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Manipulating autonomy, competence, and relatedness support in a game-learning context: New evidence that all three needs matter

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Abstract

Self-report correlational data support self-determination theory's (SDT's) postulate that there are three basic psychological needs, for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which combine additively to predict well-being and thriving. However, experimental research in the SDT tradition has focused only on autonomy support, not relatedness and competence support. To fill this gap, we employed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design within a game-learning experience to predict rated need satisfaction, mood, and motivation, and also objective game performance. Manipulated competence and relatedness support had main effects on most outcomes. Rated competence, relatedness, and autonomy need satisfaction also predicted the outcomes, and the significant experimental main effects were all mediated by the corresponding rated variables. Neutral control group data showed that thwarting participants' needs is more impactful than enhancing them. These findings offer new support for key postulates of SDT, while integrating the correlational and experimental traditions in this area.

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... The characteristics of autonomy supportive messaging include providing meaningful choices, acknowledging potential anxieties, and providing strategies that actively allow a person to explore options. When all three of these items are met within a message, evidence shows that individuals can be motivated to further think about or overcome a particular issue (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). ...
... However, a unique element of this experiment was that it tested the differences between an inoculation message that included only a broad forewarning element, along with messages that included autonomy support and explicit details (see exemplars of stimuli in Table B1 in Appendix B). Messages containing autonomy-supportive language followed previous guidelines set forth by SDT literature that state autonomy supportive messages provide individuals with control, freedom, and support (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). The stimuli that contained explicit details stated what astroturfing is and how Humane Watch (the attacking organization) is funded. ...
... To analyze if the manipulations for autonomy support were successful, perceived autonomy support was also measured in the pre-test. Guided by the self-determination theory, the manipulation check asked, "While reading the message, I felt like HSUS provided me with choices and options on what to believe and support" (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). An independent samples t-test found significant differences between the prebunking message containing autonomy support and the control message, t(1, 62) = -2.13, ...
Article
In 2020, Twitter launched a new strategy dubbed ‘prebunking’ in hopes of pre-emptively countering false information about voting by mail and election results. Prebunking was touted as a potential solution; however, little empirical research has tested the strategy to examine its effectiveness towards disinformation in the realm of public relations. Exploring PR-based disinformation attacks as a paracrisis, the purpose of this online quasi-experimental design study (N = 965) was to investigate the effects of an attack and how prebunking strategies, grounded in inoculation theory, can protect organizational outcomes (i.e., reputation and credibility) by interweaving positive psychology. In addition to examining effects on attitudinal components, this study also inspected dimensions of social amplification to determine if prebunking messages can thwart the spread of disinformation via Facebook. Findings provide insight into advancing the conceptual framework of proactive disinformation responses for crisis communication by demonstrating the success of using prebunking with autonomy support and explicit details to thwart adverse effects of disinformation.
... The need satisfaction one experiences across contexts (i.e., the sum of context-specific need satisfaction) comprises people's general need satisfaction. According to self-determination theory and empirical findings, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads to well-being and psychological health (e.g., Reis et al., 2000;Wray-Lake et al., 2019), autonomous (i.e., selfdetermined and thereby self-maintaining) motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1980), the ability to cope with threats , and performance (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). In turn, the frustration of those needs leads to extrinsic motivation and/or amotivation Sheldon & Filak, 2008), defensiveness and self-protection (Benita, Kehat, et al., 2019;, incongruent behavior (Di INTRODUCTION Domenico et al., 2013;Sheldon et al., 1997), and suppressive emotion regulation (i.e., avoiding or suppressing emotions in order to avoid the uncomfortable emotional experience, as in the case of denial, Benita, Benish-Weisman et al., 2019;Brenning et al., 2021;Roth et al., 2019). ...
... According to self-determination theory and empirical findings, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads to well-being and psychological health (e.g., Reis et al., 2000;Wray-Lake et al., 2019), autonomous (i.e., selfdetermined and thereby self-maintaining) motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1980), the ability to cope with threats , and performance (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). In turn, the frustration of those needs leads to extrinsic motivation and/or amotivation Sheldon & Filak, 2008), defensiveness and self-protection (Benita, Kehat, et al., 2019;, incongruent behavior (Di INTRODUCTION Domenico et al., 2013;Sheldon et al., 1997), and suppressive emotion regulation (i.e., avoiding or suppressing emotions in order to avoid the uncomfortable emotional experience, as in the case of denial, Benita, Benish-Weisman et al., 2019;Brenning et al., 2021;Roth et al., 2019). ...
... To investigate causal relations between basic psychological need satisfaction and the spectrum of climate denial, one may experimentally vary basic psychological need satisfaction and investigate the effects on climate denial. Of course, it is challenging (and probably unethical) to meaningfully influence people's general need satisfaction and frustration in the setting of a lab (see Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Thus, the expected effects are likely small. ...
Thesis
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Climate change is an existential threat to human survival, the social organization of society, and the stability of ecosystems. It is thereby profoundly frightening. In the face of threat, people often want to protect themselves instead of engaging in mitigating behaviors. When psychological resources are insufficient to cope, people often respond with different forms of denial. In this dissertation, I contribute original knowledge to the understanding of the multifaceted phenomenon of climate denial from a psychological perspective. There are four major gaps in the literature on climate denial: First, the spectrum of climate denial as a self-protective response to the climate crisis has not received attention within psychology. Second, basic psychological need satisfaction, a fundamental indicator of human functioning and the ability to cope with threat, has not been investigated as a predictor of climate denial. Third, relations of the spectrum of climate denial to climate-relevant emotions, specifically climate anxiety, have not been examined empirically. Forth, it has not been investigated how the spectrum of climate denial relates to established predictors of climate denial, namely right-wing ideological convictions and male gender. To address those gaps, I investigate what the spectrum of climate denial looks like in the German context and how it relates to basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration, pro-environmental behavior, climate anxiety, ideological conviction, and gender. Five manuscripts reveal that climate denial exists on a spectrum in the German context, ranging from the distortion of facts (interpretive climate denial, specifically denial of personal and global outcome severity) to the denial of the implications of climate change (implicatory climate denial, specifically avoidance, denial of guilt, and rationalization of one's own involvement). Across analyses, low basic psychological need satisfaction predicted the spectrum of climate denial, which was negatively related to pro-environmental behavior. Climate denial was generally negatively related to climate anxiety, except for a positive association of avoidance and climate anxiety. Right-wing ideological conviction was the strongest predictor of climate denial across the spectrum. However, low need satisfaction and male gender were additional weaker predictors of implicatory climate denial. These findings suggest that the spectrum of climate denial serves many psychological functions. Climate denial is possibly both a self-protective strategy to downregulate emotions and to protect oneself from loss of privilege. In short, it represents a barrier to climate action that may only be resolved once people have sufficient psychological resources to face the threat of climate change and cope with their underlying self-protective, emotional responses.
... self-determination theory (SDT) is an often cited and broadly researched motivational theory which, besides elaborating on several types of motivation, introduces the notions of three innate psychological needs; namely, the individual's needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. While the needs for autonomy and competence have been popular research interests, relatedness has received less academic focus Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Drawing on the strong relationship between autonomy and intrinsic motivation , as well as the idea of relatedness having a mediating eff ect on learning results (Beachboard et al., 2011) and possible impact on the enhancement of learner autonomy (Fukuda et al., 2015), this literary investigation seeks to understand the interrelations between the two psychological needs. ...
... Self-determination theory (SDT) is a key concept in motivation research and it has gained abundant attention in the fi eld of psychology and education (e.g., Bauer & McAdams, 2000;Niemiec & Ryan, 2009;Sheldon & Filak, 2008;Takeuchi, 2016). Deci and Ryan (2008), the creators of the concept, position SDT as a macro-theory in motivation research, which encompasses "such basic issues as personality development, self-regulation, universal psychological needs, life goals and aspirations, energy and vitality, nonconscious processes, the relations of culture to motivation, and the impact of social environments on motivation, aff ect, behavior, and well-being" (p. ...
... Although equally important (Sheldon & Filak, 2008), the three psychological needs of SDT have received divergent attention. Deci and Ryan (2000) asserted that internally motivated human beings pursue activities of their own interests and maintain the desire to achieve autonomy and competence. ...
Book
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While international publications and journals in applied linguistics abound, and it is paramount for all professionals to be cognizant of what is happening in the field, we must not forget the power of ‘here and now’, the power of the local. Not in a patriotic sense, but in the sense of relatedness. It is my conviction that without being connected to our immediate surroundings — whether it be family, friends, or colleagues — our well-being is jeopardized. At the same time, we must also be truthful to our innermost curiosity and set research goals that satisfy our personal range of interests. This volume fulfils both of the above requirements: it brings us, members of the Department of English Applied Linguistics, together, and at the same time, it represents a snapshot of our diversity and reflects our endeavors and research activities in 2020.
... In line with SDT, Malmberg and colleagues (2013) found that students experienced a significant decrease in perceived competence for lessons that they perceived to be difficult. Conversely, an increase in perceptions of competence yields better performances in certain fields such as games and sports (Fransen et al., 2018;Sheldon & Filak, 2008); higher vocational and academic appreciatiuon (Utvaer, 2014); higher effort (Chouinard et al., 2007); higher academic initiative (Danielsen et al., 2011); and increased intrinsic motivation (Fransen et al., 2018;Kiemer et al., 2018;Makri-Botsari, 1999;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). ...
... In line with SDT, Malmberg and colleagues (2013) found that students experienced a significant decrease in perceived competence for lessons that they perceived to be difficult. Conversely, an increase in perceptions of competence yields better performances in certain fields such as games and sports (Fransen et al., 2018;Sheldon & Filak, 2008); higher vocational and academic appreciatiuon (Utvaer, 2014); higher effort (Chouinard et al., 2007); higher academic initiative (Danielsen et al., 2011); and increased intrinsic motivation (Fransen et al., 2018;Kiemer et al., 2018;Makri-Botsari, 1999;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). ...
... According to Sheldon and Filak (2008), the three basic psychological needs of SDT are additive. However, the results of this experimental series show that there might be mutual influences between these needs. ...
... Autonomy involves feeling internal approval of one's behaviour, thoughts, and emotions rather than feeling controlled or pressured; competence involves feeling efficient and qualified in one's behaviour, rather than incompetent and ineffective; and relatedness involves feeling meaningfully connected to others, rather than feeling alienated or ostracized. Over the past decades, researchers have established that satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is critical to most domains of human functioning such as health care [10,11], mental health [12,13], the development of well-being [14,15], the development of intrinsic motivation [16], engagement at work [17,18], and in sports [19,20] to name a few. However, the links between needs satisfaction and performance has not attracted much attention from researchers [6]. ...
