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Taiwanese Adolescents' Intention Model of Visiting Internet Cafés


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This study intended to construct an intention model of visiting Internet cafés. Four hundred eighty-three Taiwanese high school students were surveyed during March 2002. The results indicated that intention increased with positive attitude toward visiting Internet cafés, the intention was only rarely affected by significant others, intention strengthened with the quantity of resources and skills perceived, and past behavior negatively influenced the intention. Three conclusions were drawn: (a) The proposed model can effectively predict adolescent intention to visit Internet cafés. (b) Past behavior was the main predictor of intention. (3) In terms of intention to visit Internet cafés, there is a strengthening of individualism and a weakening of normative influences. Finally, suggestions and recommendations were made for practice and future research.
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Volume 10, Number 4, 2007
© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/cpb.2007.9983
Taiwanese Adolescents’ Intention Model of
Visiting Internet Cafés
and TAI-KUEI YU, Ph.D.
This study intended to construct an intention model of visiting Internet cafés. Four hundred
eighty-three Taiwanese high school students were surveyed during March 2002. The results
indicated that intention increased with positive attitude toward visiting Internet cafés, the in-
tention was only rarely affected by significant others, intention strengthened with the quan-
tity of resources and skills perceived, and past behavior negatively influenced the intention.
Three conclusions were drawn: (a) The proposed model can effectively predict adolescent in-
tention to visit Internet cafés. (b) Past behavior was the main predictor of intention. (3) In
terms of intention to visit Internet cafés, there is a strengthening of individualism and a weak-
ening of normative influences. Finally, suggestions and recommendations were made for prac-
tice and future research.
have reached new heights of
popularity. The computer and video gaming in-
dustries combined accounted for over $7 billion in
the United States in 2004.
Facing low rates of PC
ownership and broadband, Internet cafés have be-
come popular all over the world, with 26,000 in Ko-
rea and 4,000 in Taiwan.
Most adolescents see In-
ternet cafés as a recreational place where they can
interact with friends and relieve pressure.
lescents believe negative media reports regarding
Internet cafés are exaggerated and do not let such
reports influence their intention to visit such
However, media reports caused consider-
able concern among parents and educators, who
then inhibited youngsters from visiting.
Computer games have been widely recognized as
a popular leisure activity; however, related studies
frequently focus only on the negative impact of
video games on adolescents, including addiction,
violence and aggression, interpersonal alienation,
social anxiety, depression, shyness, and loneli-
Consequently, computer gamers have been
labeled as negative or deviant. Negative attitude
and comments from the media caused the stereo-
typing of computer gamers, leading to their being
described as addicted, introverted, and socially in-
Few studies have specifically targeted Internet
café–related issues. Some example studies include
Net café subculture,
experience of Internet users,
and school policy.
However, no research exists on
the attitudes of Internet café users, social norms,
Institute of Tourism and Recreation Management, National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan.
Department of International Business, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, Taiwan.
Rapid Communication
perceived behavioral control, and intention to visit.
Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB) assumes
increasing positive attitude, reducing social pres-
sure, and increasing perceived behavioral control
contribute to increasing intention to visit Internet
and others proposed that past be-
havior should be added to TPB to improve predic-
tions of behavioral intention, especially for habitual
Therefore, this study proposed an in-
tention model (see Figure 1) for visiting Internet
cafés, by adding past behavior to Ajzen’s TPB
Four hundred eighty-three Taiwanese high
school students participated in the study. Their age
range was 16–18. Forty-six percent were male and
54% were female.
Measures and procedure
Using Ajzen’s instrument, this study measured be-
havior beliefs and evaluation and attitudes toward
visiting Internet cafes; normative beliefs, motivation
to comply, and subjective norms; control beliefs, con-
trol power, and perceived behavioral control; and in-
tention to visit Internet cafés by. All constructs were
measured using multiple items. All 42 items were
measured using a seven-point Likert-type scale. Par-
ticipants were also asked to provide estimates of their
past behavior over the previous six months using a
six-point scale, from never, once or twice, 3–4 times,
5–10 times, 11–20 times, and over 20 times.
Statistical analysis
The study used structural equation modeling
(SEM) analysis to validate the causal relationships
among latent constructs.
