Body Height in cm)
0.725
0.007184
(DuBois and DuBois, 1916)
BMI (Kg/m
2
)
(Body mass in Kg)/(Stature in Meters)
2
(Meltzer et al., 1988)
Skinfolds and anthropometric measurements (viz., girths
Anthropometry and Body Composition in Soccer and Volleyball Players
in West Bengal, India
Amit Bandyopadhyay
School of Health Sciences (PPSK), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Page 1
and widths) were measured by Holtain Skinfold Caliper with
constant tension (Holtain Ltd., UK) and measuring tape with
anthropometric rod, respectively, according to the guidelines of
Johnson and Nelson (1982).
Somatotype was determined from the following equations
(McArdle et al., 1986):
(i) Endomorphy0.1451(X)0.00068 (X)
2
0.0000014 (X)
3
(Where Xsum of supra-spinale, subscapular and triceps
skinfold and corrected for stature by multiplying the sum
of skinfolds by 170.18/Body Height in cm)
(ii) Mesomorphy(0.858
Humerus width)
(0.601
F
emur width)
(0.188
Corrected arm girth)
(0.161
Corrected Calf Girth)
(Body Height 0.131)
4.5
(Where Corrected Arm GirthArm girthBiceps
skinfold, Corrected Calf GirthCalf GirthCalf
Skinfold)
(iii) Ectomorphy(HWR0.732)28.58
[Where HWR
(Body Height in cm)/ (weight in kg)
1/3
]
Body composition was measured from skinfold measurements
by using the following equations (Bandyopadhyay
and
Chatterjee, 2003):
Body Density or BD (gm/cc)1.10938
0.0008267 X
0.0000016 X
2
0.0002574 Y
(Where Xsum of chest, midthigh, and abdominal skinfolds
and YAge in years )
(Jackson and Pollock, 1978)
%fat
(4.95/BD)
4.5 (Siri, 1956)
% Lean Body Mass (%LBM)
100
%fat
Total fat or TF (Kg)
(%fat/100)
Body mass (Kg)
Lean Body Mass or LBM (Kg)
Body Mass (Kg)
TF (Kg)
Informed consent was taken from each subject and the entire
work was carried out after receiving permission from the ethics
committee.
Statistical Analysis:
ANOVA, Pearson’s product moment correlation, and linear
regression analysis were undertaken for the statistical
treatment of the data.
Results
The physical parameters of sedentary individuals, soccer
players and volleyball players are presented in Table 1. The
BMI values showed that the subjects were non-obese, non-
overweight and almost thin according to the available
classification (Chatterjee et al., 2006; Meltzer et al., 1988).
Table 2 represents the values of different skinfold
measurements in all the groups, whereas Table 3 indicates the
arm girth, calf girth, humerus width, and femur width. The
values of different components of body composition are
presented in Table 4 and somatotype scores in all the groups
are plotted in Fig 1.
502 Morphology of Indian Sportspersons
Table 2 Different skinfold measurements of the subjects
S K I N F O L D S (mm)
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) Sum
Category Biceps Triceps Sub- Supra- Chest Abdo- Mid- Supra- Calf (i-ix)
scapular iliac minal thigh spinal
Sedentary 4.98 9.40 13.03 12.82 14.53 16.33 17.75 12.84 11.27 112.95
(N50) 1.29 2.44 4.36 4.16 5.27 +5.90 6.61 3.80 3.82 32.68
Soccer 3.03 5.48 8.32 6.08 5.47 5.02 8.09 8.05 6.75 56.30
(N46) 0.48 1.58 3.17 +2.90 1.80 +1.93 2.90 2.80 2.57 18.07
** ** ******
Volleyball 3.50 5.64 7.24 6.64 5.32 5.04 8.84 6.77 9.31 57.57
(N82) 0.37 0.90 1.64 2.76 1.54 1.46 2.44 +1.60 3.65 10.63
** ** *******
Values are meanSD
* p0.001, ** p0.01 (When compared by ANOVA)
Table 1 Physical parameters of the sedentary individuals and
sportspersons
Age
Body Body
BSA BMI
Category Height Mass
(Yrs)
(cm) (kg)
(m
2
) (kg/m
2
)
Sedentary 22.06 165.10 55.50 1.604 20.33
(N50) 1.35 3.90 6.01 0.093 1.71
Soccer 22.00 166.00 56.53 1.623 20.56
(N46) 1.69 4.31 7.62 0.118 1.89
Volleyball 22.30 173.10 58.87 1.702 19.59
(N82) 1.36 4.19 6.94 0.111 1.57
*****
Values are meanSD
* p0.001, ** p0.01 (When compared by ANOVA)
Page 2
Discussion
The body height was significantly higher (p0.001) among
the volleyball players. But significantly higher body mass
(p0.001) among volleyball players may be a hurdle for them
in attaining a good jumping height because they have to lift a
greater weight as a result of having a higher body mass. The
lower body height and proportionately higher body mass of
volleyball players than their international counterparts
(Duncan et al., 2006; Guialdi and Zaccagni, 2001; Calbet et
al., 1999) are disadvantages for them because shorter height
and greater body mass will prevent them from achieving the
sort of jumping height that is crucial for this game.
