Maternal-foetal status of copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc in obese gestational diabetic pregnancies
Department of Medicine, Kuwait University, Al Kuwayt, Al Asimah, KuwaitActa Diabetologica (Impact Factor: 2.4). 09/2007; 44(3):106-13. DOI: 10.1007/s00592-007-0250-x
Obesity is well known to be a contributory risk factor for several disease states, including diabetes mellitus. Paucity of data on maternal-foetal status of essential trace elements in obese diabetic pregnancies prompted us to undertake this study. Maternal venous and umbilical arterial and venous blood samples were collected from obese gestational diabetic patients (Body Mass Index (BMI) >30) and control obese pregnant women (BMI>30) at time of spontaneous delivery or caesarean sections and concentrations of essential trace elements such as Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn were determined in various samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total antioxidant (TAO) in maternal and umbilical blood were assessed using appropriate reagent kits. Maternal-foetal disposition and exchange parameters of elements studied were assessed using established criteria. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn in serum of control obese pregnant women (n=10) averaged 2404, 2663, 11.0, 89.0 and 666 microg/l respectively, while in the obese diabetic group (n=11), the corresponding values averaged 2441, 2580, 13.3, 85.1 and 610 microg/l respectively. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPX and TAO were not significantly different in maternal veins of control and diabetic groups. Varying differences were noted in the case of antioxidant enzyme activities in umbilical blood samples of control and study groups. We conclude that obesity is not associated with significant alterations in antioxidant enzyme status in gestational diabetes and only with relatively minor alterations in status of some essential trace elements.
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- "Also, some animal and human studies have evaluated serum or urine ceruloplasmin to better clarify the roles of copper in similar settings. However, multiple other studies have evaluated serum or urinary copper without concurrent evaluation of ceruloplasmin. Changes of serum ceruloplasmin may complicate interpretation of our findings. "
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications may be associated with alterations in the plasma, tissue, and urinary levels of some trace elements like copper. This cross-sectional study evaluates the 24 hour urinary copper levels in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria in comparison with patients without albuminuria. Forty-two patients with microalbuminuria (case) and 40 patients without microalbuminuria (control) participated in the study. Mean (CI 95%) urinary copper levels were 36.14 (14.54-57.74) and 14.77μcg /L (10.17-19.37) in the case and control groups respectively (P = 0.003). There was no significant effect of diabetes duration or HbA1c on urinary copper. The present study shows diabetic patients with microalbuminuria have increased urinary copper excretion, however does not exclude the potential toxic effects of this high copper excretion on the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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ABSTRACT: This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of two different misoprostol regimens for second-trimester pregnancy termination. Sixty women in second trimester of gestation with indications for pregnancy termination were randomly assigned in two equal groups to receive either vaginal or oral misoprostol. The dosing regimen was 400 microg as the initial dose followed by 400 microg up to 3 doses (1200 microg) if needed in each group. Efficacy and side effects were compared. The percentage of women who delivered was significantly higher in vaginal group than the oral group (86.7 vs. 43.3 p = 0.0006). No significant differences in complication rates and induction to delivery interval were noted between the two groups. Vaginal administration of misoprostol resulted in a higher success rate for second trimester pregnancy termination, whereas, no significant differences in induction to delivery time and complication rates were noted between vaginal and oral groups.
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