Measurement model
The reliabilities ranged from 0.50 to 0.97, and all
loadings were significant, indicating that all mea-
sures were highly reliable. The composite reliabil-
ity coefficients ranged from 0.630 to 0.969, sug-
gested that the data had high internal reliability. Six
out of seven constructs had average variance ex-
tracted, exceeding the benchmark of 0.5. The vari-
ance extractions demonstrated satisfactory reliabil-
ity and validity. To satisfy the discriminant validity
criteria, the fit of the model with the unconstrained
correlation should be significantly better than the fit
of the constrained model. The results showed that
the unconstrained model had a significantly lower
chi-square value than 22 of the models with con-
strained pairs, strongly suggesting that all the con-
struct measures in the measurement model
achieved discriminant validity.
Structural model
A structural model is analyzed to investigate and
depict the link among variables in the research
model. Results of SEM obtained for the theoretical
model revealed a chi-square of 724.61 (df 293; p
0.01), chi-square/df of 2.473, goodness of fit index
(GFI) of 0.89, adjusted GFI of 0.86, root-mean-
squared error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.058,
and comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.97 (Table 1). Al-
though GFI and AGFI values exceeding 0.90 are
preferable criteria, the more liberal cutoff of 0.80 has
been used for good model fit.
Therefore, the over-
all analytical results suggested that the model had
adequate fit.
Figure 1 shows that the model explained a sig-
nificant portion of the variance of all the endoge-
nous variables, including 75% for attitude, 89% for
subjective norms, 97% for perceived behavioral con-
trol, and 89% for behavioral intention.
1. M
Fit index Suggested criteria Results How fit is the model
(Chi-square) Smaller better 724.62 (P 0.01) Not fit
Ratio of
and degrees of freedom 3.00 2.473 (df 293) Good fit
Goodness of fit index, GFI 0.90 0.890 Moderately fit
Adjusted goodness of fit index, AGFI 0.90 0.860 Moderately fit
RMSEA (root mean square error of 0.08 0.058 Good fit
Comparative fit index, CFI 0.90 0.970 Good fit
The main findings of this study were as follows.
First, the respondents were more likely to have a
positive attitude toward visiting Internet cafés if
they believed that Internet cafés offered high-speed
Internet and allowed them to make good use of ex-
tra time, share interests with friends, play and learn
about new online games, and relieve stress. Second,
respondent intention to visit Internet cafés was un-
likely to be affected by significant others. Third, re-
spondents were more likely to visit Internet cafés if
they were invited by friends, had free time, or per-
ceived themselves to be good at playing games.
Lastly, past behavior negatively correlated with re-
spondent intention to visit Internet cafés.
The study demonstrated that the proposed in-
tention model could effectively predict the intention
of adolescents to visit Internet cafés. Applying SEM
analysis seems appropriate for TPB research to
prove satisfactory validity of the TPB framework.
Furthermore, although some argued that past be-
havior could not effectively predict behavioral in-
tention, others suggested past behavior could in-
crease predictive power for intention and future
The study proved that the past be-
havior construct should not be ignored if TPB is ap-
plied, particularly for habitual behaviors such as
consuming seafood
and binge drinking.
This study showed that Internet café experience
discouraged respondent intention to visit Internet
cafés. Playing online games is extremely time con-
suming, and yet time is extremely precious for
high school students in Taiwan because they are
preparing for extremely competitive college en-
trance examination. The subjects thus realized that
they did not have enough time to visit Internet
cafés; additionally, since most of their friends
were also preparing for the collegiate entry exam,
individual students were unlikely to have friends
available to accompany them to Internet cafés. If
the speculation is correct, it can be inferred that
Taiwanese adolescents can balance recreation,
schoolwork, and other aspects of their lives.
simistic views regarding computer and online
games thus may be worth further consideration,
as we might overestimate the negative effects of
online games on adolescents and underestimate
their defensive mechanism against online game
Research has shown that negative media reports
caused great concern among parents, who then re-
stricted their children from visiting Internet cafés.
In response to their parents, adolescents devel-
oped various strategies, such as completing their
homework so the parents have no basis for objec-
tion, hiding their gamer identity,
or seeking a bal-
ance among computer games, schoolwork, and
family life.
These strategies showed a rise of in-
dividualism and a weakening of subjective norms
among adolescents. As visiting Internet cafés has
become an important part of adolescent culture,
adolescents have selected to consider only their
behavioral beliefs and attitude, and not the opin-
ions of others.
