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The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of 24 wk of resistance training at two different intensities on cognitive functions in the elderly. Sixty-two elderly individuals were randomly assigned to three groups: CONTROL (N = 23), experimental moderate (EMODERATE; N = 19), and experimental high (EHIGH; N = 20). The volunteers were assessed on physical, hemodynamic, cognitive, and mood parameters before and after the program. On the 1 RM test (P < 0.001), the two experimental groups performed better than the CONTROL group, but they did not show differences between themselves. The EHIGH group gained more lean mass (P = 0.05) than the CONTROL group and performed better on the following tests: digit span forward (P < 0.001), Corsi's block-tapping task backward (P = 0.001), similarities (P = 0.03), Rey-Osterrieth complex figure immediate recall (P = 0.02), Toulouse-Pieron concentration test errors (P = 0.01), SF-36 (general health) (P = 0.04), POMS (tension-anxiety, P = 0.04; depression-dejection, P = 0.03; and total mood disorder, P = 0.03). The EMODERATE group scored higher means than the CONTROL group on digit span forward (P < 0.001), Corsi's block-tapping task backward (P = 0.01), similarities (P = 0.02), Rey-Osterrieth complex figure immediate recall (P = 0.02), SF-36 (general health, P = 0.005; vitality, P = 0.006), POMS (tension-anxiety, P = 0.001; depression-dejection, P = 0.006; anger-hostility, P = 0.006; fatigue-inertia, P = 0.02; confusion-bewilderment, P = 0.02; and total mood disorder, P = 0.001). We also found that IGF-1 serum levels were higher in the experimental groups (EMODERATE, P = 0.02; EHIGH, P < 0.001). Moderate- and high-intensity resistance exercise programs had equally beneficial effects on cognitive functioning.
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... The subjects in most studies were mixed-gender groups. The topics in five studies were only women [13,18,20,27,28], and only male participants were included in three studies [22,23,29]. For exercise types, 12 trials performed physical exercise [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21], and 9 tests performed mind-body exercise [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. ...
... The topics in five studies were only women [13,18,20,27,28], and only male participants were included in three studies [22,23,29]. For exercise types, 12 trials performed physical exercise [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21], and 9 tests performed mind-body exercise [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. The duration of exercise intervention varies from 8 to 52 weeks, and each study has its own time and frequency of intervention. ...
... Res. Public Health 2023, 20, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 12 Figure 5. Forest plots of WAIS scale outcomes in overall analysis [12,16,23,24]. ...
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Background: Physical exercise can slow down the decline of the cognitive function of the older adults, yet the review evidence is not conclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and resistance training on cognitive ability. Methods: A computerized literature search was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase SCOPUS, Web of Science, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang, and VIP database to identify relevant articles from inception through to 1 October 2022. Based on a preliminary search of the database and the references cited, 10,338 records were identified. For the measured values of the research results, the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to synthesize the effect size. Results: Finally, 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Since the outcome indicators of each literature are different in evaluating the old cognitive ability, a subgroup analysis was performed on the included literature. The study of results suggests that aerobic or resistance training interventions significantly improved cognitive ability in older adults compared with control interventions with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MD 2.76; 95% CI 2.52 to 3.00), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MD 2.64; 95% CI 2.33 to 2.94), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (MD 2.86; 95% CI 2.25 to 3.47), the Wechsler Memory Scale (MD 9.33; 95% CI 7.12 to 11.54), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MD 5.31; 95% CI 1.20 to 9.43), the Trail Making Tests (MD -8.94; 95% CI -9.81 to -8.07), and the Stroop Color and Word Test (MD -5.20; 95% CI -7.89 to -2.51). Conclusion: Physical exercise improved the cognitive function of the older adults in all mental states. To improve cognitive ability, this meta-analysis recommended that patients perform at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on as many days as possible in the week to comply with current exercise guidelines while providing evidence for clinicians.
... PA-induced increases in neurotrophic concentrations and the resulting neurogenesis can promote cognitive improvements and increases in hippocampal volume in humans [58]. Moreover, serum IGF-1 concentration is promoted by resistance exercise, likely as a result of its anabolic action and role in muscle growth [59,60]. ...
... Probably the most investigated mechanism through which PA exerts its beneficial effects on brain health is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors [56,58,59], particularly in the hippocampus. These molecules include BDNF, IGF-1 and VEGF, and they promote neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis. ...
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... The level of IGF-1 was simultaneously increased in both blood and the hippocampus in animals trained with resistance exercise [27]. These results were at least partially consistent with human studies that show an increase in serum IGF-1 after resistance exercise [28,29]. On other hand, low serum BDNF levels were observed in patients with major depression [30,31]. ...
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Purpose: This study investigated the effect of online home-based resistance exercise training on fitness, depression, stress, and well-being. A total of 67 individuals participated. Of them, 28 participants (13 men and 15 women, average age: 45.1 ± 12.2 years) performed the same exercise training online (n = 17), using Zoom, or in person (n = 11) in 2020 (Study 1). In addition, 39 participants (15 men and 24 women; average age: 47.6 ± 10.8 years) performed eight weeks of online home-based resistance exercise training in 2021 (Study 2). The participants performed low-load resistance exercises twice a week for eight weeks (16 sessions). Muscle strength, thigh muscle cross-sectional area, fitness parameters, blood pressure, mental health (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale—CES-D; and Kessler Psychological Distress scale—K6), and well-being (Well-Being Index—WHO-5) were measured pre-and post-resistance training. In Study 1, eight weeks of online home-based resistance training improved CES-D (p = 0.003), and a similar tendency was observed in resistance training (RT) with the in-person group (p = 0.06). There was a significant improvement in CES-D symptoms after the online home-based resistance training in Study 2 (p = 0.009). However, there were no significant changes in the WHO-5 and K6. Our results suggest that online low-load resistance training improves fitness parameters and curbs depressive status.
... Higher levels of CRF were associated with reduced heart rate reactivity, as a physiological indicator of acute psychological stress (Forcier et al., 2006). Additionally, a longitudinal study examined the effects of a 24-week resistance training programme on cognitive performance (e.g., short-term memory, attention) in sedentary older adults and found significant gains in maximum strength (e.g., chest press, leg press) as well as improved short-and long-term memory, and attention (Cassilhas et al., 2007). Consequently, improvements in physical fitness can translate to enhance psychocognitive functions. ...
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... Aerobic training and strength training has been shown to work through different mechanisms in improving the health of the elderly (Madden et al., 1989). Strength training improves muscle mass, muscle strength, muscle function, and balance (Barrett et al., 2002;Cassilhas et al., 2007;Nelson et al., 1994;Seguin et al., 2003), while aerobic training mainly changes cardiovascular fitness, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profiles in plasma (Rydwik et al. 2004;Takeshima et al., 2007). To improve physical functioning in the elderly, and to motivate program participants for continuous exercise, a combined 10-month group exercise program with aerobic and strength components with low and moderate exercise intensity was designed. ...
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... In addition, previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of resistance training on cognition in older adults. Cassilhas et al. [14] showed that older adults aged 65-75 years improved their memory performance and verbal concept formation after completing a 6-month moderate-to-high intensity resistance training program. Liu-Amgrose et al. [15] reported older adults aged 65-75 years significantly improved their cognitive performance on the Stroop Test after completion of a 12-month resistance training program. ...
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... Depressive disorders are an important cause of disability in old age. Researchers have reported that there is an inverse relationship between participation in physical exercise and depression (Cassilhas et al. 2007). Exercise is increasingly recognized as an effective tool for the management of depression. ...
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