Effect of Prebiotic Supplementation and Calcium Intake on Body Mass Index

USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, and Texas Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 09/2007; 151(3):293-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.03.043
Source: PubMed


To assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth.
We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic supplement or maltodextrin (control) for 1 year.
Subjects who received the prebiotic supplement had a smaller increase in body mass index (BMI) compared with the control group (BMI difference 0.52 +/- 0.16 kg/m2, P = .016), BMI Z-score (difference 0.13 +/- 0.06, P = .048) and total fat mass (difference 0.84 +/- 0.36 kg, P = .022). The prebiotic group maintained their baseline BMI Z-score (0.03 +/- 0.01, paired t test, P = .30), although BMI Z-score increased significantly in the control group (0.13 +/- 0.03, P < .001). In considering subjects whose usual calcium intake was > or = 700 mg/d, those who received the prebiotic supplement had a relative change in BMI that was 0.82 kg/m2 less than control subjects (P < .01), and BMI Z-score that was 0.20 less than control subjects (P = .003). Differences tended to be maintained 1 year after supplementation was stopped.
Prebiotic supplementation and avoidance of a low calcium intake can have significant effects in modulating BMI and other body composition changes during puberty.

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    • "Several studies have related prebiotic treatment to a reduction in ectopic lipid accumulation such as steatosis, reduced fat storage in white adipose tissue, in systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in high-fat diet fed and genetically obese models [152–154], and also reduced endotoxemia [155]. In clinical experiments, beneficial effects of prebiotic administration were observed, such as a reduction in BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and insulin resistance [156–158]. The food intake regulation is another important feature of gut microbiota modulation by prebiotics, which induce gut hormone production, such as GLP-1 and PYY, that signal via anorectic pathways in the hypothalamus, and a reduction in ghrelin expression, a gastric orexigenic peptide, thereby reducing food intake [159, 160]. "
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    • "Prebiotics promote host absorption of minerals, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion. For example, β-(2-1) fructans promotes the absorption of Ca2+ by the colonic mucosa in human (Abrams et al., 2007). For Ca2+ absorption, SCFA contributed to lower luminal pH in the large intestine which, in turn, elicits a modi-fication of Ca2+ speciation and hence solubility in the luminal phase so that its passive diffusion is improved (Lopez et al., 2000). "
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    • "Treating obese individuals with fructans-type prebiotics has been tried in a limited number of intervention studies. Ingestion of inulin-type fructans prebiotic (8g/d) for one year showed a significant benefit in the maintenance of BMI, and fat mass in non obese young adolescents [59]. The daily intake of yacon syrup, which delivered 0.14g fructans per kg per day over 120 days, increased satiety sensation and decreased body weight, waist circumference and body mass index in obese pre-menopausal women [60]. "
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