Relationship Between Climate, Disease Severity, and Causative Organism for Contact Lens–Associated Microbial Keratitis in Australia
To evaluate associations between disease severity, causative organism, and climatic variation in contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia.
Prospective, observational case series.
Contact lens wearing patients (n = 236) with presumed microbial keratitis presenting to private and hospital ophthalmologists in Australia between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2004 were identified prospectively. Clinical details, management information, and microbiology data were collected and cases were graded for severity based on lesion size and location criteria. Causative organisms were assigned to "environmental" or "endogenous" groups. Climate zone and daytime temperature and humidity were determined for the geographic location of each event. The main outcome measures were disease severity, causative organism, and climate zone.
Severe contact lens-related microbial keratitis was more likely to occur in warmer, humid regions of the country (P < .001), compared with smaller, increasingly peripheral corneal lesions that were more common in cooler conditions (P < .001). Culture-proven keratitis was predominantly caused by environmental organisms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being recovered most frequently. Environmental organisms were isolated more commonly from tropical regions of the country and also accounted for nearly all cases of vision loss that occurred during the study period. Humidity did not have a significant effect on causative organism.
Climatic conditions play a role in disease severity and causative organism in contact lens-related microbial keratitis and therefore have implications for practitioners involved in contact lens care and contact lens wearers who live in or travel to the tropics.
Available from: Samane Bourbour
- "Unfortunately, no survey was performed in the summer. More of these bacteria were isolated from places, which shadow exist, semi-desert climate to colder areas and dry regions. The temperature of soil samples were between 12°C and 16°C. "
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The aerobic Actinomycetes are a large group of soil-indwelling bacteria that are distributed in world-wide. These Gram-positive bacteria are most commonly associated with opportunistic infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, three phenotypic and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction methods for isolation and identification of Nocardia genus were compared. Samples were taken in five different locations of Isfahan's suburb from hospitals area, parks, agricultural lands, gardens, arid lands with different soil temperature and pH.
In this study, showed that slip-buried-method was better than two other phenotypic methods; 14 out of 70 soil samples (20%) were positive for Nocardia spp. DNA of positive samples were extracted with three techniques and DNA extraction by microwave technique was better than others. This technique was confirmed with observation of DNA bands on 1% agarose gel.
These bacteria are important in immune deficient patients such as cancer patients, transplant recipients, tuberculosis; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome etc., Their affluence is unsteady in different zones of the world. In this study, among the three phenotypic methods for the isolation of Nocardia slip-buried method was better than other methods. Among DNA extraction techniques, DNA extraction by microwave method would be selective method for DNA extraction of Nocardia spp. compared with others techniques.
Available from: Leslie John Ray Foster
- "It is also possible for keratitis to develop as a result of endogenous infections, typically by Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus spp. . "
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ABSTRACT: Microbial keratitis is an infectious disease of the cornea characterised by inflammation and is considered an ophthalmic emergency requiring immediate attention. While a variety of pathogenic microbes associated with microbial keratitis have been identified, a comprehensive review identifying the diversity of species has not been completed.
A search of peer-reviewed publications including case reports and research articles reporting microorganims implicated in keratitis was conducted. Search engines including PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science with years ranging from 1950-2012 were used.
232 different species from 142 genera, representing 80 families were found to be implicated in microbial keratitis. Fungi exhibited the largest diversity with 144 species from 92 genera. In comparison, 77 species of bacteria from 42 genera, 12 species of protozoa from 4 genera and 4 types of virus were identified as the infectious agents. A comparison of their aetiologies shows reports of similarities between genera.
The diversity of microbial species implicated in keratitis has not previously been reported and is considerably greater than suggested by incidence studies. Effective treatment is heavily reliant upon correct identification of the responsible microorganisms. Species identification, the risk factors associated with, and pathogenesis of microbial keratitis will allow the development of improved therapies. This review provides a resource for clinicians and researchers to assist in identification and readily source treatment information.
Available from: etd.ohiolink.edu
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