Feasibility of pathways for transfer of acyl groups from mitochondria to the cytosol to form short chain acyl-CoAs in the pancreatic beta cell

Childrens Diabetes Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 11/2007; 282(42):30596-606. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M702732200
Source: PubMed


The mitochondria of pancreatic beta cells are believed to convert insulin secretagogues into products that are translocated to the cytosol where they participate in insulin secretion. We studied the hypothesis that short chain acyl-CoA (SC-CoAs) might be some of these products by discerning the pathways of SC-CoA formation in beta cells. Insulin secretagogues acutely stimulated 1.5-5-fold increases in acetoacetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA), and acetyl-CoA in INS-1 832/13 cells as judged from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurements. Studies of 12 relevant enzymes in rat and human pancreatic islets and INS-1 832/13 cells showed the feasibility of at least two redundant pathways, one involving acetoacetate and the other citrate, for the synthesis SC-CoAs from secretagogue carbon in mitochondria and the transfer of their acyl groups to the cytosol where the acyl groups are converted to SC-CoAs. Knockdown of two key cytosolic enzymes in INS-1 832/13 cells with short hairpin RNA supported the proposed scheme. Lowering ATP citrate lyase 88% did not inhibit glucose-induced insulin release indicating citrate is not the only carrier of acyl groups to the cytosol. However, lowering acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase 80% partially inhibited glucose-induced insulin release indicating formation of SC-CoAs from acetoacetate in the cytosol is important for insulin secretion. The results indicate beta cells possess enzyme pathways that can incorporate carbon from glucose into acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, and succinyl-CoA and carbon from leucine into these three SC-CoAs plus HMG-CoA in their mitochondria and enzymes that can form acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and HMG-CoA in their cytosol.

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Available from: Noaman M Hasan, May 27, 2014
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    • "Impact of the siRNA Delivery Methods on Insulin Secretion – The RNAi technology has been used to investigate the role of anaplerosis and pyruvate cycling processes in GIIS [24], [25], [26], [27], [32], [38], [39], [40], [53], [54]. Normal ß-cells and INS 832/13 ß-cells are difficult to transfect and therefore earlier studies generally used adenoviral vectors to deliver RNAi or cDNA into normal rodent islet cells as well as in INS1 cells and INS 832/13 cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cytosolic NADPH may act as one of the signals that couple glucose metabolism to insulin secretion in the pancreatic ß-cell. NADPH levels in the cytoplasm are largely controlled by the cytosolic isoforms of malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHc). Some studies have provided evidence for a role of malic enzyme in glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) via pyruvate cycling, but the role of IDHc in ß-cell signaling is unsettled. IDHc is an established component of the isocitrate/α-ketoglutarate shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents (NADPH) from the mitochondrion to the cytosol. This shuttle is energy consuming since it is coupled to nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase that uses the mitochondrial proton gradient to produce mitochondrial NADPH and NAD(+) from NADP(+) and NADH. To determine whether flux through IDHc is positively or negatively linked to GIIS, we performed RNAi knockdown experiments in ß-cells. Reduced IDHc expression in INS 832/13 cells and isolated rat islet ß-cells resulted in enhanced GIIS. This effect was mediated at least in part via the KATP-independent amplification arm of GIIS. IDHc knockdown in INS 832/13 cells did not alter glucose oxidation but it reduced fatty acid oxidation and increased lipogenesis from glucose. Metabolome profiling in INS 832/13 cells showed that IDHc knockdown increased isocitrate and NADP(+) levels. It also increased the cellular contents of several metabolites linked to GIIS, in particular some Krebs cycle intermediates, acetyl-CoA, glutamate, cAMP and ATP. The results identify IDHc as a component of the emerging pathways that negatively regulate GIIS.
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    • "Citrate was apparently not the only exported mitochondrial metabolite probably enhancing insulin secretion when all ATP-sensitive K + channels were closed by glipizide. In favour of α-ketoisocaproate-induced amplification by combined export of citrate and acetoacetate, both sources for cytosolic acetyl-CoA [10], high islet acetoacetate was selectively brought about by α-ketoisocaproate (Fig. 7). Glucose plus α-ketoisovalerate caused strong insulin release, although no rise in islet citrate took place (Figs. 2, 6C and 8D). "
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    ABSTRACT: The β-cell metabolism of glucose and of some other fuels (e.g. α-ketoisocaproate) generates signals triggering and acutely amplifying insulin secretion. As the pathway coupling metabolism with amplification is largely unknown, we aimed to narrow down the putative amplifying signals. An experimental design was used which previously prevented glucose-induced, but not α-ketoisocaproate-induced insulin secretion. Isolated mouse islets were pretreated for one hour with medium devoid of fuels and containing the sulfonylurea glipizide in high concentration which closed all ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. This concentration was also applied during the subsequent examination of fuel-induced effects. In perifused or incubated islets, insulin secretion and metabolic parameters were measured. The pretreatment decreased the islet ATP/ADP ratio. Whereas glucose and α-ketoisovalerate were ineffective or weakly effective, respectively, when tested separately, their combination strongly enhanced the insulin secretion. Compared with glucose, the strong amplifier α-ketoisocaproate caused less increase in NAD(P)H-fluorescence and less mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Compared with α-ketoisovalerate, α-ketoisocaproate caused greater increase in NAD(P)H-fluorescence and greater mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Neither α-ketoacid anion enhanced the islet ATP/ADP ratio during onset of the insulin secretion. α-Ketoisocaproate induced a higher pyruvate content than glucose, slowly elevated the citrate content which was not changed by glucose and generated a much higher acetoacetate content than other fuels. α-Ketoisovalerate alone or in combination with glucose did not increase the citrate content. In β-cells, mitochondrial energy generation does not mediate acute metabolic amplification, but mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA and supplemental acetoacetate supplies cytosolic metabolites which induce the generation of specific amplifying signals.
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    • "ACLY is most abundantly expressed in the liver and white adipose tissue [2] [3] while it exhibits low expression levels in brain, heart, small intestine and muscles [2] [4]. ACLY is also expressed and active in pancreatic beta cells [3] [5]. Additionally, over-expression of ACLY is associated with certain pathological conditions that will be discussed later in this article. "
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