Effect of an oral contraceptive containing 30 μg ethinylestradiol plus 3 mg drospirenone on body composition of young women affected by premenstrual syndrome with symptoms of water retention

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100 Pisa, Italy.
Contraception (Impact Factor: 2.34). 10/2007; 76(3):190-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.contraception.2007.05.080
Source: PubMed


This study was conducted to evaluate body weight and composition during oral contraception with 30 microg ethinylestradiol plus 3 mg drospirenone (30EE+DRSP) in women affected by premenstrual syndrome (PMS) with somatic symptoms related to water retention.
This prospective study was performed using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in 18 normally cycling PMS patients (mean age, 28.8 years) evaluated at baseline, during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and after 3 and 6 cycles of 30EE+DRSP. Total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), fat mass and fat-free mass were evaluated. Body weight, waist-to-hip ratio and blood pressure were also determined at each visit. Basal values were compared with those measured in 31 healthy females without PMS (controls).
PMS patients have higher levels of TBW and ICW than controls. After 6 months of 30EE+DRSP, TBW and ECW were significantly lower than before treatment. No significant variations in ICW or in the other parameters were observed.
In women with PMS, 30EE+DRSP reduces the concentrations in TBW and ECW. This effect is likely due to the antimineralocorticoid activity of DRSP. Whether these changes may account for the improvement of premenstrual fluid-related symptoms reported with this formulation is discussed.

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    • "When chronic exposition occurs, it has been proposed that BPA interferes with fluid transport through the paracellular pathway, an important function of the colon that participates, together with the renal system, in the whole body fluid homeostasis and also maintains mucosal hydration (Masyuk et al. 2002; Geibel 2005). A permanent decrease in paracellular permeability induced by BPA may contribute to body fluid retention, a disorder commonly observed in high estrogenic states, as experienced by oral contraceptive users or in postmenopausal women with hormone replacement therapy (Oelkers 1996; Fruzzetti et al. 2007). In tissues such as the colon, where ERb is the predominantly expressed ER, a potent tissue response to low doses of BPA may be related to a better coupling of ERb with its coactivators (SRC-1e, TIF2 and TRAP220) in the presence of xenoestrogens, leading to transcriptional activity on reporter genes estimated to be 500 times greater for the BPA-ERb complex, in comparison to a binding to ERa (Routledge et al. 2000; Welshons et al. 2006; Swedenborg et al. 2009). "
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    • "lso found to be oestrous cycle - dependent ( O ' Mahony & Harvey , 2008 ) . These authors postulated that the anti - secretory effect of oestradiol may enhance salt and water retention in females , as commonly observed in oral contraceptive users with high oestrogen dosage , or during natural periods of elevated plasma oestrogen ( Oelkers , 1996 ; Fruzzetti et al . 2007 ) . Because water molecules can be driven passively by paracellular flux additional to the transcellular pathway ( Masyuk et al . 2002 ) , our data support the"
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    • "The research on the impact of oral contraceptives on water retention and body weight during the menstrual cycle is mixed. Fruzzetti et al. (2007) administered an oral contraceptive (OC) containing ethinylestradiol and drospirenone (DRSP) to eighteen women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Thirty women not experiencing PMS were used as the control group. "

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