Transdermal Scopolamine for Prevention of Intrathecal Morphine-Induced Nausea and Vomiting After Cesarean Delivery

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Anesthesia and analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.47). 10/2007; 105(3):764-9. DOI: 10.1213/01.ane.0000277494.30502.db
Source: PubMed


Intrathecal morphine for cesarean delivery provides excellent postoperative analgesia but is associated with significant nausea and vomiting.
We compared the antiemetic efficacy of transdermal scopolamine, IV ondansetron, and placebo during the first 24 h postoperatively. Two-hundred forty women undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated, in a double-blind study design, to receive transdermal scopolamine 1.5 mg, ondansetron 4 mg, or placebo at the time of cord clamping.
Our study showed that the overall rates for all emesis were 59.3% in the placebo group and were reduced to 40% in the scopolamine group and 41.8% in the ondansetron group. The greatest reduction in emesis in the scopolamine group when compared with placebo was in the 6-24 h time period.
Scopolamine is an effective medication for prophylactic use in parturients receiving intrathecal morphine while undergoing cesarean delivery. Its use, however, was associated with a higher incidence of side effects such as dry mouth and blurry vision.

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    • "Lethargy occurred in < 10% of subjects during all time intervals, and its frequency did not differ among the groups. The differences in drug effects at different time periods may be related to the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the drug (Harnett et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and undesirable complaints recorded in as many as 70-80% of high-risk surgical patients. The current prophylactic therapy recommendations for PONV management stated in the Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia (SAMBA) guidelines should start with monotherapy and patients at moderate to high risk, a combination of antiemetic medication should be considered. Consequently, if rescue medication is required, the antiemetic drug chosen should be from a different therapeutic class and administration mode than the drug used for prophylaxis. The guidelines restrict the use of dexamethasone, transdermal scopolamine, aprepitant, and palonosetron as rescue medication 6 h after surgery. In an effort to find a safer and reliable therapy for PONV, new drugs with antiemetic properties and minimal side effects are needed, and scopolamine may be considered an effective alternative. Scopolamine is a belladonna alkaloid, α-(hydroxymethyl) benzene acetic acid 9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo non-7-yl ester, acting as a non-selective muscarinic antagonist and producing both peripheral antimuscarinic and central sedative, antiemetic, and amnestic effects. The empirical formula is C17H21NO4 and its structural formula is a tertiary amine L-(2)-scopolamine (tropic acid ester with scopine; MW = 303.4). Scopolamine became the first drug commercially available as a transdermal therapeutic system used for extended continuous drug delivery during 72 h. Clinical trials with transdermal scopolamine have consistently demonstrated its safety and efficacy in PONV. Thus, scopolamine is a promising candidate for the management of PONV in adults as a first line monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. In addition, transdermal scopolamine might be helpful in preventing postoperative discharge nausea and vomiting owing to its long-lasting clinical effects.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Frontiers in Pharmacology
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    • "However, to obtain analgesia of good quality and of long duration then higher doses of opioids have to be used. But the risk of complications such as respiratory depression, urinary retention, pruritus, nausea, and vomiting can preclude patient's comfort [6] [7] [8] [9]. On the other hand, nonopioid systemic analgesics are not powerful enough to allow effective pain control after Caesarean section [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Pain after Caesarean delivery is partly related to Pfannenstiel incision, which can be infiltrated with local anaesthetic solutions. Methods. A double- blind randomized control trial was designed to assess the analgesic efficacy of 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine solution compared to control group, in two groups of one hundred and forty four parturients for each group, who underwent Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia: group R (ropivacaine group) and group C (control group). All parturients also received spinal sufentanil (2.5 mug). Results. Ropivacaine infiltration in the Pfannenstiel incision for Caesarean delivery before wound closure leads to a reduction of 30% in the overall consumption of analgesics (348 550 mg for group R versus 504 426 mg for group C with P < .05), especially opioids in the first 24 hours, but also significantly increases the time interval until the first request for an analgesic (4 h 20 min +/- 2 h 26 for group R versus 2 h 42 +/- 1 h 30 for group C). The P values for the two groups were: P < .0001 for paracetamol, P < .0001 for ketoprofen and P for nalbuphine which was the most significant. There is no significant difference in the threshold of VAS in the two series. Conclusion. This technique can contribute towards a programme of early rehabilitation in sectioned mothers, with earlier discharge from the post-labour suite.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Anesthesiology Research and Practice
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    • "Patches contain 1.5 mg of scopolamine and deliver the agent at 5 µg/hr for 72 hours. It has been reported that TDS patches decrease the nausea and vomiting induced by intrathecal or epidural morphine after cesarean delivery [5,6] and other types of surgery [7,8]. Furthermore, the prophylactic use of a TDS patch plus ondansetron has been described for the prevention of PONV, and has been found to be superior to ondansetron alone [9,10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is common complication of Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) after surgery. The authors sought to determine whether a transdermal scopolamine (TDS) patch in combination with IV dexamethasone is more effective than IV dexamethasone alone or IV dexamethasone plus IV ramosetron for reducing PONV in patients receiving epidural PCA after major orthopedic surgery. 120 patients that received epidural PCA with hydromorphone and ropivacaine after major orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia were allocated to 3 groups: Group D (n = 40) received IV dexamethasone 8 mg, Group DR (n = 40) received IV dexamethasone 8 mg plus IV ramosetron 0.3 mg, Group DS (n = 40) received IV dexamethasone 8 mg plus a TDS patch (Group DS, n = 40). Nausea and vomiting incidences, VAS for nausea, the use of additional antiemetics, and adverse effects (a dry mouth, blurred vision, drowsiness) during the first 24 hours postoperatively were subjected to analysis. The DS Group had a significantly higher rate of complete remission of PONV than the D and DR groups (82.5% vs 47.5%, and 50.0%, respectively), and had lower rates of nausea (17.5% vs 55.0%, and 50.0%), and vomiting (10.0% vs 50.0%, and 25.0%), and required less antiemetics (5.0% vs 35.0%, 22.5%) than group D and Group DR during the first 24 hours after surgery. Furthermore, no inter-group differences were observed with respect to adverse effects in the three groups. The prophylactic use of a TDS patch plus dexamethasone was found to be a more effective means of preventing PONV in patients that received epidural PCA after major orthopedic surgery than dexamethasone alone or dexamethasone plus ramosetron without adversely affecting side effects.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Korean journal of anesthesiology
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