Reckless as a hallmark of aggressive cancer

Department of Molecular Oncology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
Cancer Science (Impact Factor: 3.52). 12/2007; 98(11):1659-65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2007.00588.x
Source: PubMed


Cancer recurrence after surgical treatment is a major concern for patients and doctors. Understanding what makes tumors prone to recurrence would be an important step toward its prevention. Accumulating evidence indicates that the level of membrane-associated protease regulator reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) expressed in tumor tissue is a good prognostic indicator in several common cancers. Certain members of the matrix metalloproteinase family are often upregulated in advanced cancers and are known to play important roles in tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. RECK negatively regulates several matrix metalloproteinases. Therefore, RECK itself may well be considered a promising tool or target molecule to be activated in cancer therapy. Here we review the recent advances in RECK research and discuss some of the important issues to be addressed in future studies.

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    • "RECK expression is often downregulated in tumors of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin, and the level of residual RECK expression in cancer tissues correlates with better prognoses15. Moreover, forced RECK-expression in tumor cells results in reduced angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis in xenograft models67, suggesting that reduction in the level of RECK may confer significant advantage to the cells during malignant growth and/or dissemination. "
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of a mesenchymal phenotype is often associated with invasive/metastatic behaviors of carcinoma cells. Acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype by a carcinoma cell is known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase-regulator RECK is abundant in normal mesenchymal cells. In aggressive carcinomas, however, RECK expression is often downregulated. This apparent paradox prompted us to clarify the relationship between EMT and RECK. We found that TGFβ-induced E-cadherin downregulation, a hallmark of EMT, is accompanied by RECK-upregulation in a non-tumorigenic epithelial cell line (MCF10A). In contrast, the loss of E-cadherin expression is uncoupled from RECK-upregulation in carcinoma-derived cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and A549). When RECK was artificially expressed in A549 cells, it showed little effect on EMT but elevated the level of integrin α5 and attenuated cell proliferation and migration. These findings implicate RECK in the regulation of proliferation and migration of normal epithelial cells after EMT and suggest how the uncoupling between EMT and RECK-upregulation impacts on the fates and behaviors of carcinoma cells.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Scientific Reports
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    • "Although RECK functions as an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), it does not share structural homology with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) [2]. RECK is expressed in various normal human tissues, but has not been detected in oncogenically transformed cells and in various type of cancers, such as, hepatoma, pancreatic, breast, lung, colorectal, prostate, and gastric cancer, or in osteosarcomas [4]. RECK downregulation in cancer tissues is associated with a low survival rate and a poor prognosis because RECK inhibits angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis in cancer via MMP inhibition [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK, a tumor suppressor) is down-regulated by the oncogenic signals and hypoxia, but the biological function of RECK in early tumorigenic hyperplastic phenotypes is largely unknown. Knockdown of RECK by small interfering RNA (siRECK) or hypoxia significantly promoted cell proliferation in various normal epithelial cells. Hypoxia as well as knockdown of RECK by siRNA increased the cell cycle progression, the levels of cyclin D1 and c-Myc, and the phosphorylation of Rb protein (p-pRb), but decreased the expression of p21(cip1), p27(kip1), and p16(ink4A). HIF-2α was upregulated by knockdown of RECK, indicating HIF-2α is a downstream target of RECK. As knockdown of RECK induced the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and treatment of an EGFR kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, suppressed HIF-2α expression induced by the silencing of RECK, we can suggest that the RECK silenicng-EGFR-HIF-2α axis might be a key molecular mechanism to induce hyperplastic phenotype of epithelial cells. It was also found that shRNA of RECK induced larger and more numerous colonies than control cells in an anchorage-independent colony formation assay. Using a xenograft assay, epithelial cells with stably transfected with shRNA of RECK formed a solid mass earlier and larger than those with control cells in nude mice. In conclusion, the suppression of RECK may promote the development of early tumorigenic hyperplastic characteristics in hypoxic stress.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "RECK, however, contains diagnostic potential as we could demonstrate a strong decrease in RCC as compared to adjacent normal tissue. This decrease was more pronounced than in prostate carcinoma [14,19] and fits also well to findings for colorectal cancer [15] and other tumor entities (reviewed in [20,21]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases can promote invasion and metastasis, which are very frequent in renal cell carcinoma even at the time of diagnosis. Knowing the reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) as an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases and the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) protein as inducer, we aimed to determine their expression, localization and possible antagonistic action in the pathogenesis and progression of renal cell tumors in a retrospective study. Tumor and adjacent normal tissues of 395 nephrectomized patients were immunostained for RECK and EMMPRIN on a tissue microarray. RECK strongly decreased in renal cell carcinoma compared to normal counterparts (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P < 0.001), and it discriminated tumor entities showing the highest expression in oncocytomas. EMMPRIN, however, could be significantly correlated to pT stage and Fuhrman grading (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs = 0.289 and rs = 0.382, respectively). Higher expression of EMMPRIN was associated with decreased overall survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.001), and the EMMPRIN level could independently predict survival for cases without metastasis and involvement of lymph nodes. Decreased RECK expression was confirmed by Western blotting in tissue of eight normal/tumor matches of patients after radical nephrectomy, whereas the EMMPRIN pattern appeared to be heterogeneous. We propose RECK down regulation in renal cell carcinoma to be an early event that facilitates tumor formation and progression. EMMPRIN, however, as a prognostic tumor marker, increases only when aggressiveness is proceeding and could add an additional step to invasive properties of renal cell carcinoma.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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