Role of S-nitrosothiol transport in the cardioprotective effects of S-nitrosocysteine in rat hearts
The objective of this study was to determine if prior exposure of rat hearts to S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO) was able to provide protection against reperfusion injury. We probed NO release using the extracellular NO scavenger oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb), and we examined the involvement of the amino acid transport system L (L-AT), a known transporter of CysNO, using the L-AT competitor, L-leucine (L-Leu). Isolated (9- to 12-week-old Wistar male) rat hearts (six to eight per group) were perfused with CysNO (10 microM) for 30 min with or without the L-AT competitor L-Leu (1 mM) before 30 min of ischemia. Cardiac function was assessed before, during, and after treatment and during 120 min of reperfusion after ischemia. Functional recovery (rate-pressure product) was significantly improved in the CysNO group compared to hearts in the CysNO+L-Leu group and the control group (p<0.05). Necrosis, measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, was significantly reduced in CysNO hearts (p<0.05) and this improvement was reversed by L-Leu. The NO scavenger oxyHb (20 microM) was perfused either concomitant with CysNO or just before ischemia. In neither case did oxyHb affect the cardioprotection afforded by CysNO. OxyHb alone, given in either time window, did not alter the course of ischemia-reperfusion injury. When nitrite was used in place of CysNO, no protective effects were observed. Perfusion with CysNO increased tissue S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) levels from an unmeasurable background to a value of about 15.7+/-4.1 pmol RSNO/mg protein, as measured by triiodide-based chemiluminescence in the presence and absence of mercury(II) chloride. In the presence of L-Leu, this value dropped to 0.4+/-0.3 pmol RSNO/mg protein. This study demonstrates that exposure to CysNO before ischemia increases tissue S-nitrosothiol levels, improves postischemic contractile dysfunction, and attenuates necrosis. The mechanism of cardioprotection requires the uptake of CysNO via the L-AT and does not seem to involve NO release either during CysNO exposure or during ischemia. This suggests that the protective effects of CysNO are mediated through the posttranslational modification of cellular proteins through an NO-independent transnitrosation mechanism.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative and nitrosative stress are primary contributors to the loss of myocardial tissue in insults ranging from ischemia/reperfusion injury from coronary artery disease and heart transplantation to sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction and drug-induced myocardial damage. This cell damage caused by oxidative and nitrosative stress leads to mitochondrial protein, DNA, and lipid modifications, which inhibits energy production and contractile function, potentially leading to cell necrosis and/or apoptosis. However, cardiomyocytes have evolved an elegant set of redox-sensitive mechanisms that respond to and contain oxidative and nitrosative damage. These responses include the rapid induction of antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial DNA repair mechanisms, selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), and mitochondrial biogenesis. Coordinated cytoplasmic to nuclear cell-signaling and mitochondrial transcriptional responses to the presence of elevated cytoplasmic oxidant production, e.g., H2O2, allows nuclear translocation of the Nfe2l2 transcription factor and up-regulation of downstream cytoprotective genes such as heme oxygenase-1 which generates physiologic signals, such as CO that up-regulates Nfe212 gene transcription. Simultaneously, a number of other DNA binding transcription factors are expressed and/or activated under redox control, such as Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 (NRF-1), and lead to the induction of genes involved in both intracellular and mitochondria-specific repair mechanisms. The same insults, particularly those related to vascular stress and inflammation also produce elevated levels of nitric oxide, which also has mitochondrial protein thiol-protective functions and induces mitochondrial biogenesis through cyclic GMP-dependent and perhaps other pathways. This brief review provides an overview of these pathways and interconnected cardiac repair mechanisms.0Comments 1Citation
- "Important to note, NO bioactivity plays a rather complex set of protective roles in the myocardium beyond those involved in mitochondrial QC. These include the ability of NO to form protein-thiol or SNO adducts in proteins in the form of protein nitrosylation (Stamler et al., 2001; Hogg et al., 2007; Broniowska and Hogg, 2012). These events in their early stages, such as the formation of SNO-proteins in mitochondria, are usually reversible, but rapidly can become chemically irreversible if allowed to persist or operate out of regulation (Anand and Stamler, 2012). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide production by the endothelium is required for normal vascular homeostasis; however, in conditions of oxidative stress, interactions of nitric oxide with reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to underlie endothelial dysfunction. Beyond canonical nitric oxide signaling pathways, nitric oxide production results in the post-translational modification of protein thiols, termed S-nitrosation. The potential interplay between S-nitrosation and ROS remains poorly understood and is the focus of the current study. The effects of the S-nitrosating agent S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO) in combination with redox-cycling agents was examined in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). CysNO significantly impairs mitochondrial function and depletes the NADH/NAD(+) pool; however, these changes do not result in cell death. When faced with the additional stressor of a redox-cycling agent used to generate ROS, further loss of NAD(+) occurs, and cellular ATP pools are depleted. Cellular S-nitrosothiols also accumulate, and cell death is triggered. These data demonstrate that CysNO sensitizes endothelial cells to redox-cycling agent-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death and identify attenuated degradation of S-nitrosothiols as one potential mechanism for the enhanced cytotoxicity.0Comments 15Citations
- "This is consistent with the modification of several metabolic enzymes known to be targets of S-nitrosation, including GADPH and Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain [41,42]. In fact, S-nitrosation of these enzymes is thought to play an important role in the therapeutic effects of S-nitrosothiols in ischemiareperfusion injury192021 . Despite these marked changes in mitochondrial function, only modest changes in adenine nucleotide pools occur (Fig. 5), and no cytotoxicity is observed (Fig. 1), suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are sufficient to maintain cellular energy balance. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With a positive caloric balance, adipocytes undergo excessive hypertrophy, which causes adipocyte dysfunction, as well as adipose tissue endocrine and immune responses. A preferential site of fat accumulation is the abdominal-perivisceral region, due to peculiar factors of the adipose tissue in such sites, namely an excess of glucocorticoid activity, which promotes the accumulation of fat; and the greater metabolic activity and sensitivity to lipolysis, due to increased number and activity of β3-adrenoceptors and, partly, to reduced activity of α2-adrenoceptors. As a consequence, more free fatty acids (FFA) are released into the portal system. Hypertrophic adipocytes begin to secrete low levels of TNF-α, which stimulate preadipocytes and endothelial cells to produce MCP-1, in turn responsible for attracting macrophages to the adipose tissue, thus developing a state of chronic low-grade inflammation which is causally linked to insulin resistance. Excess of circulating FFA, TNF-α and other factors induces insulin resistance. FFA cause insulin resistance by inhibiting insulin signaling through the activation of serin-kinases, i.e. protein kinase C-Θ, and the kinases JNK and IKK, which promote a mechanism of serine phosphorylation of Insulin Receptor Substrates (IRS), leading to interruption of the downstream insulin receptor (IR) signaling. TNF-α, secreted by hypertrophic adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages, also inhibits IR signaling by a double mechanism of serine-phosphorylation and tyrosine-dephosphorylation of IRS-1, causing inactivation and degradation of IRS-1 and a consequent stop of IR signaling. Such mechanisms explain the transition from excess adiposity to insulin resistance, key to the further development of type 2 diabetes.0Comments 89Citations
- "While nitrite is normally an inert end-product of NO oxidation, during ischemic conditions sufficient acidosis develops, permitting NO generation from the endogenously stored nitrite . This potential for nitrite-derived NO production has been clearly demonstrated both in vitro and in animal models of I/R injury in various organs [18,47,48]. Mice fed with low nitrate and nitrite diets show exacerbated myocardial injury and post-myocardial mortality rates compared with a control group. "