... However, there is still little research which shows the mechanism of the needs-performance relationship in an experimental context, especially combined with the presence of external incentives. In one research study where all three needs were manipulated experimentally, only competence had a positive impact on performance [13]. It is worth noting that in most, if not all, environments, such as school, work, or academia, the provision of external incentives (grades, remuneration, rewards) usually coexist with the possibility of supporting or frustrating the three needs (the organization of work, leadership style etc.). ...
... The aim of the first study was to test whether the satisfaction of two out of three basic needs,-competence (competence supported or not) and relatedness (relatedness supported or not) during task performance and while external incentives were present can impact individual performance. The predictions of the possible outcomes were based mostly on the meta-analysis of the simultaneous impact of incentives and basic psychological needs on performance [6], experimental studies on influence of needs on performance [13] and the assumptions of self-determination theory [3]. It was suspected that, even though the external incentives were present and salient during the activity and might reduce intrinsic motivation [39,40], support for the need for competence and relatedness should positively influence performance. ...
Article
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Despite the vast body of studies within self-determination theory, the impact of factors which influence performance in experimental paradigm is still underresearched. The aim of the two studies presented in this paper was to investigate the impact of basic psychological needs on performance with the simultaneous presence of external incentives. Study 1 tested whether the satisfaction of competence and relatedness during task performance (while external incentives were present) can impact individual’s performance. Study 2, on the other hand, investigated whether the basic psychological needs and provision of external incentives can impact an individual’s performance. Moreover, in both studies the mechanisms behind the need–performance relationship was checked. Our results showed that out of the three basic needs, competence had the strongest positive impact on performance, which was partially mediated by the subjective evaluation of the levels of difficulty and intrinsic motivation. The weak relationship between relatedness and task performance was fully mediated by the level of intrinsic motivation.
... Instructor support for autonomy (e.g., providing rationales and choices) and competence (e.g., providing optimal feedback and clear expectations) has extensive empirical support for improving student performance and motivation in education (Reeve, 2009;Vansteenkiste & Ryan 2013). However, without support for relatedness in learning, intrinsic motivation and task performance tend to decrease (Sheldon & Filak, 2008;Vansteenkiste et al., 2020). Studies in real-world teaching contexts have shown that students have lower engagement and greater school-related anxiety when their relatedness is not satisfied (Kaufman & Dodge, 2009;Klassen et al., 2012). ...
... This need frustration could lead to controlled motivation and academic failures, such as inability to learn the course content (Davis, 2003;Ruzek et al., 2016). In a laboratory experiment, Sheldon and Filak (2008) manipulated instructor need support and thwarting in a learning task, revealing that the students in the relatedness-thwarting condition had lower intrinsic motivation and task performance than the relatedness-support conditions. ...
... Instructors can implement simple, evidence-based strategies to support relatedness without changing their course or curriculum substantially. Although we specifically target relatedness support, autonomy and competence support also play a critical role in the strategies presented (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). ...
Article
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Introduction Relatedness—a sense of meaningful connectedness and belonging—is one of the basic psychological needs proposed by self-determination theory. Statement of the Problem The current literature lacks evidence-based strategies that support student relatedness in the college classroom. In education, research has indicated what strategies support relatedness, but not how to implement this well-established and important concept in the college classroom. Literature Review Self-determination theory suggests that supporting relatedness between the instructor and students, and among students, can foster intrinsic motivation, internalization of extrinsic motivation, and performance in educational settings. Teaching Implications We present four evidence-based relatedness-supportive strategies—facilitating learning connections, preventing student self-silencing, providing and receiving feedback, and developing a student-centered classroom—to help promote greater student engagement and success in the classroom. We also share our examples and experiences applying these strategies as an instructor and an undergraduate teaching assistant in a physiological psychology course. Conclusion Feedback from students and our reflections suggest that the four strategies are effective, which can be adopted and adapted by other instructors to implement in their classrooms.
... Therefore, we examine whether the implemented features, e.g. 'utilizing feedback channels' to increase perceived autonomy [23], 'providing tutorials' to increase perceived competence [24] and 'ensuring respectful interaction' [25] to increase perceived relatedness, will lead to a higher intention to use the platform. Thus, we ask: ...
... Studies have shown the effect of intrinsic motivation on e.g. games [25,34] or e-learning, e.g. [21,35], but so far none have examined their impact on EPs. ...
... This includes caring about others and feeling that opinions and thoughts are respected. Sheldon and Filak [25] showed in their experiment, conducted in the game-learning context, that fostering relatedness by emphasizing recognition, caring, and interest in participants' experiences significantly increased intrinsic motivation. By implementing features that e.g. ...
... The self-determination theory (SDT) is a broad framework for understanding factors that increase motivation, leading to enhanced learning and achievement (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). ...
... Hence, researchers and game designers can apply various design features to promote intrinsic motivation that can lead to enhanced performance (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). For example, learning supports can help students focus on important information and engage in learning more efficiently, leading to increased competence (Piriyasurawong, 2019;Wouters & van Oostendorp, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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To achieve inclusion of diverse professionals in STEM fields, educators must try to get more children, particularly underrepresented minorities, excited about STEM areas such as physics (Shute et al., 2020a). As researchers, we understand our educational responsibility in supporting active learning for a wide range of learners. In this study, we explored the effects of learning supports on students' perceived competence (i.e., the self-perception of an individual that they can succeed) and investigated the relationship of game features (e.g., reward mechanism) with extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in an educational game. Theoretical Framework The self-determination theory (SDT) is a broad framework for understanding factors that increase motivation, leading to enhanced learning and achievement (Sheldon & Filak, 2008).
... Students have demonstrated less autonomous motivation and less perception of self-efficacy, for instance, when there is a decrease in interpersonal relationships with teachers (Feldlaufer et al., 1988;Hirsch & Rapkin, 1987). Contrarily, adolescents experience a greater sense of well-being (Baroody et al., 2014;García-Moya et al., 2015;Liu et al., 2015;Pössel, Rudasill, Sawyer, Spence, & Bjerg, 2013;Rueger et al., 2010) and engagement (Chen et al., 2010;Li et al., 2011;Wentzel, 2009;Wentzel et al., 2010), a higher quality of motivation (Anderman & Anderman, 1999;Bakadorova & Raufelder, 2018;Battistich et al., 1997;Hamm & Faircloth;2005;Nelson & Debacker, 2008;Patrick et al., 1997;Ryan & Grolnick, 1986;Sánchez et al., 2005;Wentzel et al., 2017;Wubbels et al., 2016;Xiang et al., 2017), greater academic success (Cappella et al., 2013;Furrer & Skinner, 2003;Roorda et al., 2011), and also higher levels of positive affect (Ryan et al., 1994;Sheldon & Filak, 2008) when relatedness is supported through teachers, parents, colleagues, or coaches. ...
... After the pre-test and before starting the practice phase, the groups were manipulated upon receiving specific relatedness instructions. Such instructions were based on previous studies that tested relatedness effect manipulations on adults (e.g., Gonzalez & Chiviacowsky, 2018;Sheldon & Filak, 2008) and on the definition of the relatedness need described by Ryan and Deci (2017). The RS group received the following information: "It is important for you to know that, for us, each one of you is unique. ...
Article
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Social relatedness is a basic psychological need to experience satisfaction of interpersonal acceptance and closeness with others. In this experiment, the effects of social relatedness on the learning of a task (hitting a ball with a racket toward a target) were tested in adolescents. Participants were assigned to three experimental groups. After a pre-test and before practice, participants in the relatedness support (RS) condition received instructions emphasizing recognition, importance, and interest in the participant's experience. Participants in the relatedness frustration (RF) condition received instructions emphasizing disinterest in the participant as a person. Control participants did not receive specific relatedness instructions. One day later, they performed retention and transfer tests. Questionnaires measured participants' motivational and affective levels. The results showed that supporting the relatedness need enhances task learning in adolescents. Motivation and affective levels were also affected. The findings are the first to show that social relatedness affects adolescent's motor performance and learning and reveal underlying mechanisms implicated in such effects.
... show interest in what they do, and show interest in spending time with them (Rocchi et al., 2017;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Teachers' need-supportive behaviors have been found to increase students' experience of need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, engagement, skill learning, and well-being (Aelterman et al., 2019;Behzadnia et al., 2019;Cheon et al., 2018;Vasconcellos et al., 2020). ...
... To do this, through a PowerPoint presentation, evidence on the benefits of need-supportive interventions, and reducing need-thwarting behaviors were presented, and research staff (first author) discussed "what-to-do" (Table 1) along with "how-to-do" (Tables 2) the instructions in class activities. That is, we provided methods on "how-to-do" instructional behaviors that followed up by need-supportive teaching activities (e.g., Aelterman et al., 2019;Cheon et al., 2018;Cheon et al., 2019;Reeve & Cheon, 2016;Ryan & Deci, 2017;Sheldon & Filak, 2008;Sparks et al., 2016;Weinstein et al., 2018). At the end of part 1, the research staff reviewed the instructions and provided some experiences in working with students and practical examples in a group discussion. ...
Article
Objectives The present study tested a need-supportive teaching approach to enhance the experience of need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and well-being, and to decrease need frustration, controlled motivation, amotivation, and ill-being among students with intellectual disability in physical education activities. We further tested the effects of experimental condition in predicting students’ need satisfaction and need frustration, motivational regulations, and well-being and ill-being over the semester. Design Experimental study. Methods Ninety eight students with mild and borderline intellectual disabilities (Mage = 16.53, SD = 3.22; female = 63.3%) attended in this experimental semester-long study. Teachers (N = 6) of students randomly assigned into either an experimental (need-supportive teaching style) or a control (usual teaching style) condition. Students filled out the targeted questionnaires at the beginning (T1), middle (T2), and the end of the semester (T3). Findings The results showed that students of the teachers in the experimental condition reported higher need satisfaction and positive affect, and lesser need frustration, amotivation, and negative affect than students of the teachers in the control condition. The results also showed that experimental condition predicted positively T3 need satisfaction, whereas and negatively predicted T3 need frustration, amotivation, and negative affect. Conclusion Findings highlight the importance of teachers’ need-supportive teaching behaviors to enhance positive outcomes, and decreasing their negative outcomes in students with intellectual disabilities in PE.
