Clinical Application of C-Reactive Protein Across the Spectrum of Acute Coronary Syndromes

Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Clinical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 7.91). 10/2007; 53(10):1800-7. DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2007.087957
Source: PubMed


High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The ability to formulate recommendations regarding clinical use of hsCRP is limited by a paucity of data regarding several key issues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hsCRP across the spectrum of ACS.
hsCRP was measured on admission in 3225 patients with ACS. hsCRP concentrations were compared in patients who suffered an adverse cardiac outcome within 10 months of study entry and in patients who had no adverse event. Because of heterogeneity in the relationship between hsCRP and clinical outcomes, evaluation was limited to patients from whom samples were collected within 48 h of symptom onset.
Patients in the highest quartile of hsCRP compared to those in the lowest quartile were at increased risk of death at 30 days [adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 4.6, P <0.001] and 10 months (adjHR 3.9, P <0.001). In patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), hsCRP >3 mg/L was associated with increased 10-month mortality (adjHR 2.3, P = 0.002), whereas in STEMI a relationship with mortality was seen at hsCRP >10 mg/L (adjHR 3.0, P = 0.008). Increased concentrations of hsCRP were strongly associated with the development of heart failure at 30 days (adjHR 8.2, P = 0.001) and 10 months (adjHR 2.6, P = 0.014).
Increased baseline concentrations of hsCRP are strongly associated with mortality and heart failure across the ACS spectrum. hsCRP measurement should be performed early after presentation and index diagnosis-specific cutpoints should be used.

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    • "Circulation 2002) found that a serum CRP > 10 mg/l was associated with a higher risk of death in patients with NSTE-ACS despite aggressive management with early invasive therapy. More recently, Scirica et al. (Scirica BM et al. 2007) found that in patients with UA/NSTEMI, CRP levels >3 mg/L were associated with increased 10-month mortality, whereas in STEMI a relationship with mortality was seen at CRP levels >10 mg/L and therefore they suggested that CRP measurement should be performed early after presentation and index diagnosis-specific cutpoints should be used. The American Heart Association/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (AHA/CDC) have defined specific cut-off points for clinical interpretation: CRP concentrations <1 mg/l are considered low, 1–3 mg/l are average and >3 mg/l indicate high relative risk (Pearson TA et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Evaluation of patients who present to the hospital with acute undifferentiated chest pain or other symptoms and signs suggestive of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is often a clinical challenge. The initial assessment, requiring a focused history (including risk factors analysis), a physical examination, an electrocardiogram (EKG) and serum cardiac marker determination, is time-consuming and troublesome. Recent investigations have indicated that increases in biomarkers of necrosis, inflammation, ischemia and myocardial stretch may provide earlier assessment of overall patient risk, help in identifying the adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management for each patient and allow for prevention of substantial numbers of new events. Approach and Content The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the characteristics of several biomarkers that may have potential clinical utility to identify ACS patients. Patho-physiology, analytical and clinical characteristics have been evaluated for each marker, underlying the properties for potential routine clinical use. Summary The biomarkers discussed in this review are promising and might lead to improved diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with ACS, however their clinical application requires further studies. It is important to define their clinical role as diagnostic markers, their predictive value and the specificity, standardization and detection limits of the assays.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study to investigate prognostic efficacy of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to identify the most valuable cut-off value of hs-CRP for determining long term prognosis. Methods: A total of 240 ACS patients presenting within 6 h after the onset of chest pain were included to the study. Admission levels of hs-CRP were analyzed. Patients were followed for 1 year. Primary end-point of the study was new coronary event (NCE), defined as the combination of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and recurrent rest angina. Risk factors for NCE were determined by logistic regression analysis. ROC-curve analysis was used to identify cut-off values of the risk factors. The prognostic efficacy of the cut-off value of hs-CRP was compared to other values determined from other studies. Kaplan Meier and log rank tests were used in survival analyses. Factors determining event-free survival were investigated by Cox regression analysis. Results: During the follow-up period, 65 NCEs occurred. In multivariate analysis, hs-CRP was strongly associated with the occurrence of NCE (OR=4.79, 95% CI=2.10-10.44, p
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