Relationship between the adipose-tissue hormone resistin and coronary artery disease
Department of Medicine, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, A-6807 Feldkirch, Austria. Clinica Chimica Acta
(Impact Factor: 2.82).
01/2007; 386(1-2):1-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2007.07.001
Data on the cardiovascular risk associated with the adipose-tissue-related hormone resistin are scarce.
We measured serum resistin and established vascular risk factors in 547 consecutive patients (age 63+/-10 years) undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of stable coronary artery disease. Prospectively, we recorded major coronary events and cumulative vascular events over 4 years.
60% of our patients had significant coronary stenoses with a lumen narrowing > or =50%. Serum resistin was moderately but significantly correlated with age (r=0.139; p=0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; r=0.228; p<0.001) and decreasing renal function (r=0.240; p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference of serum resistin between patients with CAD and those in whom angiography did not show CAD (4.5 [3.1-5.8] vs. 4.3 [3.4-5.3] ng/ml; p=0.545) and between patients with > or =50% coronary narrowings and those without such lesions (4.5 [3.2-5.9] vs. 4.3 [3.1-5.5] ng/ml; p=0.265). Prospectively, Cox regression analyses neither indicated an association between serum resistin and major coronary events nor between serum resistin and cumulative vascular events.
Among coronary patients serum resistin is significantly correlated with hsCRP, age and decreasing renal function but resistin is neither associated with the presence of significant coronary stenoses nor with the incidence of future vascular events.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Interestingly, resistin was also shown to be associated with vascular inflammation measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography among healthy individuals . Despite some studies showing no association between resistin and CVD [110-112], a number of animal and clinical studies are strongly supporting the idea that resistin is a potential mediator of atherosclerosis and CAD in humans. "
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterized by excess accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue and other organs, and chronic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are major health concerns. Resistin was first discovered as an adipose-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. Adipocyte-derived resistin is increased in obese rodents and strongly related to insulin resistance. However, in contrast to rodents, resistin is expressed and secreted from macrophages in humans and is increased in inflammatory conditions. Some studies have also suggested an association between increased resistin levels and insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Genetic studies have provided additional evidence for a role of resistin in insulin resistance and inflammation. Resistin appears to mediate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, arterial inflammation, and formation of foam cells. Indeed, resistin is predictive of atherosclerosis and poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke. There is also growing evidence that elevated resistin is associated with the development of heart failure. This review will focus on the biology of resistin in rodents and humans, and evidence linking resistin with type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease.
Available from: Christine Mendonca
- "To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that elevated serum resistin concentration is a risk factor for CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes of European ancestry. While a rich literature exists on serum resistin as a cardiovascular risk factor in the general population , , , , , data concerning the type 2 diabetes population have been thus far sparse, contradictory, and limited to Asian individuals , , . Two small cross-sectional studies of patients with type 2 diabetes from Japan and Korea described an association of serum resistin with CAD and stroke, respectively, but a third study on 343 diabetic Korean patients failed to confirm such findings in a prospective setting. "
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ABSTRACT: High serum resistin has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population, Only sparse and conflicting results, limited to Asian individuals, have been reported, so far, in type 2 diabetes. We studied the role of serum resistin on coronary artery disease, major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes.
We tested the association of circulating resistin concentrations with coronary artery disease, major cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke) and all-cause mortality in 2,313 diabetic patients of European ancestry from two cross-sectional and two prospective studies. In addition, the expression of resistin gene (RETN) was measured in blood cells of 68 diabetic patients and correlated with their serum resistin levels.
In a model comprising age, sex, smoking habits, BMI, HbA1c, and insulin, antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic therapies, serum resistin was associated with coronary artery disease in both cross-sectional studies: OR (95%CI) per SD increment = 1.35 (1.10-1.64) and 1.99 (1.55-2.55). Additionally, serum resistin predicted incident major cardiovascular events (HR per SD increment = 1.31; 1.10-1.56) and all-cause mortality (HR per SD increment = 1.16; 1.06-1.26). Adjusting also for fibrinogen levels affected the association with coronary artery disease and incident cardiovascular events, but not that with all cause-mortality. Finally, serum resistin was positively correlated with RETN mRNA expression (rho = 0.343).
This is the first study showing that high serum resistin (a likely consequence, at least partly, of increased RETN expression) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients of European ancestry.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the role of single wafer processing in the development of sub-quarter micron silicon integrated circuits (ICs). The issues related to device processing, choice of materials, performance, reliability, and manufacturing are covered. Single wafer processing based rapid photothermal processing (dominant photons with wavelength less than about 800 nm) is an ideal answer to almost all the thermal processing requirements of current and future Si ICs. For process integration, a new model for process optimization based on minimization of thermal stress is proposed. For breaking the sub-100 nm manufacturing barriers, high throughput lithography based on direct writing is a proposed solution.
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