Lower values of body height and body mass among the
footballers than their international counterparts (Silvestre et
al., 2006; Diaz et al., 2003; Rico-Sanz et al., 1998; Florida and
Reilly, 1995; Chin et al., 1992) are also drawbacks for them.
Due to lower body height they are unable to achieve the sort of
jumping height required for optimal heading of the ball.
Moreover, due to lower body mass they are unable to withstand
the greater momentum produced by the higher body mass of
their opponents as projected during body contact.
All the skinfolds and calf girths are significantly higher in
the sedentary group, indicating that the sedentary population
has a greater quantity of subcutaneous fat deposition, which
was also reflected in their significantly higher (p0.001) value
of %fat than the sportspersons. However, the LBM is
significantly higher among the sportspersons.
The present data of %fat accords with the proposal that %fat
value among soccer and volleyball players should be within the
range of 6-14% and 6-15%, respectively (Wilmore and Costill,
1999). Rico-Sanz (1998) stated in his review work that
footballers should have a body fat percentage of around 10%
and this is in agreement with the finding of the present study.
The footballers of California and Hongkong have lower values
of %fat (Rico-Sanz, 1998; Chin et al., 1992), whereas higher
%fat values have been reported in their counterparts from the
UK, the USA, and Spain (Florida and Reilly, 1995; Silvestre et
al., 2006; Diaz et al., 2003). But the reports depicted higher
LBM than the Indian footballers, probably because of higher
body mass among the overseas players, who will therefore
achieve better performance since the more the LBM the
greater will be the energy output and the higher will be the
cardiorespiratory fitness (Bandyopadhyay and Chatterjee,
2003; Chatterjee et al., 2005). Conversely, the greater fat
content in the Indian footballers will act as a hindrance in their
performance (Bandyopadhyay and Chatterjee, 2003; Chatterjee
et al., 2005).
The work-rate profile of a player depends on the type of
competition and playing position, which are highly correlated
with the anthropometric contour and somatotype scores
(Rienzi et al., 2000). In the present study, somatotyping
(Fig. 1) revealed a general finding, i.e., significantly higher
endomorphic and significantly lower mesomorphic scores
among the sedentary individuals, and the sportspersons were
found to be mesomorphic ectomorph (McArdle et al., 1986;
Toriola et al., 1985). The mesomorphic score is significantly
(p0.001) higher among the volleyball and soccer players
whereas the ectomorphy is significantly higher (p0.001) in
Bandyopadhyay, A J Physiol Anthropol, 26: 501–505, 2007 503
Table 3 Girths and widths of the subjects
GIRTHS WIDTHS
(cm) (cm)
Category
(i) (ii) Sum
Bi-Humerus Bi-Femur
Arm Calf (i+ii)
Sedentary 26.54 35.54 62.08 6.20 9.84
(N50) 3.26 2.46 4.80 0.52 0.64
Soccer 25.07 33.06 58.15 6.26 9.89
(N46) 1.62 1.51 2.82 0.31 0.60
**
Volleyball 24.47 32.20 56.41 6.36 9.94
(N82) 3.41 2.51 5.40 0.39 0.90
**
Values are meanSD, * p0.001 (When compared by ANOVA)
Table 4 Different components of body composition of the subjects
Category
BD % TBF % LBM
(gm/cc) fat (kg) LBM (kg)
Sedentary 1.061 16.70 9.29 83.30 46.19
(N50) 0.008 3.55 2.41 3.55 4.95
Soccer 1.076 10.03 5.75 89.97 50.32
(N46) 0.008 3.43 2.67 3.43 6.33
******
Volleyball 1.076 10.04 6.00 89.96 52.86
(N82) 0.007 2.98 2.18 2.98 5.63
*****
Values are meanSD
* p.001, * p0.01 (When compared by ANOVA)
Fig. 1 Somatotype scores of sedentary individuals and
sportspersons.
Page 3
the volleyball group only. This finding agreed with previous
studies (Duncan et al., 2006; Gualdi and Zaccagni, 2001;
Florida and Reilly, 1995). Skinfolds, girth measurements, body
composition, and somatotyping indicated that excess fatness
existed among the sedentary individuals, probably because
their regular working activity is much less. Reports indicated
that a mild to vigorous training program, such as that of
sportspersons, significantly reduces the fat weight (Duthi et al.,
2006; Chatterjee et al., 2002).