... Unlike other psychological models of wellbeing, SDT can be applied, not just at the level of life, but also at the finer resolutions relevant to technology design, such as task and interface (Peters et al., 2018) and in ways that can be tested empirically. For example, (Sheldon & Filak, 2008) manipulated all three basic needs via simple variations in wording in a game-learning context and found that supporting all needs improved mood, intrinsic motivation, and game performance. ...
Preprint
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While human beings have a right to digital experiences that support, rather than diminish, their psychological wellbeing, technology designers lack research-based practices for ensuring psychological needs are met. To help address this gap, we draw on findings from over 30 years of research in psychology (specifically, self-determination theory) that has identified contextual factors shown to support psychological wellbeing. We translate these findings into a list of 14 heuristics and 28 design strategies to provide technology makers with theoretically grounded, research-based, and actionable ways to support wellbeing in user experience.
... Certains ont ainsi montré que les élèves ressentaient davantage de symptômes dépressifs lorsque les exigences étaient plus élevées (Eriksson & Sellström, 2010), mais cela n'a pas été confirmé par d'autres études (Låftman & Modin, 2012, Modin, Östberg, Toivanen et al., 2011. Enfin, Sheldon et Filak (2008) ont montré de manière expérimentale qu'encourager les élèves dans une situation d'apprentissage complexe et leur dire que c'était normal de trouver cela difficile au début, mais qu'ils allaient progressivement s'améliorer avait une influence favorable concernant les affects positifs et négatifs. ...
Article
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Cette note de synthèse vise à offrir un panorama de la littérature scientifique concernant la relation entre les pratiques des enseignants et le bien-être des élèves. Dans un premier temps, nous envisageons plus globalement les effets du contexte scolaire sur le bien-être en abordant les différentes disciplines s’étant penchées sur la question, la définition-même du bien-être étudié en contexte scolaire, les enjeux statistiques liés à l’analyse des effets contextuels et enfin les différentes dimensions pouvant rendre compte des différences entre classes ou écoles. En nous appuyant sur cette première partie, nous détaillons dans un second temps les résultats des recherches ayant investigué le lien entre bien-être des élèves et pratiques des enseignants en organisant cet état de l’art autour de cinq catégories de pratiques. Les perspectives pour la recherche mais aussi pour la pratique sont évoquées en discussion. - The aim of this article is to provide an overview of available evidence on the relationship between teacher practices and student well-being. Firstly, we consider more broadly the effects of the school context on well-being. We address the various disciplines that have studied this issue, the definition of well-being when studied in the school context, the statistical challenges involved in analyzing contextual effects, and the various dimensions that can account for differences between classes or schools. Relying on this first part, we then review more specifically studies on the link between teacher practices and student well-being, organising the results around five categories of practices. Finally, research perspectives and practical implications are discussed.
... education, healthcare and industrial organisations) and cultures (e.g. the USA, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea and China) have shown that the fulfilment of these three needs is positively related to a series of desired individual and organisational outcomes, including autonomous motivation, well-being and job performance, whereas the absence of any of these three needs is positively related to ill-being, absenteeism and turnover (e.g. Baard et al., 2004;Chen et al., 2015a, b;Olafsen et al., 2017;Rathi and Lee, 2017;Sheldon and Filak, 2008). Taken together, theoretical propositions and empirical evidence indicate that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs is universally important to achieve desirable individual and organisational outcomes. ...
Article
Purpose More companies embrace flexible work arrangements (FWA) as one of their employee retention strategies, yet its effectiveness is not consistent. Generally, past researchers use the social exchange theory to explain how FWA lowers turnover intention, while the rest adopts the border theory to justify why FWA can be ineffective. Here, the authors compare the competing theories for the first time to differentiate the theoretical reasoning of three forms of FWA (flex time, flex leave and homeworking). Two mediators (organisational commitment and work−family conflicts) are chosen to represent the mechanism of each theory. Design/methodology/approach The authors employ the latest wave of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) Work Orientation Module from 2015. Based on nationally representative data from 35 nations and 17,604 participants, the authors employed simple mediation and parallel double-mediation models via bootstrapping procedures to investigate the theoretical reasoning behind each FWA. Findings The results indicate that organisational commitment and work−family conflicts as significant mediators in all models, supporting both theories. The authors first tested each mediator in separated models. In models concerning the social exchange theory, all FWA lead to increased organisational commitment before lowering turnover intention, implying the beneficial outcomes of FWA. However, findings also support the border theory's perspective where flex time and homeworking increase turnover intention through heightened work−family conflicts. The parallel double-mediation further suggests that all three FWA forms have their unique theoretical framework, impacting turnover intention differently. Originality/value Both the social exchange theory and border theory are well-developed theories but grounded on different theoretical reasoning. This is the first paper that compares both theoretical perspectives in the context of FWA. It offers a new perspective in explaining the inconclusive effectiveness of FWA and provides future researchers a more integrated interpretation and prediction of FWA's impact on turnover intention.
... • Meaningful choice [53]: The meaningful choice provides the players a sense of control. It can improve the autonomy [54] and determinants of the game enjoyment [55]. It implicates the choices made by players are able to lead to different and interpretable results. ...
... Just like plants need water, sunlight and soil to grow, SDT suggests that individuals require the satisfaction of all of their three needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to experience healthy development, integrity, and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000). This equal and additive importance of the three psychological needs has been demonstrated throughout decades of SDT research (e.g., Sheldon & Filak, 2008;Vansteenkiste et al., 2020). Hence, we advocate that it is the general need supportive, thwarting, or indifferent experience that matters most, rather than how each individual need is supported, thwarted, or neglected. ...
Article
This research addresses recent calls for an alternative integrative framework to apprehend leaders’ behaviors and examines the validity of questionnaire anchored in this theoretical approach. Building upon Self-Determination Theory, we examined a tripartite approach of supervisors’ behaviors (supportive, thwarting, and indifferent toward subordinates’ psychological needs). The psychometric properties of this Tripartite Measure of Interpersonal Behaviors-Supervisor (TMIB-S) was tested through three studies. Results from bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling supported a solution including one global factor, and three specific factors reflecting need supportive, thwarting, and indifferent behaviors. This solution was fully invariant across distinct samples of French- and English-speaking employees. Results also supported the criterion-related and discriminant validities of the TMIB-S. More specifically, results supported the added-value of the TMIB-S, when compared to well-established measures of leadership (passive leadership, abusive supervision, LMX, and transformational leadership), in predicting well- and ill-being. Results also highlighted well-differentiated effects of the different components of supervisory behaviors and showed that supervisors’ need indifferent behaviors constitute a key piece in the prediction of employees’ health-related consequences.
... SDT argues that the feelings of self-efficacy and effectiveness have an immediate effect on one's increased intrinsic motivation (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997;Sheldon and Filak, 2008). Efficacy focuses on teachers' beliefs about the extent to which successful outcomes stem from their own achievements and/or effort. ...
Thesis
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This study investigates different factors that impact English as Foreign Language teacher motivation in the Saudi tertiary educational context. The study gathered data from 94 EFL teachers using a questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. In addition, six semi-structured individual interviews were conducted in order to probe into important issues that arose from questionnaire findings. The data were then analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively and notable patterns were summarized. Most of this study’s findings were consistent with the teacher motivation literature, stressing that factors which are closely concerned with the teachers’ self-realization and the teaching profession itself are important to sustain an EFL teacher motivation. A direct correlation was also found between work-related factors and teachers’ intrinsic motivation. This study concludes by making some recommendations for educational administration in order to create and maintain a healthy work environment. Most of these suggestions are related to ridding the workplace of apparent stressful work conditions and implementing some strategies to sustain teacher’s intrinsic motivation.
... Competence: Enabling students to master knowledge in a given subject area allows them to become effective learners (Sheldon & Filak 2008). The teaching team supported the learners in the initial stages of assessment by providing instructions and guidance during the lectures and tutorials. ...
Article
This study examines the influence of adopting a student-centered active learning approach based on selfdetermination theory (SDT) to develop independent and motivated first-year Australian business undergraduates. Existing literature demonstrates how active learningapproaches can help to improve student motivation. However, there are no empirical studies to assess the influence of active learningclassroom activities on student academic performance during their first year of tertiary studies. The aim of our study is to contribute to knowledge by integrating self-determination theory, and ‘at-home ethnographic’ research approach to reflect on how active learning-classroom strategies can help tertiary business students become independent learners and improve their academic performance. The active learning-classroom approach included a scaffolded assessment structure; timely and ongoing tutor feedback on assessment criteria and learning outcomes of the scaffolded assessments; and social/peerbased learning activities within and outside of the classroom to support student performance. The authors draw on an ‘at-home ethnographic’ research approach, which allowed the teaching team to use their observations during the 13 weeks of teaching, and team reflections, to describe not only what they witnessed, but also their experiences of how students interacted, and what they did within the classroom environment. The study shows that students became autonomous and positively benefited from the scaffolded assessment structure while evolving to become competent, independent learners due to the continuous feedback they received on their assessments, and to the active peer learning within and outside of the classroom. Moreover, the group assessments provided a platform to engage with academic literature, which, in turn, helped students to challenge their understanding of the concepts by engaging in critical analysis with their peers. The findings can help future tertiary learning designers to develop first year assessments that will support students to become independent learners and reduce the level of attrition during the first year of tertiary education
... education, healthcare and industrial organisations) and cultures (e.g. the USA, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea and China) have shown that the fulfilment of these three needs is positively related to a series of desired individual and organisational outcomes, including autonomous motivation, well-being and job performance, whereas the absence of any of these three needs is positively related to ill-being, absenteeism and turnover (e.g. Baard et al., 2004;Chen et al., 2015a, b;Olafsen et al., 2017;Rathi and Lee, 2017;Sheldon and Filak, 2008). Taken together, theoretical propositions and empirical evidence indicate that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs is universally important to achieve desirable individual and organisational outcomes. ...
Article
Purpose Research has shown that autonomy support is a powerful predictor of employee well-being in the West. Despite this importance in the West, the role of autonomy in relation to employee well-being remains relatively understudied in other contexts, such as Malaysia. This is presumably so due to the assumption that employees in a country of excessive hierarchy, like Malaysia, do not value autonomy. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this paper aims to investigate the relationship between employee perceived autonomy support and well-being in the context of Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach The authors propose that employee-perceived autonomy support is positively related to employee well-being (measured as work engagement and emotional exhaustion) mediated by basic psychological need satisfaction. The authors also hypothesize that the positive relationship is even stronger when employees are less autonomy-oriented. The authors tested this moderated mediation model using a survey of 125 interns in Malaysia. Findings The results provide strong evidence for the mediating role of need satisfaction when intern well-being is measured as work engagement, while the evidence is less conclusive when employee well-being is measured as emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the moderating effect of autonomy orientation is insignificant. Originality/value This paper enhances understanding of the cross-culture applicability of SDT and thereby provided a nuanced understanding of the boundary conditions of autonomy support.