Normative beliefs and
motivation to comply
Control beliefs and
control power
Subjective norm
behavioral control
Past behavior
Behavior beliefs and
FIG. 1. Tested intention model of visiting Internet café by Taiwanese adolescents. **p 0.01
The author would like to thank the National Sci-
ence Council of Taiwan for financially supporting
this research under contract NSC91-2415-H-259-004.
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Address reprint requests to:
Dr. Yi-Chung Hsu
Institute of Tourism and Recreation Management
National Dong Hwa University
1, Sec. 2, Ta-Hsueh Road
Chih-Hsueh, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan
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This paper reviews prior applications of structural equation modeling in four major marketing journals (the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, International Journal of Research in Marketing, and the Journal of Consumer Research) between 1977 and 1994. After documenting and characterizing the number of applications over time, we discuss important methodological issues related to structural equation modeling and assess the quality of previous applications in terms of three aspects: issues related to the initial specification of theoretical models of interest; issues related to data screening prior to model estimation and testing; and issues related to the estimation and testing of theoretical models on empirical data. On the basis of our findings, we identify problem areas and suggest avenues for improvement.
In the domain of personality psychology, the trait concept has carried the burden of dispositional explanation. A multitude of personality traits has been identified and new trait dimensions continue to join the growing list. In a similar fashion, the concept of attitude has been the focus of attention in the explanations of human behavior offered by social psychologists. Numerous attitudes have been assessed over the years and, as new social issues emerge, additional attitudinal domains are explored. The chapter provides little evidence to support the postulated existence of stable, underlying attitudes within the individual, which influence both verbal expressions and actions. It examines the relation between two or more actions that were assumed to reflect the same underlying disposition. The aggregation of responses across time, contexts, targets, or actions or across a combination of these elements permits the inferences of dispositions at varying levels of generality.
About the book: As yet there has been relatively little published on women's activities in relation to new digital technologies. Virtual Gender brings together theoretical perspectives from feminist theory, the sociology of technology and gender studies with well designed empirical studies to throw new light on the impact of ICTs on contemporary social life. A line-up of authors from around the world looks at the gender and technology issues related to leisure, pleasure and consumption, identity and self. Their research is set against a backcloth of renewed interest in citizenship and ethics and how these concepts are recreated in an on-line situation, particularly in local settings. With chapters on subjects ranging from gender-switching on-line, computer games, and cyberstalking to the use of the domestic telephone, this stimulating collection challenges the stereotype of woman as a passive victim of technology. It offers new ways of looking at the many dimensions in which ICTs can be said to be gendered and will be a rich resource for students and teachers in this expanding field of study.
Fueled by the media, the controversy over whether playing popular arcade/computer games increases aggressiveness has only been compounded by inconsistencies within empirical research. This experiment, conducted with university students in Scotland, was designed to explore some of these inconsistencies. Aggressiveness was manipulated as the independent variable. As dependent variables, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (Buss & Durkee, 1957) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) were used. There was no linear pattern in aggressive affect change across three games that contained varying levels of violence. Results are discussed in terms of the general lack of support for the commonly held view that playing aggressive computer games causes an individual to feel more aggressive.
The new psychological disorder of Internet addiction is fast accruing both popular and professional recognition. Past studies have indicated that some patterns of Internet use are associated with loneliness, shyness, anxiety, depression, and self-consciousness, but there appears to be little consensus about Internet addiction disorder. This exploratory study attempted to examine the potential influences of personality variables, such as shyness and locus of control, online experiences, and demographics on Internet addiction. Data were gathered from a convenient sample using a combination of online and offline methods. The respondents comprised 722 Internet users mostly from the Net-generation. Results indicated that the higher the tendency of one being addicted to the Internet, the shyer the person is, the less faith the person has, the firmer belief the person holds in the irresistible power of others, and the higher trust the person places on chance in determining his or her own course of life. People who are addicted to the Internet make intense and frequent use of it both in terms of days per week and in length of each session, especially for online communication via e-mail, ICQ, chat rooms, newsgroups, and online games. Furthermore, full-time students are more likely to be addicted to the Internet, as they are considered high-risk for problems because of free and unlimited access and flexible time schedules. Implications to help professionals and student affairs policy makers are addressed.