Prediction equations for %fat from BMI were computed as
these two parameters were found to be significantly (p0.001)
correlated.
Sedentary Subjects: Y
1.494X
13.673, r
0.72,
SEE
2.46
Soccer Players: Y
1.561X
22.064, r
0.86,
SEE
1.75
Volleyball Players: Y
1.746 X
24.164,
r
0.92, SEE
1.17
The ectomorphic, mesomorphic, and endomorphic scores of
the soccer players are higher than their counterparts from the
Liverpool, Russian, and South American international teams
(Florida and Reilly, 1995; Martirosov et al., 1987; Rienzi et al.,
2000). Rienzi et al. (2000) reported that South American
international soccer players are balanced mesomorph
(2–5.5–2) which agrees with the present finding and previous
studies on soccer players in the UK, Russia, and Indonesia
(Florida and Reilly, 1995; Martirosov et al., 1987; Neni et al.,
2006). The somatotype of leading footballers from Russia was
reported as 1.7–5.6–2.6 whereas their counterparts from
Liverpool had a mean somatotype of 2.4–4.2–2.4 (Martirosov
et al., 1987; Florida and Reilly, 1995). On the other hand,
Indonesian soccer players exhibited a somatotype score of
2.7–4.9–3.0 (Neni et al., 2006). Studies of Nigerian soccer
players (Salokun, 1994) suggested that 45% of the meso-
ectomorphs and 44% of the mesomorphs sustained injuries,
while 85% of the ectomorphs and 50% of the ecto-
mesomorphs were injured. The study therefore recommended
that selection of soccer players according to somatotype profile
helps to lower the injury rate, and that mainly mesomorphs and
to some extent meso-ectomorphic types should ultimately be
considered as prospective soccer players.
The somatotype of volleyball players alters with their
positional variation at different levels of performance (e.g.,
state, national, or international) depending on the technical and
tactical demands placed on the players (Duncan et al., 2006;
Gualdi and Zaccagni, 2001). The junior elite volleyball players
of the UK exhibited more ectomorphic and less mesomorphic
scores among setters than centers. Their mean (SD)
somatotype
scores for setters and centers were 2.6(0.9)–
1.9(1.1)–5.3(1.2)
and 2.2(0.8)–3.9(1.1)–3.6(0.7), respectively (Duncan et al.
2006). Italian male volleyball players had somatotype scores of
2.4(0.7)–4.5(0.9)–2.8(0.8) for setters, 2.0(0.6)–4.0(1.0)–3.5(0.8)
for centers, 2.2(0.6)–4.3(0.9)–3.0(0.7) for spikers and
2.2(0.6)–4.3(0.9)–3.1(0.8) for opposites. Indonesian volleyball
players exhibited the mesomorphic-ectomorph somatotype,
with a somatotype score of 2.4–3.5–3.7 (Neni et al., 2006),
which contradicts the present and other findings with the
ectomorphic-mesomorph somatotypes of volleyball players
(Duncan et al., 2006; Gualdi and Zaccagni, 2001). However,
the volleyball players from West Bengal, India have higher
somatotype scores than their counterparts from the UK, Italy,
and Indonesia. This observation once more reflects the idea
that the Indian volleyball players are heavier than their
overseas counterparts and this may further hinder their
performance at international tournaments. But greater
ectomorphic and mesomorphic scores may be advantageous
for them because of the nature of the game played in
volleyball, where centers require endurance to oppose the
attack, while setters need more speed and agility to organize
the attack (Duncan et al., 2006).
The observations in the present investigation reflected
higher fatness among sedentary individuals than sportspersons,
though BMI had insignificant variation. However, the present
data will serve as a reference standard for the anthropometry
and body composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players.
Moreover, as the determination of body composition is
hazardous because of its complicated protocol, the prediction
norms for %fat from BMI can be recommended to obtain a
first-hand impression about the body composition in the
studied population. However, specific positional roles in soccer
and volleyball require distinct technical skills and therefore
further research is essential to detect whether the positional
variation of Indian soccer and volleyball players relates to any
difference in their morphological characteristics.
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Received: December 6, 2006
Accepted: May 16, 2007
Correspondence to: Amit Bandyopadhyay, Lecturer, School of
Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia,
16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Phone: 609–766–3982
Fax: 609–764–7884
e-mail: bamit74@india.com/bamit74@kb.usm.my
Bandyopadhyay, A J Physiol Anthropol, 26: 501–505, 2007 505
Page 5
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