Gossage L, Madhusudan SCurrent status of excision repair cross complementing-group 1 (ERCC1) in cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 33: 565-577
Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are some of the most widely used anti-cancer agents in solid tumours. The cytotoxicity of platinating agents is directly related to their ability to cause DNA intra-strand crosslinks that trigger a series of intracellular events that ultimately result in cell death. DNA intra-strand crosslinks are processed and repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. It is now clear that nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity may have a major impact on the emergence of resistance, normal tissue tolerance and patient outcomes. ERCC1 is a key player in NER. In this review, we provide an overview of mammalian NER and then focus on biochemical, structural and pre-clinical aspects of ERCC1. We then present current clinical evidence implicating ERCC1 as a predictive and prognostic marker in cancer. Early evidence also suggests that ERCC1 or the pathways involved in the regulation of ERCC1 expression may be attractive anti-cancer targets. Such agents are expected to potentiate the cytotoxicity of platinating agents and could have a major impact on cancer therapy.
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