Clinical practice guideline: Adult sinusitis

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.02). 10/2007; 137(3 Suppl):S1-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.otohns.2007.06.726
Source: PubMed


This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on managing sinusitis, defined as symptomatic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Sinusitis affects 1 in 7 adults in the United States, resulting in about 31 million individuals diagnosed each year. Since sinusitis almost always involves the nasal cavity, the term rhinosinusitis is preferred. The guideline target patient is aged 18 years or older with uncomplicated rhinosinusitis, evaluated in any setting in which an adult with rhinosinusitis would be identified, monitored, or managed. This guideline is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and manage adults with sinusitis.
The primary purpose of this guideline is to improve diagnostic accuracy for adult rhinosinusitis, reduce inappropriate antibiotic use, reduce inappropriate use of radiographic imaging, and promote appropriate use of ancillary tests that include nasal endoscopy, computed tomography, and testing for allergy and immune function. In creating this guideline the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation selected a panel representing the fields of allergy, emergency medicine, family medicine, health insurance, immunology, infectious disease, internal medicine, medical informatics, nursing, otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, pulmonology, and radiology.
The panel made strong recommendations that 1) clinicians should distinguish presumed acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) from acute rhinosinusitis caused by viral upper respiratory infections and noninfectious conditions, and a clinician should diagnose ABRS when (a) symptoms or signs of acute rhinosinusitis are present 10 days or more beyond the onset of upper respiratory symptoms, or (b) symptoms or signs of acute rhinosinusitis worsen within 10 days after an initial improvement (double worsening), and 2) the management of ABRS should include an assessment of pain, with analgesic treatment based on the severity of pain. The panel made a recommendation against radiographic imaging for patients who meet diagnostic criteria for acute rhinosinusitis, unless a complication or alternative diagnosis is suspected. The panel made recommendations that 1) if a decision is made to treat ABRS with an antibiotic agent, the clinician should prescribe amoxicillin as first-line therapy for most adults, 2) if the patient worsens or fails to improve with the initial management option by 7 days, the clinician should reassess the patient to confirm ABRS, exclude other causes of illness, and detect complications, 3) clinicians should distinguish chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and recurrent acute rhinosinusitis from isolated episodes of ABRS and other causes of sinonasal symptoms, 4) clinicians should assess the patient with CRS or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis for factors that modify management, such as allergic rhinitis, cystic fibrosis, immunocompromised state, ciliary dyskinesia, and anatomic variation, 5) the clinician should corroborate a diagnosis and/or investigate for underlying causes of CRS and recurrent acute rhinosinusitis, 6) the clinician should obtain computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses in diagnosing or evaluating a patient with CRS or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis, and 7) clinicians should educate/counsel patients with CRS or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis regarding control measures. The panel offered as options that 1) clinicians may prescribe symptomatic relief in managing viral rhinosinusitis, 2) clinicians may prescribe symptomatic relief in managing ABRS, 3) observation without use of antibiotics is an option for selected adults with uncomplicated ABRS who have mild illness (mild pain and temperature <38.3 degrees C or 101 degrees F) and assurance of follow-up, 4) the clinician may obtain nasal endoscopy in diagnosing or evaluating a patient with CRS or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis, and 5) the clinician may obtain testing for allergy and immune function in evaluating a patient with CRS or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis. DISCLAIMER: This clinical practice guideline is not intended as a sole source of guidance for managing adults with rhinosinusitis. Rather, it is designed to assist clinicians by providing an evidence-based framework for decision-making strategies. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for all individuals with this condition, and may not provide the only appropriate approach to diagnosing and managing this problem.

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Available from: Martin C Mahoney
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    • "Nevertheless, the terms rhinosinusitis and sinusitis can be used interchangeably (Meltzer and Hamilos, 2011; Rosenfeld et al, 2007). CRS can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. "

    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Physiotherapy
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    • "The exclusion criteria were developed in the interest of creating a relatively homogeneous study population. All patients with CRS met diagnostic criteria for CRS as described by the 2007 Multi-Disciplinary Sinusitis Guidelines.15 All subjects elected to pursue endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) after symptoms persisted after initial medical management consisting of a 3-week course of culture-directed or broad-spectrum antibiotics, a tapering course of oral prednisone, nasal saline irrigations, and an 8-week course of topical nasal steroid spray. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prior research has identified several components of the innate immune system that may play a significant role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but the role of innate immunity in patients with CRS is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of innate immunity genes in the mucosa of patients with CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) when compared with controls. Methods: Control patients (n = 9) and patients with CRS (n = 36) who failed medical management were prospectively enrolled. Ethmoid mucosa samples were harvested during surgery and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine levels of mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9 and interleukin-22 receptor (IL-22R). The average change in crossover threshold and fold change were calculated and differences between controls, CRSwNP, and CRSsNP were compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskall–Wallis and adjusted Mann–Whitney U tests. Results: Patients with CRSwNP (n = 16) and CRSsNP (n = 20) showed lower mean expression of TLR2 (p < 0.05) compared with controls. Patients with CRSsNP showed significantly higher mean expression of IL-22R (p < 0.05) than controls. Conclusion: The sinonasal innate immune system may have a significant role in the development of CRS. We found differential expression of innate immune mediators between patients with and without nasal polyposis. These results provide further evidence of disruption of innate immunity at the mucosal level in CRS and highlight differences between polyp- and non–polyp-forming CRS phenotypes at the molecular level. In addition to our knowledge, this is the first report of altered IL-22R expression in CRSsNP patients. This study was a part of the clinical trial NCT01332136 registered in
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · American journal of rhinology & allergy
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    • "Rhinosinusitis was defined as an inflammation of the nasal cavities and the paranasal sinuses and is characterized by two or more symptoms, which should be a nasal blockage, an obstruction, a congestion, or a discharge (anterior/posterior nasal drip), which may have accompanying facial pain/pressure and reduction, or loss, in the sense of smell. These symptoms should be supported by a demonstrable disease that includes any of the following observations: endoscopic signs of nasal polyps, mucopurulent discharge primarily from the middle meatus, edema/mucosal obstruction primarily in the middle meatus, or imaging of mucosal changes within the ostiomeatal complex and/or sinuses.9,10 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is an uncommon disease with high mortality rates. There is currently no consensus on the best treatment timing. We studied the impact of the treatment timing on the survival of patients experiencing invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients suffering from invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The duration of symptoms, clinical presentations, clinical signs, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes were collected. Results: It was observed that more than 70% of the mortalities occurred within the subgroup of patients who exhibited symptoms of the disease within 14 days before admission. After adjusting for the confounders, the time taken to treat the patients was the most statistically significant predictor for mortality (P = 0.045). We found no significant relationships between mortality and its significant covariates, which included the underlying diseases (P = 0.91) or complications (P = 0.55). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the time taken to treat the patients is an important determinant for the survival of patients who are afflicted with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The appropriate treatments should be administered within 14 days from the time the symptoms begin to manifest.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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