Article

Innervation and Neurotransmitter Localization in the Lung of the Nile bichirPolypterus bichir bichir

University of Messina, Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, Faculty of Science, Section of Comparative Neurobiology and Biomonitoring, Messina, Italy.
The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology (Impact Factor: 1.54). 09/2007; 290(9):1166-77. DOI: 10.1002/ar.20576
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Anatomical and functional studies of the autonomic innervation in the lung of dipnoan fishes and the bichirs are lacking. The present immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the presence of nerve fibers in the muscle layers of the lung of the bichir, Polypterus bichir bichir, and identified the immunoreactive elements of this innervation. Tyrosine hydroxylase, acetylcholinesterase, and peptide immunoreactivity was detected in the intramural nerve fibers. Extensive innervation was present in the submucosa where adenylatecyclase/activating polypeptide 38, substance P, P(2)X(2), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive nerve fibers mainly supplied blood vessels. A collection of monopolar neurons located in the submucosal and the muscular layers of the glottis expressed a variety of various transmitters. These neurons may be homologous to ganglion cells in the branchial and pharyngeal rami of the vagus in fishes. Nerves containing 5-HT and P(2)X(2) receptor immunoreactivity projected to the lung epithelium. Associated with neuroepithelial cells in mucociliated epithelium, were neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunopositive axons. The physiological function of this innervation is not known. The present study shows that the pattern of autonomic innervation of the bichir lung may by similar in its elements to that in tetrapods.

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    • "ChAT antibodies were monoclonals produced in mouse (Product number WH0001103M1-100UG; Sigma-Aldrich). It has used to characterize the cholinergic innervation of the lung muscle and label the NECs in the bichir, Polypterus bichir bichir (Zaccone et al. 2007), and localized with goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, 1 : 50; Cedar Lane). The polyclonal rabbit antinNOS/NOS type I has previously been shown to label the NECs of the gill epithelium of the catfish Heteropneutes fossilis (Zaccone et al. 2003, 2006) and its nitrergic system including the NECs in the mucociliated epithelium of the bichir (Zaccone et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the distribution and the coexpression of specific neurochemical markers in both neuroendocrine-like cells (NEC-like) and polymorphous granular cells (PGCs) that populate the mucociliated epithelium of the lung in the air-breathing fish Polypterus senegalus, using confocal immunohistochemistry. Using confocal immunohistochemistry, we determined the coexpression of specific neurochemical markers. Colocalization studies showed that 5HT is coexpressed with calbindin and nNOS and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is coexpressed with nNOS in the PGCs. This study also shows for the first time the simultaneous occurrence of piscidin 1 and 5HT in the PGCs. The function of these cells being equivalent to ones found in fish gill subepithelial parenchyma is still not known. Due to the importance of piscidin 1 in local immune defence, more research is to be useful to understand a possible interaction of PGCs with immune response in the bichir lung. In fact, the capacity of PGCs to produce NO and other neuroactive substances found in immune cells of fish may represent a primitive form of immunoregulation of innate immunity and specifically antimicrobial function as NO induction and respiratory burst activity are correlated with immune response.
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    • "Putative oxygen receptors cells (NECs) were identified previously in P. bichir bichir (Zaccone et al., 2007). In these cells immunoreactivities for 5HT, the purinoreceptor 2X2, PACAP, SP and AchE were reported (Zaccone et al., 2007, 2008). Examination of the NEC-like cells in the lung of the species studied also shown that 5HT, ChAT and nNOS are markers of these cells. "
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    • "The swim bladder ganglion cells are adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons (Fänge, 1983). Ganglion cells were also reported in nerve fiber bundles entering the smooth muscle of the glottis in the bichir lung (Zaccone et al., 2007). A collection of similar cells has been described in the branchial region in fish (Zaccone et al., 2006). "
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