... Relatedness has similar beneficial effects: children who feel strong relatedness to their parents have greater motivation and willingness to learn and concentrate in class (Maccoby & Martin, 1983;Pomerantz et al., 2012), while student and teacher reports of their relationship quality predict increased academic engagement, time spent working in class, and decreased negative classroom behaviors (Cheung, 2019;Decker et al., 2007). Evidence for the role of satisfying autonomy, competence and relatedness for motivation is present in older learners as well, such as adolescents (Minnaert et al., 2007) college students (Sheldon & Filak, 2008;Zainuddin & Perera, 2019), and older adults (Lessa & Chiviacowsky, 2015), which suggests that SDT need not be restricted to school age children, but learners at all developmental and life stages. ...
Article
Across the lifespan, learners have to tackle the challenges of learning new skills. These skills can range from abilities needed for survival, such as learning languages, learning to walk during infancy, and learning new software for a job in adulthood, to abilities related to leisure and hobbies. As the learner progresses through novice to expert stages, there are cognitive and metacognitive, motivational, and resource considerations for learning new skills. In terms of cognitive considerations, fluid and crystallized abilities as well as executive functions interact to help the learner process and retain information related to the skills. In terms of metacognitive considerations, knowing what to learn and how to learn are important for novel skill learning. In terms of motivational considerations, changes in individuals' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation throughout the lifespan impact their pursuit of novel skill learning, and declines in motivation can be buffered through the cultivation of grit, growth mindset, self‐efficacy, and other personal factors. In terms of resource considerations, there are many tools that learners can use to acquire new skills, but allocation and availability of these resources differ based on life stage and socioeconomic status. Taken together, these considerations may provide learners with the best chance at acquiring new skills across the lifespan. Further research investigating these three factors, particularly among older adult learners, and their interactive effects could help increase our understanding of their impacts on skill learning and inform future cognitive interventions that can be tailored to learners' unique needs. This article is categorized under: Cognitive Biology > Cognitive Development Psychology > Development and Aging Psychology > Learning
... This is because SNS can provide a platform for adolescents to selectively present their positive aspects and then directly receive positive feedback (i.e., comments, "likes") from SNS friends. Another study also found that adolescents experience a strong sense of competence after completing challenging tasks in online games (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). These compensatory uses of mobile phones may put adolescents at a higher risk of developing MPA (Tunc-Aksan & Akbay, 2019). ...
Article
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Introduction Prior studies have shown that parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships may be important factors associated with adolescent mobile phone addiction (MPA). The present study aims to further explore both the direct effects of parent-adolescent and peer relationships on adolescent MPA, and their indirect effects through the mediating roles of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs satisfaction. Methods: Our sample consisted of 1766 Chinese adolescents (53.10% male; Mage = 13.33, SD = 1.94, range from 10-18 years) who completed questionnaires on parent-child relationships, peer relationships, psychological needs satisfaction, and MPA. SPSS 24.0 was used to analyze correlations among variables and Mplus 7.4 was used to test the structural equation model in this study. Results: (1) positive parent-adolescent relationships were negatively associated with adolescent MPA, while peer relationships did not show a significant association with MPA; (2) autonomy and competence needs satisfaction significantly mediated the effects of parent-adolescent and peer relationships on MPA, while the mediating role of relatedness need satisfaction between parent-adolescent and peer relationships and MPA was not significant; (3) the mediating effect of competence need satisfaction between peer relationships and MPA was significantly stronger than that between parent-adolescent relationships and MPA. Conclusions: This study explored the different mechanisms by which parent-adolescent and peer relationships influence adolescent MPA; these discoveries may contribute to intervention and prevention programs for adolescent MPA.
... According to self-determination theory, to support motivation, one should support the basic psychological needs, which are a) autonomy, in which individuals feel internally assent regarding their behavior and feel free of external constraints on behavior; b) competence, in which the individuals feel connected or skilled in their behavior; c) relatedness, in which the individuals meaningfully feel connected or involved with others (Beluce & Oliveira, 2015;Ryan & Deci, 2000;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Supporting these needs allows an individual to become selfdetermined and fulfilled. ...
Article
Motivation has a vital role in successful learning and has garnered the interest of numerous scholars in a wide array of contexts, especially education. Despite such influence, literature in motivation has inconsistent findings with regard to gender. Also, shifting to online learning as a consequence of COVID-19 has impacted students’ academic motivation. This study is novel as it is the first to classify motivation types according to self-determination theory among Jordanian undergraduates in online learning environment throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, it examined the motivational Jordanian undergraduate profile and investigated the same in relation to gender. This study employed a quantitative approach with a web-based questionnaire. The study sample comprised 433 undergraduates who were enrolled in online courses offered at the University of Jordan. The data were collected in September of the academic year 2021–2022 using the academic motivation scale. Mann–Whitney U test was performed to examine gender differences in motivation type. Results demonstrated significant gender difference in motivation types. Females had more self-determination (U = 19,106, p = .024), intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation (U = 17,030, p = .000), identified regulation (U = 14,997, p = .000), and introjected regulation (U = 17,557, p = .000), while males had more amotivation (U = 17,557, p = .000). Implications of this study can inform online instructors and decision-makers to carefully consider online learning settings and employ intrinsic motivation strategies to boost students’ self-determination and enhance their motivation quality.
... For instance, Millette and Gagné (2008) found that specific job features, such as perceived volitional choices (including choices for work methods, scheduling, and decision-making) and productivity on the job, positively correlated to volunteer workers' autonomous motivation. Besides satisfying the needs for autonomy, Sheldon and his colleague (Sheldon & Filak, 2008) also empirically proved that satisfying the needs for relatedness and competence can also improve people's intrinsic motivation. In their study, relatedness needs were fulfilled by an acknowledgment from the important ones, while the competence needs were expressed by efficacy beliefs and perceived positive performance feedback. ...
Article
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Employees often demonstrate various regulatory intentions toward multiple responsibilities they must fulfill on the job. Therefore, it is possible that employees’ motivation changes during the workday because of the various situations they have experienced and that these motivational fluctuations affect their subjective well-being across different activities. Following the integrated frameworks of the self-determination theory (SDT) and the hierarchical model of motivation (H-SDT), the present research studied the variations of employees’ daily motivation for work across different activities using the survey of day reconstruction method (DRM). Multi-level structural equation modeling (MSEM) was used to analyze the variations in the perceived three basic psychological (i.e., autonomy-, relatedness-, and competence-) needs-supportive features (NSFs), situational motivation, and variables capturing the employees’ subjective well-being (including vitality and positive/negative affect) laid out according to a list of work episodes in DRM. Results of this study confirmed that employees’ subjective well-being (mainly vitality and positive affect) were positively promoted by NSFs pertained to specific work activities via the indirect path of situational autonomous motivation at work. Furthermore, vitality and positive affect were also directly predicted by situational autonomous motivation. These empirical findings expanded the research evidence supporting employees’ subjective well-being as a multi-level and multi-dimensional dynamic motivational consequence promoted by configurable specific NSFs at work. We also discussed the limitations and future directions for this line of research.
... Furthermore, it can support the individual's competence using positive feedback and encouraging them to improve their skills and achieve their goals (competence supportive) or, conversely, hinder their competence through behaviors that underline their faults, doubting their capacity to improve (competence thwarting). Finally, the interpersonal context can foster individual relationships through behaviors that include acknowledgment, caring, and support (relatedness supportive) or, conversely, can manifest behaviors of disinterest and a lack of empathy (relatedness thwarting) (Bartholomew et al., 2009;Rocchi et al., 2017;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Overall, the literature has shown that supportive interpersonal behaviors are positively related to need satisfaction, wellbeing, motivation, and academic success (Campbell et al., 2015;Milyavskaya & Koestner, 2011;Rocchi et al., 2017). ...
Article
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School alienation is a sense of estrangement from learning and knowledge, which is related with low academic achievement and often influenced by negative relationship with teacher and classmate, negatively affecting the student psychological well-being. In accordance with self-determination theory, the interpersonal context may or may not support the individual, depending on whether it contributes to satisfaction or, conversely, to frustration of the "basic psychological needs". Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that influence students' subjective well-being , in order to prevent the onset of problems that can have negative repercussions on their functioning and health. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of the basic psychological needs on the relationship between stu-dents' perceptions of teachers' and classmates' need-supportive and need-thwarting interpersonal behaviors and school alienation and academic achievement. A total of 399 students, with an average age of 16.88 years, participated in this study. The results showed the role of basic psychological needs in the relationship between teachers' and classmates' need-supportive and need-thwarting interpersonal behaviors , school alienation, and academic achievement. This study extends the knowledge of the factors that can influence the school functioning of adolescents, with important application implications in school context.
... To get deeper insights about a potentially different perception of the robot between the conditions, we used the Godspeed Questionnaire [1] with a total of 24 pairs of adjectives rated on a five-point polarity profile. To rate satisfaction of the three psychological needs we used a scale by Sheldon [22] with the subscales Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence containing three items each. Scales ranged from '1 -strongly disagree' to '5 -strongly agree'. ...
... Thinking about the therapy process, the therapist must be able to identify, keep in mind, and know how to manage the needs of their clients. A robust body of evidence has suggested the direct and indirect contributions of fulfilling needs to the achievement of positive outcomes (e.g., Sheldon & Filak, 2008). The results of a study with fifty-one clients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, who were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy or antidepressant medication, showed that psychological need fulfillment increased in both groups; and the increase in need fulfillment was associated with a decrease in depression severity (Quitasol et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
Clients may be more or less motivated at the start of psychotherapy, and participation may fluctuate at different stages of the psychotherapy process. This kind of motivation is what people usually associate with the term psychotherapy motivation. Ideally, clients are willing to work hard all through the therapeutic process and invest a lot of effort into changing their lives, behaviors, and associated experiences. This chapter reviews various motivational concepts and explains how they might become relevant in psychotherapy. To better understand motivation in the psychotherapy context, it introduces some basic motivational constructs: needs, motives, personal goals, and autonomous motivation. The chapter discusses selected empirical findings on how different aspects of a client's motivation may affect the process and outcome of psychotherapy. It addresses practical ways of detecting and addressing motivationally challenging situations in psychotherapy.
