Regional Cortical Thinning in Subjects With Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 10/2007; 164(9):1418-27. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06101631
Source: PubMed


Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann's areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

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    • "Although the precentral cortex – which is involved in motor planning and execution – has not typically been associated with aggressive behavior, several recent studies have found a relation with aggression. Precentral cortical thinning has been reported in association with psychopathy and violence (Ly et al., 2012; Narayan et al., 2007). Furthermore, activation of the precentral cortex has been associated with impulsivity in juvenile offenders and impaired response inhibition in highly aggressive male students (Pawliczek et al., 2013; Shannon et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Magnetic resonance (MR) scans were acquired from 566 children from the Generation R study who participated in the Berkeley Puppet Interview and whose parents had completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between aggression and amygdala and hippocampal volume. We performed surface-based analyses to study the association between aggression and cortical thickness, surface area, and gyrification. Aggressive behavior was associated with smaller amygdala (p < .05) but not hippocampal volume. Aggression was associated with a thinner cortex in the left precentral cortex (p < .01) and in a cluster including the right inferior parietal, supramarginal, and postcentral cortex (p < .001). Gender moderated the association between aggression and cortical thickness in the right medial posterior cortex (p = .001) and the right prefrontal cortex (p < .001). Aggression was associated with decreased gyrification in a large cluster including the right precentral, postcentral, frontal, and parietal cortex (p = .01). Moreover, aggression was associated with decreased gyrification in the right occipital and parietal cortex (p = .02). We found novel evidence that childhood aggressive behavior is related to decreased amygdala volume, decreased sensorimotor cortical thickness, and decreased global right hemisphere gyrification. Aggression is related to cortical thickness in regions associated with the default mode network, with negative associations in boys and positive associations in girls.
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    • "ASPD is characterised by a pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, and BPD by a pattern of interpersonal and affective instability and impulsivity. Neurobiology results indicate that ASPD patients often exhibit impaired emotional modulation (Herpertz et al. 2001) and a reduction in structural volume, mainly in the prefrontal cortex (Narayan et al. 2007). BPD is mainly due to a negative self-image (Dammann et al. 2011) and disturbed emotional regulation (Gunderson 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders are highly prevalent among people with schizophrenia. Dually diagnosed patients present with unfavorable course and poor long-term outcomes. Integrated, motivation-based treatment for both disorders in the same setting is considered the treatment of choice for this challenging population. Treatment programs include state-of-the-art pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions such as motivational interviewing, psychoeducation, and cognitive–behavioral approaches.
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    • "The bulk of evidence involves the frontal lobe in impulsive behavior , mainly the orbitofrontal cortex (Horn et al., 2003; Berlin et al., 2004; Völlm et al., 2004; Antonucci et al., 2006) and the ventromedial frontal lobe (Narayan et al., 2007), although the inferior frontal cortex has also been included due to its role in response inhibition (Aron et al., 2004). However, some other brain regions such as the amygdala (Blair, 2007), the temporal lobe (Dolan et al., 2002), the angular gyrus (Soderstrom et al., 2000) and the posterior cingulate cortex (Tiihonen et al., 2008) have also been described as related to impulsive and antisocial behavior (Glenn and Raine, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a core personality trait forming part of normal behavior and contributing to adaptive functioning. However, in typically developing children, altered patterns of impulsivity constitute a risk factor for the development of behavioral problems. Since both pathological and non-pathological states are commonly characterized by continuous transitions, we used a correlative approach to investigate the potential link between personality and brain dynamics. We related brain functional connectivity of typically developing children, measured with magnetic resonance imaging at rest, with their impulsivity scores obtained from a questionnaire completed by their parents. We first looked for areas within the default mode network (DMN) whose functional connectivity might be modulated by trait impulsivity. Then, we calculated the functional connectivity among these regions and the rest of the brain in order to assess if impulsivity trait altered their relationships. We found two DMN clusters located at the posterior cingulate cortex and the right angular gyrus which were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. The whole-brain correlation analysis revealed the classic network of correlating and anti-correlating areas with respect to the DMN. The impulsivity trait modulated such pattern showing that the canonical anti-phasic relation between DMN and action-related network was reduced in high impulsive children. These results represent the first evidence that the impulsivity, measured as personality trait assessed through parents' report, exerts a modulatory influence over the functional connectivity of resting state brain networks in typically developing children. The present study goes further to connect developmental approaches, mainly based on data collected through the use of questionnaires, and behavioral neuroscience, interested in how differences in brain structure and functions reflect in differences in behavior.
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