Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Raltegravir After Single and Multiple Doses in Healthy Subjects

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, a division of Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA.
Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 7.9). 03/2008; 83(2):293-9. DOI: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100281
Source: PubMed


Raltegravir is a novel human immunodeficiency virus-1 integrase inhibitor with potent in vitro activity (95% inhibitory concentration (IC95)=33 nM in 50% human serum). Three double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pharmacokinetic, safety, and tolerability studies were conducted: (1) single-dose escalation study (10-1,600 mg), (2) multiple-dose escalation study (100-800 mg q12 h x 10 days), and (3) single-dose female study (400 mg). Raltegravir was rapidly absorbed with a terminal half-life (t1/2) approximately 7-12 h. Approximately 7-14% of raltegravir was excreted unchanged in urine. Area under the curve (AUC)(0-infinity) was similar between male and female subjects. After multiple-dose administration, steady state was achieved within 2 days; there was little to modest accumulation of raltegravir. Trough levels were >33 nM for dose levels of 100 mg and greater. Raltegravir is generally well tolerated at doses of up to 1,600 mg/day given for up to 10 days and exhibits a pharmacokinetic profile supportive of twice-daily dosing with multiple doses of 100 mg and greater achieving trough levels >33 nM.

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    • "Raltegravir has shown acceptable oral pharmacokinetic profile with no safety and tolerability issues but showed considerable interpatient and intrapatient pharmacokinetic variability (Iwamoto et al., 2008). In preclinical species, raltegravir shows low (dog) to intermediate clearance (rat), short half-life and good oral bioavailability (>60%). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics during pregnancy must be understood for the drugs to be used safely and effectively. Present study is an attempt to understand the potential changes in raltegravir plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics during pregnancy in late pregnant and non-pregnant rats. In vitro plasma protein binding, metabolic stability, intravenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and oral pharmacokinetic studies were performed. Raltegravir concentrations in different matrices were measured using LC-MS/MS. Raltegravir plasma protein binding remained similar in both groups, whereas, metabolic stability was significantly lower in pregnant rats than the non-pregnant rats liver microsomes. In oral pharmacokinetic study, peak plasma concentrations and systemic exposures were significantly lower (∼37%) and clearance was significantly higher (∼61%) in late pregnant rats compared to non-pregnant rats. However, unlike plasma pharmacokinetics, CSF pharmacokinetic profile of raltegravir was similar in both pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Following intravenous administration, raltegravir showed higher BBB permeability in pregnant rats compared to non-pregnant rats. But the mean CSF-to-plasma ratio was significantly higher in pregnant rats compared to non-pregnant rats suggesting higher brain penetration in pregnant rats. In conclusion, pregnancy significantly affected the plasma pharmacokinetics, whereas cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics remained fairly similar in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Although current plasma pharmacokinetic data is in contradiction to the reported human data, pregnancy-specific pharmacokinetic changes observed in the current study emphasize the need for close therapeutic monitoring while treating the pregnant population and also warrants the need for the additional clinical data with larger group of patients.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
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    • "RAL is considered a first-generation INSTI based on its resistance profile. It exhibits potent activity against wild-type HIV-1, with an in vitro 95% inhibitory concentration of 15 ng/mL in 50% human serum.14 Resistance to RAL has been noted through one of three different pathways: Q148H/K/R ± G140S/A, N155H ± E92Q, and Y143C/R ± T97A. "
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    ABSTRACT: Raltegravir is an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV infection. It was the first medication in a novel class of antiretroviral agents to be approved for use in the United States in 2007. Raltegravir exhibits potent activity against wild-type HIV-1, but resistance development has been noted through three different pathways. It is metabolized primarily through uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and has a single inactive glucuronide metabolite. Raltegravir is not a substrate, inhibitor, or inducer of cytochrome P450 enzymes and exhibits low potential for drug-drug interactions; however, strong uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 inhibitors or inducers can alter the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir. It is well tolerated, and the most commonly reported adverse effects include headache, nausea, and diarrhea. Serious adverse effects with raltegravir are rare but include rhabdomyolysis and severe skin and hypersensitivity reactions. It has been approved for use in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients and is a preferred first-line agent in both United States and European HIV treatment guidelines. Although initial approval was granted on 48-week data, 5-year clinical data have recently been published. This article reviews the data supporting long-term efficacy and safety of raltegravir in the treatment of HIV infection.
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    • "It is neither an inducer nor an inhibitor of P450 system, but it is substrate and inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and MRP1 [5,6]. Raltegravir is metabolized via UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation and is neither an inducer nor an inhibitor of the CYP oxidation system or P-glycoprotein [7]. Maraviroc is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 and it is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. "
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    ABSTRACT: The case of a 32-year-old Caucasian female with multi-drug resistant HIV-1 subtype B infection treated with a salvage regimen including maraviroc, raltegravir, etravirine and unboosted saquinavir who started atovaquone/proguanil prophylaxis, is reported. The potential interactions between atovaquone/proguanil and these anti-retroviral drugs are investigated. Pharmacokinetic analyses documented a marked increase in etravirine and saquinavir plasma concentrations (+55% and +274%, respectively), but not in raltegravir and maraviroc plasma concentrations. The evidence that atovaquone/proguanil significantly interacts with etravirine and saquinavir, but not with raltegravir and maraviroc, suggests that the mechanism of interaction is related to cytochrome P450.
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