... Collaborative learning in PBL involves cooperative work among students in solving ill-defined problems and can be enforced through implementing competitive elements. Indeed, collaborative learning instils the feeling of relatedness among students, which has a positive impact on students' intrinsic motivation (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Providing an equal chance for student to actively participate in the discussion can stimulate the feeling of relatedness-which is an element of SDT-and thus leads to the formation of social integration among them. ...
Article
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The application of gamified elements to PBL to promote student engagement has not been systematically described. Hence, we conducted a review based on Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage scoping review framework, involving research question identification, relevant study identification, study selection, data charting, and result collating and reporting. We searched three databases using five search terms combined with a Boolean operator: “problem-based learning” AND “persuasive OR gamify OR gamification OR game”. The initial pool of 5532 sources was evaluated according to the eligibility criteria, and 14 original articles were selected for the final data extraction. A content analysis was performed, and several persuasive gamification elements for PBL were identified. The results were reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram. The analysis unearthed six main categories of persuasive gamification elements, which have been proven to be effective in the achievement of learning outcomes: high-fidelity simulation, inquisitive exploration, collaborative learning, interactive instruction, guidance and feedback, and rewards. These findings highlight the persuasive gamify elements that can be incorporated to support the active learning and engagement of students in PBL, thus preparing them to be lifelong, self-directed learners.
... Additionally, we specifically asked participants whether they had fun or were frustrated during the tutoring, if they would recommend it to other students, and whether they liked the robot using the same scale as the ElAM. In the last study of the series, after working with the robot for a while and getting the maximum of adaptation in the adaptive condition, we additionally surveyed the satisfaction of the three psychological needs using the subscales Autonomy, Relatedness, and Competence using the scale by Sheldon (Sheldon and Filak, 2008). The subscales contained three items, each ranging from "1-strongly disagree" to "5-strongly agree". ...
Article
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Learning in higher education scenarios requires self-directed learning and the challenging task of self-motivation while individual support is rare. The integration of social robots to support learners has already shown promise to benefit the learning process in this area. In this paper, we focus on the applicability of an adaptive robotic tutor in a university setting. To this end, we conducted a long-term field study implementing an adaptive robotic tutor to support students with exam preparation over three sessions during one semester. In a mixed design, we compared the effect of an adaptive tutor to a control condition across all learning sessions. With the aim to benefit not only motivation but also academic success and the learning experience in general, we draw from research in adaptive tutoring, social robots in education, as well as our own prior work in this field. Our results show that opting in for the robotic tutoring is beneficial for students. We found significant subjective knowledge gain and increases in intrinsic motivation regarding the content of the course in general. Finally, participation resulted in a significantly better exam grade compared to students not participating. However, the extended adaptivity of the robotic tutor in the experimental condition did not seem to enhance learning, as we found no significant differences compared to a non-adaptive version of the robot.
... Autonomous motivation is associated with greater effort, commitment, perseverance, better performance, and other positive consequences. Feelings of anxiety, guilt, or embarrassment indicate external motivation (Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994;Deci & Ryan, 2008;Ryan & Deci, 2000;Sheldon & Elliot, 1998;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Sheldon and Elliot (1999) use the term self-concordance to define the extent to which one feels autonomy in goal striving. ...
Conference Paper
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"The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between different forms of motivation mindsets. The integrative model of motivated behavior (Meyer, Becker, & Vandenberghe, 2004) indicates relations between the forms of motivation identified in the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997, 1998). A concept of goal regulation proposes relations between autonomous versus external motivation and promotion versus prevention focus. The research involved 288 university students. Participants rated their motivation for three personal goals on scales assessing self-concordance (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). The regulatory focus was assessed by the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ, Higgins et al., 2001). It was found that autonomous motivation was significantly positively related to promotion focus. Furthermore, autonomous motivation predicted promotion focus. Between external motivation and prevention focus a significant relationship was not confirmed. However, external motivation significantly negatively correlated with promotion focus."
... In the extrinsic goal framing condition, customers were exposed to a poster saying that by ordering the meal kit, they could share meal pictures with friends on social media, which embodies the extrinsic goal of social recognition (Kasser and Ryan, 1996). Perceived competence was manipulated by altering both the instruction language (Sheldon and Filak, 2008) and the difficulty level of preparing the gourmet meal kit (Mochon et al., 2012). In the high competence condition, customers first read instructions with wording such as "challenging," "you will be able to do it" and "have confidence in you." ...
Purpose This study aims to explore an emerging phenomenon – gourmet meal kits delivered to out-of-towners from iconic local restaurants. This study explores the interplay of goal framing and basic needs and their effects on customer intentions. This study also examines the underlying mechanism of experience cocreation and the moderating effect of food involvement. Design/methodology/approach This study develops a framework that combines the self-determination theory (SDT) and customer experience cocreation. Two online experimental studies involving 478 US consumers were conducted to examine the underlying mechanism of customers’ decision-making on purchasing gourmet meal kits (Study 1) and visiting destination restaurants after receiving the meal kit (Study 2). Findings Intrinsic goal-framing leads to stronger intentions to purchase gourmet meal kits and to visit destination restaurants that sell meal kits. In contrast, extrinsic goal-framing enhances the positive influence of perceived relatedness and competence on behavioral intentions. The effects of goal framing and basic needs on behavioral intentions are moderated by food involvement and mediated by experience cocreation to varying degrees. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first to empirically examine an emerging business model – delivering restaurants’ food experiences to out-of-towners. The study also expands the application of the SDT by incorporating customer cocreation as the underlying mechanism.
... Because the need for competence and relatedness is a covariance, the need for relatedness influences the need for competence in students, or vice versa, the need for competence influences the need for relatedness. The results of this study support the results of previous studies that chose to combine the need for competence and the need for relatedness (Sheldon & Filak, 2008). The influence of the need for competence and related aspects of the need for autonomy also confirms the statement of Jenkins-Gwarniery, Vaughan, and Wright (2015), namely the construct of the need for autonomy is a center to self-determination theory. ...
Article
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This study aims to investigate the unique role of three basic psychological needs in students' well-being, especially engagement and burnout. This study used students from private universities in Yogyakarta, one of the student cities in Indonesia. Using non-random sampling techniques, the researchers collected 404 students as respondents to filled-out the questionnaire. After testing the validity using factor analysis and reliability using Cronbach Alpha, correlation techniques were used as a preliminary analysis to test the relationship between the variables studied. SEM is used to test the model of the relationship between variables. The results indicated that the need for autonomy had a direct effect on academic engagement and academic burnout. The need for competence and relatedness was covariance and influenced the need for autonomy. Academic engagement is also directly influenced by the need for competence. In-depth discussion was presented in the analysis of the results of this study.
... Coaches could create an effective training environment by incorporating strategies such as enabling athletes to choose and provide opportunities, [27] promoting a clear structure during training and giving them plenty of time to succeed. They can also provide positive feedback or encourage skills improvements, [28] they can promote cooperative and interdependent tasks and begin to show that they care for their athletes [29]. Conversely, coaches could also adopt a training style characterized by the use of control, rewards, and demands, [30] highlighting mistakes and expressing doubts about athletes' abilities or behaving coldly and distant [ 28]. ...
Article
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Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of a coaching intervention on soccer athletes’ perceptions of the coaches’ competencies, enjoyment, satisfaction, and intention to persist in the sport. Equipment and methods:The research was conducted on a sample of 105 young football players aged 10 to 15, drawn from 6 clubs:FC Maribor-Slovenia, FC Pelister-Macedonia, FC Gorica-Croatia, FC Graficar-Serbia, FC Doboj-BiH, FC Zeleznichar-Sarajevo. Focused on coacheffectiveness, coaches from EG received a 12-hour training program.Self-report questionnaires were administered to the athletes both at the beginning and the end of the intervention. The correlation of scales and subscales in the initial and final measurements was determined by Pearson correlation coefficients. The effects of the intervention program (differences between the initial and final measurement) were determined by t- tests for dependent samples. Results: The results showed significant changes in competence for game strategy (t = 29,20; p = 000), technical competence (t = 10, 06; p = 002), character building competence (t = 9.65; p = 002) and enjoyment (t = 7.11; p = 008). Thus, these types of interventions are effective for improving and maintaining over time variables related to athletes’ perception of their coaches’ competency, enjoyment and character building competence.
Chapter
Learning in university setting includes the challenging task of self-motivation of the learner. The use of social robots has been shown to support the learner in their social learning process. In this paper, we address the motivation of learners in terms of self-determination theory as a theoretical framework to address need satisfaction. To this end, we conducted a field study using an adaptive robotic tutor that supports learners in exam preparation using an online learning session. With the aim to not only benefit motivation, but also academic success, we draw from research in social robotics in education as well as from adaptive tutoring, to create an adequate learning scenario. Adaptation is realized by a simple content and learner model and resulted in a significantly higher perceived use of the tutoring compared to a control condition. Our results also showed descriptive benefits such as increased perceived tutor quality, need satisfaction and motivation resulting from the adaptive tutoring. Finally, we found significantly better exam performance with the robotic tutor in the adaptive or non-adaptive version relative to students not participating in the robotic tutoring.
Article
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Self-Determination Theory (SDT) has consistently shown that the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are essential nutrients for optimal human functioning across a diverse range of domains such as family, sports, education and work. SDT has also found that materialism—the relative importance attached to extrinsic versus intrinsic life goals—not only reduces need satisfaction, but also increases need frustration. Yet, what psychological mechanisms explain this association remain unknown. We theorized that dispositional gratitude might play a role. Thus, we tested the longitudinal mediational effects of gratitude in the link between materialism and need satisfaction/frustration, using a three-wave longitudinal design over six months among a large sample of Chilean adults (N = 1841). Importantly, we used the two most established materialism scales: the Aspiration Index (AI) and the Material Values Scale (MVS). Results showed consistently (using either the AI or the MVS) that higher materialism at Time 1 prospectively predicts lower gratitude at Time 2, which in turn prospectively predicts lower need satisfaction and higher need frustration at Time 3. Our results extend SDT and gratitude research in important ways. First, we found a theoretically sound mechanism that accounts for the materialism—basic psychological needs link. Second, expanding on previous research, we found that (a) materialism increases need frustration over time directly, but also through the mediation of gratitude; (b) gratitude decreases need frustration. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
According to Self-determination Theory (SDT), self-determined athletes are more apt to put forth effort and have high levels of self-esteem and well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Studies have identified a strong connection between coach behaviors and athletes’ needs satisfaction, yet few addressed this issue from a coach’s perspective. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to gain insights into female collegiate coaches’ experienced feelings of competence, autonomy and relatedness, and their perceived ability to meet these needs in their athletes. Seven NCAA Division I field hockey coaches were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed following established procedures. Results include factors that both enhanced and detracted from coaches’ experienced need satisfaction, along with strategies and impediments to meeting their athletes’ needs. The discussion will address strategies ADs, coaches and athletes can adopt to create a more motivational environment for themselves and each other.
