Article

Dietary methionine effects on plasma homocysteine and HDL metabolism in mice. J Nutr Biochem

Department of Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.79). 06/2008; 19(6):362-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.05.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The effects of dietary manipulation of folate and methionine on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in wild-type and apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice were determined. A low-folate diet with or without folate and/or methionine supplementation in drinking water was administered for 7 weeks. Fasted Hcy rose to 23 microM on a low-folate/high-methionine diet, but high folate ameliorated the effect of high methionine on fasted plasma Hcy to approximately 10 microM. Determination of nonfasted plasma Hcy levels at 6-h intervals revealed a large diurnal variation in Hcy consistent with a nocturnal lifestyle. The daily average of nonfasted Hcy levels was higher than fasted values for high-methionine diets but lower than fasted values for low-methionine diets. An acute methionine load by gavage of fasted mice increased plasma Hcy 2.5 h later, but mice that had been on high-methionine diets had a lower fold induction. Mice fed high-methionine diets weighed less than mice fed low-methionine diets. Based on these results, two solid-food diets were developed: one containing 2% added methionine and the other containing 2% added glycine. The methionine diet led to fasted plasma Hcy levels of >60 microM, higher than those with methionine supplementation in drinking water. Mice on methionine diets had >20% decreased body weights and decreased HDL-C levels. An HDL turnover study demonstrated that the HDL-C production rate was significantly reduced in mice fed the methionine diet.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Martin Merkel, Jul 16, 2014
  • Source
    • "Our finding also suggests that Pon1 interacts with Ak1 to upregulate energy generation under hyperhomocysteinemic conditions. Consistent with the role of Hcy in energy metabolism, the growth of wild type mice on a high- Met diet is retarded [74], suggesting that they are at a metabolic disadvantage. We found that the cell cycle proteins GDI1 and Ran are upregulated by the Pon1 –/– genotype in the presence of hyperhomocysteinemia and down-regulated by hyperhomocysteinemia alone. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homocysteine (Hcy), a product of methionine metabolism, is elevated by the consumption of a high-methionine diet that can cause fatty liver disease. Paraoxonase 1 (Pon1), a hydrolase expressed mainly in the liver and carried in the circulation on high-density lipoprotein, participates in Hcy metabolism. Low Pon1 activity is linked to fatty liver disease. We hypothesize that hyperhomocysteinemia and low Pon1 induce changes in gene expression that could impair liver homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the liver proteome of Pon1(-/-) and Pon1(+/+) mice fed a high methionine diet (1% methionine in the drinking water) for 8 weeks using 2D IEF/SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We identified seven liver proteins whose expression was significantly altered in Pon1(-/-) mice. In animals fed with a control diet, the expression of three liver proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism (ApoE), iron metabolism (Ftl), and regulation of nitric oxide generation (Ddah1) was up-regulated by the Pon1(-/-) genotype. In mice fed with a high-methionine diet, expression of four liver proteins was up-regulated and of three proteins was down-regulated by the Pon1(-/-) genotype. The up-regulated proteins are involved in lipoprotein metabolism (ApoE), energy metabolism (Atp5h), oxidative stress response (Prdx2), and nitric oxide regulation (Ddah1). The down-regulated proteins are involved in energy metabolism (Gamt), iron metabolism (Ftl), and catechol metabolism (Comt). Expression of one protein (Ftl) was up-regulated both by the Pon1(-/-) genotype and a high-methionine diet. Our findings suggest that Pon1 interacts with diverse cellular processes (from lipoprotein metabolism, nitric oxide regulation, and energy metabolism to iron transport and antioxidant defenses) that are essential for normal liver homeostasis and modulation of these interactions by a high-methionine diet may contribute to fatty liver disease.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Acta biochimica Polonica
  • Source
    • "Female mice (n = 8) were fed a normal rodent chow diet (LabDiet 5010, Purina Mills International, St. Louis, MO). At 4 weeks of age, half of Blmh −/− and Blmh +/+ mice were provided 1% methionine in drinking water (high-Met diet) for 8 weeks [4] [17] [18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scope: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) induced by dietary or genetic factors is linked to kidney disease. Bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) metabolizes Hcy-thiolactone to Hcy. We aimed to explain the role of dietary HHcy in kidney disease. Methods and results: We examined kidney proteome in dietary HHcy and Blmh-knockout mouse models using 2D IEF/SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We found that the kidney proteome was altered by dietary HHcy and the Blmh(-/-) genotype. Proteins involved in metabolism of lipoprotein (ApoA1), amino acid and protein (Acy1, Hspd1), carbohydrate (Pdhb, Fbp1-isoform 1, Eno1), and energy metabolism (Ndufs8, Ldhd) were down-regulated. Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (Fbp1-isoform 2), oxidative stress response (Prdx2), and detoxification (Glod4) were up-regulated. The Blmh(-/-) genotype down-regulated Glod4 isoform 3 mRNA but did not affect isoform 1 mRNA expression in mouse kidneys, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of the Glod4 protein by the Blmh(+/+) genotype. Responses of ApoA1, Acy1, Hspd1, Ndufs8, Fbp1, Eno1, and Prdx2 to HHcy and/or Blmh deficiency mimic their responses to renal disease. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Blmh interacts with diverse cellular processes--lipoprotein, amino acid and protein, carbohydrate, and energy metabolisms, detoxification, antioxidant defenses--that are essential for normal kidney homeostasis and that deregulation of these processes can account for the involvement of HHcy in kidney disease.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
  • Source
    • "Our finding also suggests that Pon1 interacts with Ak1 to upregulate energy generation under hyperhomocysteinemic conditions. Consistent with the role of Hcy in energy metabolism, the growth of wild type mice on a high- Met diet is retarded [74], suggesting that they are at a metabolic disadvantage. We found that the cell cycle proteins GDI1 and Ran are upregulated by the Pon1 –/– genotype in the presence of hyperhomocysteinemia and down-regulated by hyperhomocysteinemia alone. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Paraoxonase 1 (Pon1) participates in Hcy metabolism and is also linked to AD. The inactivation of the Pon1 gene in mice causes the accumulation of Hcy-thiolactone in the brain and increases the susceptibility to Hcy-thiolactone-induced seizures. To gain insight into the brain-related Pon1 function, we used two-dimensional IEF/SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry to study brain proteomes of Pon1-/- and Pon1+/+ mice fed with a hyperhomocysteinemic high-methionine (Met) or a control diet. We found that: 1) proteins involved in brain-specific function (Nrgn), antioxidant defenses (Sod1, DJ-1), and cytoskeleton assembly (Tbcb, CapZa2) were differentially expressed in brains of Pon1-null mice; 2) proteins involved in brain-specific function (Ncald, Nrgn, Stmn1), antioxidant defenses (Prdx2, DJ-1), energy metabolism (Ak1), cell cycle (GDI1, Ran), cytoskeleton assembly (Tbcb), and unknown function (Hdhd2) showed differential expression in brains of Pon1-null fed with a hyperhomocysteinemic high-Met diet; 3) most proteins regulated by the Pon1-/- genotype were also regulated by the high-Met diet; 4) the proteins differentially expressed in Pon1-null mouse brains play important roles in neural development, learning, plasticity, and aging and are linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Taken together, our findings suggest that Pon1 interacts with diverse cellular processes from energy metabolism and anti-oxidative defenses to cell cycle, cytoskeleton dynamics, and synaptic plasticity essential for normal brain homeostasis and that these interactions are modulated by hyperhomocysteinemia and account for the involvement of Hcy and Pon1 in AD.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
Show more