Identification of novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) in the venom gland of a rattlesnake allowed the evaluation of the structure-function relationship of BPPs

Federal University of Pernambuco, Arrecife, Pernambuco, Brazil
Biochemical Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.01). 12/2007; 74(9):1350-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2007.07.014
Source: PubMed


Aiming to extend the knowledge about the diversity of bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) and their precursor proteins, a venom gland cDNA library from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus dursissus terrificus, Cdt) was screened. Two novel homologous cDNAs encoding the BPPs precursor protein were cloned. Their sequence contain only one single longer BPP sequence with the typical IPP-tripeptide, and two short potential BPP-like molecules, revealing a unique structural organization. Several peptide sequences structurally similar to the BPPs identified in the precursor protein from Cdt and also from others snakes, were chemically synthesized and were bioassayed both in vitro and in vivo, by means of isolated smooth muscle preparations and by measurements of blood pressure in anaesthetized rats, respectively. We demonstrate here that a pyroglutamyl residue at the N-terminus with a high content of proline residues, even with the presence of a IPP moiety characteristic of typical BPPs, are not enough to determine a bradykinin-potentiating activity to these peptides. Taken together, our results indicate that the characterization of the BPPs precursor proteins and identification of characteristic glutamine residues followed by proline-rich peptide sequences are not enough to predict if these peptides, even with a pyroglutamyl residue at the N-terminus, will present the typical pharmacological activities described for the BPPs.

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    • "The evaluation of the capacity of Bj-PROs to potentiate the hypotensive effect of bradykinin (BK) in rats was performed as previously described [16]. The choice of dose (60 nmol) was based on previously published data [8] [15] [37]. Briefly, Wistar rats were anesthetized with sodium urethane (14 g/kg, intraperitoneally), polyethylene catheters (PE-10 connected to a PE-50) was inserted into the abdominal aorta through the femoral artery for blood pressure measurements. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bradykinin-potentiating peptides from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) discovered in the early 1960s, were the first natural inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). These peptides belong to a large family of snake venom proline-rich oligopeptides (PROs). One of these peptides, Bj-PRO-9a, was essential for defining ACE as effective drug target and development of captopril, an active site-directed inhibitor of ACE used worldwide for the treatment of human arterial hypertension. Recent experimental evidences demonstrated that cardiovascular effects exerted by different Bj-PROs are due to distinct mechanisms besides of ACE inhibition. In the present work, we have investigated the cardiovascular actions of four Bj-PROs, namely Bj-PRO-9a, -11e, -12b e -13a. Bj-PRO-9a acts upon ACE and BK activities to promote blood pressure reduction. Although the others Bj-PROs are also able to inhibit the ACE activity and to potentiate the BK effects, our results indicate that antihypertensive effect evoked by them involve new mechanisms. Bj-PRO-11e and Bj-PRO-12b involves induction of [Ca(2+)]i transients by so far unknown receptor proteins. Moreover, we have suggested argininosuccinate synthetase and M3 muscarinic receptor as targets for cardiovascular effects elicited by Bj-PRO-13a. In summary, the herein reported results provide evidence that Bj-PRO-mediated effects are not restricted to ACE inhibition or potentiation of BK-induced effects and suggest different actions for each peptide for promoting arterial pressure reduction. The present study reveals the complexity of the effects exerted by Bj-PROs for cardiovascular control, opening avenues for the better understanding of blood pressure regulation and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Peptides
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    • "Pro) could enhance the hypotensive effect of this hormone on anesthetized rats (Gomes et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: In order to better understand the relationship between the primary structure of TsHpt-I - a bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP) isolated from the venom of the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, with a non-canonical Lys residue prior to the conservative Pro-Pro doublet - and its cardiovascular effects, a series of ladder peptides were synthesized using the C-terminal portion of TsHpt-I as a template. All synthetic peptides having the Pro-Pro doublet at their C-terminal were able to potentiate the hypotensive effect of bradykinin. Conversely, only those analogues having Lys residue could induce a transient hypotension when intravenously administrated in male rats, indicating that the positive charge located toward the radical of this amino acid residue is crucial for this cardiovascular effect. Differently from all known BPPs, TsHpt-I acts as an agonist of the B(2) receptor and does not inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme. The capacity of this peptide to activate this subtype of kinin receptor, releasing NO, was also affected by the absence of Lys' side-chain positive charge. Moreover, this study has demonstrated that the minimization of the primary structure of TsHpt-I does not significantly alter the biological effects of this native peptide, which could be of interest for biotechnological purposes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Toxicon
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    • "Every effort was made to minimize the numbers and any suffering of the animals used in the following experiments. Male Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) and guinea pigs (400 ± 25 g) were kept with a standard light/dark cycle (12 h light/12 h dark) and free access to food and water (Gomes et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: A bradykinin potentiating peptide (BPP), Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, was isolated from the venoms of Crotalus viridis viridis (here named Cvv peptide). Compared with other BPP, Cvv peptide has special Thr at N-terminal and Arg at C-terminal. In order to clarify whether these two special amino acids lead to special bioactivities relative to other BPPs, we made bioassays on isolated guinea pig ileum (GPI) and rat stomach fundus. Cvv peptide can observably inhibit bradykinin's contractivity on GPI, but potentiate the bradykinin-induced contractivity on rat stomach fundus. The discrepant bioactivity of Cvv peptide may occur via binding different receptors, B2 receptor on GPI and anaphylatoxin C3a receptor on rat stomach fundus, respectively.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · Pharmazie
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