Article
This study examined the effects of need-supporting behaviors (autonomy/relatedness support) and regulatory foci (promotion/prevention focus) on task engagement and performance. We predicted that promotion concerns would fit autonomy support, whereas prevention concerns would fit relatedness support, and both concerns would result in a higher quality of engagement and performance. College students (N = 64) participated in an experiment and were assessed for individual differences in regulatory orientation. Then, the need-supporting behavior was manipulated, task learning was performed, and the engagement and performance for task learning were measured. The results largely confirmed the fit between promotion focus and autonomy support, and prevention focus and relatedness support on engagement. We have discussed why certain hypotheses were not supported and offered specific suggestions for future research.
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Self-directed learning is of critical importance in adult learning, for example, when taking part in online courses or learning at universities. To work on a challenging topic continuously requires learners to self-motivate. By applying self-determination theory to address the basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness, the internalisation of motivation can be fostered. We implemented a learning environment, which addresses these needs using gamification elements to scaffold situational motivation, and compared it with a control version in a user study to investigate the effect of the implemented gamification elements on the internalization of situational motivation. Our results show an internalization of situational motivation with significantly higher internalised and significantly lower extrinsic situational motivation in the gamified version relative to the control condition.
Article
Hospitality value co-creation studies have generally focused on the customer. However, service-dominant logic postulates that all actors must benefit from successful value co-creation. In this study, the employee self-determination factors of autonomy, competence, and relatedness were examined across generations to understand hospitality co-creation perceptions and attitudes. Employee self-determination (strong, weak) was manipulated in online experiments (N = 360) to examine value co-creation outcomes: well-being, perceptions of competitive service advantage, and job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) by generational profiles revealed that Baby Boomers sought relatedness and improved their autonomy in the strong condition, Generation X employees valued autonomy or commitment to resources over competence, and Millennials in the strong condition developed their autonomy and relatedness or worked as a team collective. All generations improved their co-creation outcomes under strong self-determination conditions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of instructional language types on Perceived Choice, and the learning of darts throwing skill. Methods: Forty-eight female students were randomly divided into three instructional language groups (autonomy-supportive, controlling, neutral). All groups watched a silent clip about darts throwing and subsequently performed 51 throws as their pre-test. On the second day, each group watched a specific clip prepared for them and then performed 51 throws as their post-test. The second clip provided learners with different degrees of choice or control in performing the task. All participants completed choice subscale questions from the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory by McAuley et al. (1991) before the pre-test and after the post-tests. Results: The results revealed that the instructional language used in the autonomy- supportive group facilitated learning significantly in this group. Conclusion: Teachers must try to provide situations that promote learners' sense of competence and Autonomy which in turn, improves learning.
Article
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The present paper aims to provide some empirical evidence of how the ability of places to satisfy psychological needs might be an antecedent for the creation of an affective bond with those places by using visualization techniques for place attachment manipulation and exploring the similarities between two main frames of reference in literature, place attachment literature and Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The paper has three main hypotheses: 1) showing that the basic needs hypothesized by SDTand those hypothesized by Place Attachment Literature are both affected by place features and have similar affective and behavioral outcomes; 2) showing that the ability of a place to satisfy individual's needs is associated with the individual attachment to the place; 3) showing that the place attachment developed by the perception of needs satisfaction affects individual's place-related behaviors. Two experimental studies were conducted manipulating place attachment toward a new evacuation site in a virtual location affected by natural hazards, with two scenario manipulations. One manipulation is realized on the basis of the needs emerged by place attachment literature taxonomies. The second manipulation aims to the same target on the basis of Self-Determination Theory. Study 1 shows that both manipulations affect psychological need satisfaction and place attachment; Study 2 shows that they also affect risk coping place-related behavior. Results confirm the three hypotheses and shed light on how psychological needs satisfaction is linked to place attachment and its practical relevance for environmental risk perception and coping in natural hazard contexts, possibly improving risk coping plans in emergency situations and, ultimately, saving lives. Moreover, these results could be applied also to other settings, like shelters or temporary settlements improving wellness conditions in these environments.
Article
Although most people are aware of the harmful CO2 emissions produced by the transport sector threatening life on earth now and in the future, they do not eco-drive. Eco-driving improves the vehicle’s fuel or energy economy and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. We investigated the motivational predictors of eco-driving based on the theory of self-concordance (i.e., the consistency between a behavior/goal with the person’s pre-existing values and interests). Data from a cross-sectional online survey with 536 German drivers revealed that self-reported eco-driving was significantly predicted by sustained effort towards eco-driving, which in turn was predicted by self-concordance variables. Therefore, individuals pursuing eco-driving out of strong interest or deep personal beliefs (i.e., autonomous motivation) as opposed to external forces or internal pressures (i.e., controlled motivation) reported greater effort towards this behavior. Furthermore, biospheric striving coherence, i.e., the coherence between personal valuable biopsheric values (i.e., values addressing the well-being of the environment/biosphere) and eco-driving, significantly predicted effort towards eco-driving. In sum, our results suggest that autonomous rather than controlled motives and coherence between behavior and intrinsic rather than extrinsic values are relevant predictors for eco-driving. We discuss implications for future strategies and interventions fostering eco-driving in the long term.
Article
COVID-19 has led to remote classes in many universities, but the impacts on students are not clear. Guided by Ryan and Deci’s self-determination theory, this study explored how remote classes were conducted by teachers in Japanese universities and examined the effect of teaching styles on students’ well- and ill-being. A pilot survey (N = 200) was conducted to collect instructor’s teaching behaviours in remote classes via open-ended questions. The main survey was conducted with 400 undergraduates; 200 were taking real-time online classes and 200 were taking on-demand classes. The participants were asked to indicate the teaching style of a class they received, need satisfaction and dissatisfaction from the class, and their well-being/ill-being. Factor analysis on teaching style’s items revealed three factors: “clear direction”, “lack of concern”, and “interaction”. Supporting the self-determination theory, structural equation modeling revealed that clear direction was related to well-being by mediating need satisfaction, whereas the lack of concern was related with ill-being by mediating need dissatisfaction. Moreover, clear direction and interaction were directly related with students’ well-being without mediating need satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The effective and appropriate methods for teachers who conduct remote classes is also discussed.
Article
In this study that aims to motivate struggling students and helping them to improve their learning achievement, we designed and tested an E7-based approach in a virtual laboratory environment. We rely on cognitive load theory and self-determination theory to enable our approach to meet the cognitive and noncognitive needs of struggling students. This study adopts the pre-experimental method with the design of the pre and post-test, an experimental group and a control group. We evaluated the effect of the intervention on motivation and learning achievements by using a motivation test and the students’ assessment by their teachers. One of the results of this study is the success of our approach in motivating struggling students and helping them to improve their learning achievements.
Chapter
Die Förderung der Motivation von Schülerinnen und Schülern zählt zu den zentralen Zielsetzungen von Unterricht. Lehrermotivation und Unterrichtsmerkmale gelten dabei als wichtige Einflussgrößen auf die Motivation der Lernenden. Allerdings besteht ein Mangel an theoretischen Modellen und empirischen Befunden zur Beschreibung jener Prozesse, die den Zusammenhängen von Lehrermotivation, Unterrichtsgestaltung und der motivationalen Entwicklung Lernender zugrunde liegen. Der Beitrag greift dieses Desiderat auf und stellt ein integratives Theoriemodell der unterrichtsbezogenen Sozialisation motivationaler Entwicklung vor. Dabei werden Modelle aus Erziehungswissenschaft (Angebots-Nutzungs Modell) und Pädagogischer Psychologie (erweiterte Erwartungs-Wert-Theorie von Eccles), die eine Beschreibung motivationsförderlicher Unterrichtsprozesse beinhalten, zusammengeführt. Anhand des vorgeschlagenen Modells werden zukünftige Forschungsthemen und handlungspraktische Implikationen im Bereich der Lehrer- und Schülermotivation diskutiert.
Chapter
Im Verlauf der Sekundarstufe I wird häufig von einem abnehmenden Trend der Motivation der Schülerinnen und Schüler berichtet. Die Selbstbestimmungstheorie der Motivation nimmt an, dass die Entstehung selbstbestimmter Motivationsqualitäten u. a. von der Befriedigung des Grundbedürfnisses nach Autonomie abhängt. In einem Biologieunterricht mit besonders interessantem Lerngegenstand konnten positive motivationale Auswirkungen eines autonomieförderlichen Lehrerverhaltens bereits belegt werden. Dieser Forschungsstand wirft jedoch die Frage auf, ob sich diese Effekte auch in einem Biologieunterricht mit einem wenig interessanten Lerngegenstand zeigen. Zur Beantwortung dieser Frage wurden 167 Schülerinnen und Schüler (11,46 ± 0,62 Jahre) hinsichtlich ihrer intrinsischen Motivation und ihres Flow-Erlebens im Biologieunterricht untersucht. Vier Klassen erhielten Unterricht mit autonomieförderlichem Lehrerverhalten (n = 86), während vier Klassen kontrollierend unterrichtet wurden (n = 81). In nahezu allen untersuchten Variablen zeigten sich theoriekonforme Befunde. Eine Autonomieförderung beeinflusste die Motivationsqualität der Schülerinnen und Schüler wesentlich.
Book
Der Band führt empirische Forschung aus Erziehungswissenschaft, Pädagogischer Psychologie und Fachdidaktiken systematisch zusammen, die sich mit schulischen und unterrichtlichen Bedingungen der Motivation Lernender befasst.
Article
When it comes to biology lessons in Germany, girls generally exhibit higher levels of self- determined motivation than boys. Previous research suggests that fostering student autonomy could be a way to effectively address this gender gap. To investigate gender-related effects in biology education, a sample of 303 sixth-grade students (M age = 11.31 years, SDage = 0.58 years) participated in a 3-h teaching unit on harvest mice that was taught in either an autonomy-supportive or controlling manner. The results revealed a significant effect of the treatment on self-determined motivation, with the effect being stronger for the boys. In the treatment with controlling teaching behavior, gender-related differences in self-determined motivation became apparent. In contrast, the gender gap was mainly smaller in the treatment with autonomy-supportive teaching behavior. Thus, the results suggest that satisfying the need for autonomy appears to be an effective means to help bridge the gender gap in biology lessons.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of instructional language types on Perceived Choice, and the learning of darts throwing skill. Methods: Forty-eight female students were randomly divided into three instructional language groups (autonomy-supportive, controlling, neutral). All groups watched a silent clip about darts throwing and subsequently performed 51 throws as their pre-test. On the second day, each group watched a specific clip prepared for them and then performed 51 throws as their post-test. The second clip provided learners with different degrees of choice or control in performing the task. All participants completed choice subscale questions from the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory by McAuley et al. (1991) before the pre-test and after the post-tests. Results: The results revealed that the instructional language used in the autonomy-supportive group facilitated learning significantly in this group. Conclusion: Teachers must try to provide situations that promote learners' sense of competence and Autonomy which in turn, improves learning.
Article
We add richness and depth to investor decision-making research by exploring the influence of entrepreneurs' use of ingratiation rhetoric in their investor pitch presentations on investor funding decisions. Drawing on ingratiation theory, we model the effects of flattery, self-deprecation, opinion conformity, and self-promotion as distinct forms of ingratiation rhetoric. We do so independently and in tandem, conceptualizing the confluence of ingratiation forms as driving an overall aggregate effect on the amount of funding allocated by investors. We then theorize that entrepreneur charisma and entrepreneur performance are moderators of the aggregate effect. We test our model in the angel investment context with data from 789 entrepreneur pitch presentations to 27 investors on the Shark Tank television program from 2009 through 2020. We find that on their own, the different forms of ingratiation rhetoric have mixed effects, with flattery and self-deprecation negatively impacting investor funding amount and opinion conformity and self-promotion positively relating to funding amount. When used together, we find an overall negative effect, and this effect is positively moderated by entrepreneur charisma and entrepreneur performance. These findings shed new light on ingratiation rhetoric as a powerful force in entrepreneurs' efforts to secure funding.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Self‐determination theory posits that individuals who have basic psychological needs satisfied while engaging in an activity will be more likely to value and persist in that activity. Scholars in this area have also posited that autonomy‐supportive social contexts are top‐down determinants of individual need satisfaction. To understand better the progression from social to motivational to outcome variables, we tested a four‐step path model within a classroom setting. Data were collected from 220 students in an introductory journalism course, which was subdivided into 14 lab sections. Students were surveyed regarding their feelings about the course, the autonomy support of the instructor, the motivation they felt to engage in the course, and the levels of need satisfaction they experienced. Theoretically‐guided structural equation modeling produced a best‐fitting model in which teacher autonomy support predicted more self‐determined student motivation, which along with teacher autonomy support predicted greater student psychological need satisfaction, which led finally to higher predicted course grades and higher teacher‐course evaluations. Overall, the results replicate and significantly extend previous findings regarding need satisfaction and teacher‐course evaluations. Implications for pedagogy and educational interventions are discussed.
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Self determination theory proposes that behavior change will occur and persist if it is autonomously motivated. Autonomous motivation for a behavior is theorized to be a function both of individual differences in the autonomy orientation from the General Causality Orientations Scale and of the degree of autonomy supportiveness of relevant social contexts. We tested the theory with 128 patients in a 6-month, very-low-calorie weight-loss program with a 23-month follow-up. Analyses confirmed the predictions that (a) participants whose motivation for weight loss was more autonomous would attend the program more regularly, lose more weight during the program, and evidence greater maintained weight loss at follow-up, and (b) participants' autonomous motivation for weight loss would be predicted both by their autonomy orientation and by the perceived autonomy supportiveness of the interpersonal climate created by the health-care staff. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Investigated the effects of external reinforcement on intrinsic motivation in a puzzle-solving task in 96 undergraduates. Results support previous findings that money decreases intrinsic motivation while verbal reinforcements tend to enhance it. The beginning of a cognitive evaluation theory is discussed. It is concluded that although there is an apparently discrepant prediction between this theory and J. Adam's inequity theory, the theories are not conceptually discrepant. (15 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies examined student psychological need satisfaction as a predictor of positive teacher-course evaluations. In Study 1, 268 undergraduates recalled and rated the quality of a recent important college course, then rated their feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness within that course. Consistent with self-determination theory, all three ratings predicted instructor and/or course ratings. Study 2 found the same pattern in a sample of 179 introductory journalism students nested within 12 sections of a single course. Study 2 also evaluated instructor characteristics as predictors of mean levels of student need satisfaction across the 12 classes. Although instructor age and overall teaching experience were unrelated to students' need satisfaction, greater experience teaching their particular class negatively predicted student autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction. Implications for pedagogical practice are discussed.
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Engagement refers to the behavioral intensity and emotional quality of a person's active involvement during a task. Recognizing the benefits highly engaged people experience, we tested whether classroom teachers could incorporate the relatively foreign concept of autonomy support into their motivating styles as a way to promote their students' engagement during instruction. Teachers in an experimental group and teachers in a delayed-treatment control group received information and guidance consistent with self-determination theory on how to support students' autonomy. Over a series of 3 classroom observations, trained raters scored each teacher's autonomy support and 2 measures of their students' engagement–task involvement and influence attempts. Trained teachers displayed significantly more autonomy-supportive behaviors than did nontrained teachers. Further, the more teachers used autonomy support during instruction, the more engaged were their students. This was true on both measures of engagement.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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A theoretical model of psychological well-being that encompasses 6 distinct dimensions of wellness (Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in Life, Self-Acceptance) was tested with data from a nationally representative sample of adults (N = 1,108), aged 25 and older, who participated in telephone interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the proposed 6-factor model, with a single second-order super factor. The model was superior in fit over single-factor and other artifactual models. Age and sex differences on the various well-being dimensions replicated prior findings. Comparisons with other frequently used indicators (positive and negative affect, life satisfaction) demonstrated that the latter neglect key aspects of positive functioning emphasized in theories of health and well-being.
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A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
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Three studies compared 10 candidate psychological needs in an attempt to determine which are truly most fundamental for humans. Participants described "most satisfying events" within their lives and then rated the salience of each of the 10 candidate needs within these events. Supporting self-determination theory postulates (Ryan & Deci, 2000)--autonomy, competence, and relatedness, were consistently among the top 4 needs, in terms of both their salience and their association with event-related affect. Self-esteem was also important, whereas self-actualization or meaning, physical thriving, popularity or influence, and money-luxury were less important. This basic pattern emerged within three different time frames and within both U.S. and South Korean samples and also within a final study that asked, "What's unsatisfying about unsatisfying events?" Implications for hierarchical theories of needs are discussed.
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In recent years, an increasing number of regulations and methodologies have begun to utilize total organic carbon (TOC) analysis for monitoring microbial contamination and/or disinfectant byproduct (DBP) precursors. This paper highlights some analytical differences and similarities between the two widely used TOC oxidation techniques: UV persulfate and high temperature combustion (HTC). Previous papers have come to different and sometimes contradictory conclusions on this subject. However, these studies either compared instruments with significantly different flow paths or TOC systems from different eras. Unlike previous studies, this paper compares two modern TOC analyzers with nearly identical flow paths for sample recovery, detection limits, and analysis of real world samples. On average, both persulfate and HTC oxidation yielded good recoveries for 10 hard to oxidize compounds and potable water samples from 5 different locations across the USA. In general, persulfate yielded more precise results because of its lower background response relative to sample response while HTC gave slightly higher results (roughly 2% to 3%) for surface water samples.
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Three studies examined the effects of randomly assigned messages of social exclusion. In all 3 studies, significant and large decrements in intelligent thought (including IQ and Graduate Record Examination test performance) were found among people told they were likely to end up alone in life. The decline in cognitive performance was found in complex cognitive tasks such as effortful logic and reasoning; simple information processing remained intact despite the social exclusion. The effects were specific to social exclusion, as participants who received predictions of future nonsocial misfortunes (accidents and injuries) performed well on the cognitive tests. The cognitive impairments appeared to involve reductions in both speed (effort) and accuracy. The effect was not mediated by mood.
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The authors hypothesize that socially excluded individuals enter a defensive state of cognitive deconstruction that avoids meaningful thought, emotion, and self-awareness, and is characterized by lethargy and altered time flow. Social rejection led to an overestimation of time intervals, a focus on the present rather than the future, and a failure to delay gratification (Experiment 1). Rejected participants were more likely to agree that "Life is meaningless" (Experiment 2). Excluded participants wrote fewer words and displayed slower reaction times (Experiments 3 and 4). They chose fewer emotion words in an implicit emotion task (Experiment 5), replicating the lack of emotion on explicit measures (Experiments 1-3 and 6). Excluded participants also tried to escape from self-awareness by facing away from a mirror (Experiment 6).
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Six experiments showed that being excluded or rejected caused decrements in self-regulation. In Experiment 1, participants who were led to anticipate a lonely future life were less able to make themselves consume a healthy but bad-tasting beverage. In Experiment 2, some participants were told that no one else in their group wanted to work with them, and these participants later ate more cookies than other participants. In Experiment 3, excluded participants quit sooner on a frustrating task. In Experiments 4-6, exclusion led to impairment of attention regulation as measured with a dichotic listening task. Experiments 5 and 6 further showed that decrements in self-regulation can be eliminated by offering a cash incentive or increasing self-awareness. Thus, rejected people are capable of self-regulation but are normally disinclined to make the effort.
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Numerous studies show that happy individuals are successful across multiple life domains, including marriage, friendship, income, work performance, and health. The authors suggest a conceptual model to account for these findings, arguing that the happiness-success link exists not only because success makes people happy, but also because positive affect engenders success. Three classes of evidence--crosssectional, longitudinal, and experimental--are documented to test their model. Relevant studies are described and their effect sizes combined meta-analytically. The results reveal that happiness is associated with and precedes numerous successful outcomes, as well as behaviors paralleling success. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that positive affect--the hallmark of well-being--may be the cause of many of the desirable characteristics, resources, and successes correlated with happiness. Limitations, empirical issues, and important future research questions are discussed.
Article
Three studies examined the effects of randomly assigned messages of social exclusion. In all 3 studies, significant and large decrements in intelligent thought (including IQ and Graduate Record Examination test performance) were found among people told they were likely to end up alone in life. The decline in cognitive performance was found in complex cognitive tasks such as effortful logic and reasoning: simple information processing remained intact despite the social exclusion. The effects were specific to social exclusion, as participants who received predictions of future nonsocial misfortunes (accidents and injuries) performed well on the cognitive tests. The cognitive impairments appeared to involve reductions in both speed (effort) and accuracy. The effect was not mediated by mood.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
Self-determination theory is grounded in the belief that people work best and are happiest when they feel that they are in control of their own lives. This invaluable book explains the ramifications of the theory and provides clinical examples to show that it can be used to motivate patients undergoing treatment for such physical or psychological issues as diabetes management, smoking cessation, post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depression. The first part of the book provides historical background to self-determination theory, showing that it is humanistically oriented and has three decades of empirical research behind it. In the process, the authors discuss why humanistic psychology fell out of favor in academic psychology; why "self-help" and New Age books have such perennial popularity; and why it is so important for authorities to support patients' sense of self. The remainder of the book presents many specific case examples to describe the theory's application. © 2003 by Kennon M. Sheldon, Geoffrey Williams, and Thomas Joiner. All rights reserved.
Article
Past work has found that performing one self-control task leads to decrements on subsequent efforts at self-control. The present experiment compared two possible explanations for these decrements, one being a depletion of energy resources, and the other being self-attribution of failure from the first task. Participants performed a Stroop color-word task (an initial self-control exercise) or not, and some received success or failure feedback about their performance. Performing the self-control task led to impaired persistence on a subsequent figure-tracing task, consistent with the energy-depletion model. Success versus failure feedback had no effect, contradicting the self-attribution model.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
describe a cultural perspective, outline why many psychologists now believe it is both necessary and useful for social psychology, and discuss how it is influencing the study of social psychology / review theoretical and empirical research that has taken a cultural perspective on [5 levels]—the biological, the cognitive, the personal motivational, the intergroup, and the group/cultural / at each level, our focus will be on research that examines typically unexamined assumptions about the nature of basic social psychological concepts and principles in the hope of identifying important questions and promising new directions for social psychological research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The psychology of motivation is a broad and loosely defined field. It covers everything from detailed investigations of the physiological mechanisms involved in animal drives to elaborate analyses of the unconscious motives behind abnormal or symptomatic acts in a person to factor analyses of the motives people assign to themselves to explain their behavior. Different textbooks and different courses have been organized around these different areas of investigation. In this book we will draw on all these sources of information and attempt to provide an integrated view of the field by narrowing somewhat the focus of attention. The book emphasizes how motives differ from other determinants of action and how they relate to other motivation-type variables such as emotions, incentives, values, causal explanations, and conscious and unconscious intents. It examines how motives are acquired, where they come from, and on what they are based. Biological sources of human motives are reviewed, and this review introduces the topic of natural incentives, or what is sometimes called intrinsic motivation. Some selectivity is necessary in reviewing the large field of individual differences in human motive strength. Social sources of differences in motive strength are also considered, including everything from the way parents rear their children to educational interventions designed to change peoples' motives. Such studies contribute not only practical information on how to develop motives, but also theoretical information on the nature of motives and how they differ from other characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
My goal in this text is to affirm and to synthesize the best that personality psychology has to offer. In this textbook I have tried to adopt a new approach by integrating theory and research throughout the book and showing that the two are complementary aspects of the scientific enterprise, each dependent on the other. Personality psychologists may seek (1) to unravel the intrapsychic mysteries of human life, (2) to predict behavior in each interactive episode, (3) to discern the interpersonal story that organizes the person's life, or (4) to discover the central interpretive structures through which the person makes sense of life. I believe that this fourfold framework lends new coherence and clarity to personality study: traditional personality theories, recent theoretical contributions, personality assessment strategies, and much of contemporary research in personality psychology fit this new scheme surprisingly well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter extends the study of motivated cognition by examining how people's judgments and behaviors are affected not only by their motives to arrive at particular outcomes they prefer but also by their motives to adopt particular strategies they prefer-strategic preferences. Individuals with a promotion focus on advancement or accomplishments have a preference for eager goal pursuit, and individuals with a prevention focus on security and responsibilities have a preference for vigilant goal pursuit. Regulatory focus differences in strategic preference are shown to have a profound effect on various judgmental processes-from expectancy × value effects on goal commitment to counterfactual thinking, from the generation of alternatives to object evaluation, from probability estimates to risky and conservative response biases-and on important aspects of goal pursuit, such as initiating goal-related action, emphasizing speed versus accuracy, substituting current activities or endowed objects with new ones, changing plans, and adjusting motivational intensity in response to success versus failure feedback. Regulatory fit is also shown to have significant effects across various domains, including object pricing, task enjoyment, moral judgments, and quality of goal performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Sheldon and colleagues have recently focused research attention on the concept of self-concordance, in which people feel that they pursue their goals because the goals fit with their underlying interests and values rather than because others say they should pursue them. Self-concordant individuals typically evidence higher subjective well-being (SWB). But is this also true in non-Western cultures, which emphasize people’s duty to conform to societal expectations and group-centered norms? To address this question, this study assessed goal self-concordance and SWB in four different cultures. U.S., Chinese, and South Korean samples evidenced equal levels of self-concordance, whereas a Taiwanese sample evidenced somewhat less self-concordance. More importantly, self-concordance predicted SWB within every culture. It appears that “owning one’s actions”—that is, feeling that one’s goals are consistent with the self—may be important for most if not all humans.
Article
daily variations may be understood in terms of the degree to which three basic needs, autonomy, competence, and related-ness, are satisfied in daily activity. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine this hypothesis across 2 weeks of daily activ-ity and well-being reports controlling for trait-level individual differences. Results strongly supported the hypothesis. The authors also examined the social activities that contribute to sat-isfaction of relatedness needs. The best predictors were meaning-ful talk and feeling understood and appreciated by interaction partners. Finally, the authors found systematic day-of-the-week variations in emotional well-being and need satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of daily activities and the need to consider both trait and day-level determinants of well-being.
Article
This diary study examined the proposal that satisfaction of two psychological needs, competence and autonomy, leads to daily well-being. Between-subjects analyses indicated that participants higher in trait competence and trait autonomy tended to have "better" days on average. Independently, within-subject analyses showed that good days were those in which participants felt more competent and autonomous in their daily activities, relative to their own baselines. Other predictors of daily well-being included gender, whether the day fell on a weekend, and the amount of negative affect and physical symptomatology felt the day before. Although past diary studies have tended to focus on threats to daily well-being, the authors suggest that psychological need concepts offer promise for understanding its positive sources.
Article
ABSTRACT The assumption that there are innate integrative or actualizing tendencies underlying personality and social development is reexamined. Rather than viewing such processes as either nonexistent or as automatic, I argue that they are dynamic and dependent upon social-contextual supports Pertaining to basic human psychological needs. To develop this viewpoint, I conceptually link the notion of integrative tendencies to specific developmental processes, namely intrinsic motivation; internalization; and emotional integration. These processes are then shown to be facilitated by conditions that fulfill psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and forestalled within contexts that frustrate these needs. Interactions between psychological needs and contextual supports account, in part, for the domain and situational specificity of motivation, experience, and relative integration. The meaning of psychological needs (vs. wants) is directly considered, as are the relations between concepts of integration and autonomy and those of independence, individualism, efficacy, and cognitive models of “multiple selves.”
Article
This study tested the relevance of ten psychological needs in emotional well-being among older and younger adults in two cultures (the US and South Korea). Participants were asked to recall their “most satisfying event” for the past month, and then were asked to evaluate the relevance of ten psychological needs to that event. Results indicated that both age and cultural groups generally emphasized the importance of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as proposed by self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991). There were, however, some cultural variations. For Americans, self-esteem was the most important need for both young and old age groups. For Koreans, autonomy was the most salient need for young adults, whereas self-actualizing-meaning and popularity-influence were the most important needs for older adults.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
Article
The present study was designed to assess selected psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) (Ryan, 1982), a multidimensional measure of subjects' experience with regard to experimental tasks. Subjects (N = 116) competed in a basketball free-throw shooting game, following which they completed the IMI. The LISREL VI computer program was employed to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to assess the tenability of a five factor hierarchical model representing four first-order factors or dimensions and a second-order general factor representing intrinsic motivation. Indices of model acceptability tentatively suggest that the sport data adequately fit the hypothesized five factor hierarchical model. Alternative models were tested but did not result in significant improvements in the goodness-of-fit indices, suggesting the proposed model to be the most accurate of the models tested. Coefficient alphas for the four dimensions and the overall scale indicated adequate reliability. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of accurate assessment of psychological constructs and the use of linear structural equations in confirming the factor structures of measures.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) posits that (a) people are inherently motivated to internalize the regulation of uninteresting though important activities; (b) there are two different processes through which such internalization can occur, resulting in qualitatively different styles of self-regulation; and (c) the social context influences which internalization process and regulatory style occur. The two types of internalization are introjection, which entails taking in a value or regulatory process but not accepting it as one's own, and integration, through which the regulation is assimilated with one's core sense of self. Introjection results in internally controlling regulation, whereas integration results in self-determination. An experiment supported our hypothesis that three facilitating contextual factors--namely, providing a meaningful rationale, acknowledging the behaver's feelings, and conveying choice--promote internalization, as evidenced by the subsequent self-regulation of behavior. This experiment also supported our expectation that when the social context supports self-determination, integration tends to occur, whereas when the context does not support self-determination, introjection tends to occur.
Article
Attachment research has traditionally focused on individual differences in global patterns of attachment to important others. The current research instead focuses primarily on within-person variability in attachments across relational partners. It was predicted that within-person variability would be substantial, even among primary attachment figures of mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. The prediction was supported in three studies. Furthermore, in line with self-determination theory, multilevel modeling and regression analyses showed that, at the relationship level, individuals' experience of fulfillment of the basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness positively predicted overall attachment security, model of self, and model of other. Relations of both attachment and need satisfaction to well-being were also explored.
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Three studies manipulate the accessibility of significant-other representations to explore how these representations may automatically influence how goals are construed and experienced. Study 1 finds that the perceived attainment expectations of a significant other automatically affect participants' own task-goal expectations and their subsequent task performance and persistence. Study 2 finds that the general perceived value that a significant other places in attaining a task goal automatically affects participants' own attainment value appraisals, their task persistence and performance, and the magnitude of their reaction to success and failure feedback. Finally, Study 3 demonstrates that the regulatory focus prescribed by a significant other may automatically affect p