Article

Prevalence, Recognition, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a National Sample of US Children

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.73). 10/2007; 161(9):857-64. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.161.9.857
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To determine the US national prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether prevalence, recognition, and treatment vary by socioeconomic group.
Cross-sectional survey.
Nationally representative sample of the US population from 2001 to 2004.
Eight- to 15-year-old children (N = 3082) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (caregiver module) was used to ascertain the presence of ADHD in the past year based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) criteria. Prior diagnosis of ADHD by a health professional and ADHD medication use were assessed by caregiver report.
Of the children, 8.7% met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The poorest children (lowest quintile) were more likely than the wealthiest (highest quintile) to fulfill criteria for ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9). Among children meeting DSM-IV ADHD criteria, 47.9% had a prior diagnosis of ADHD and 32.0% were treated consistently with ADHD medications during the past year. Girls were less likely than boys to have their disorder identified (AOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8), and the wealthiest children were more likely than the poorest to receive regular medication treatment (AOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3-9.1).
Of US children aged 8 to 15 years, 8.7%, an estimated 2.4 million, meet DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. Less than half of children meeting DSM-IV criteria report receiving either a diagnosis of ADHD or regular medication treatment. Poor children are most likely to meet criteria for ADHD yet are least likely to receive consistent pharmacotherapy.

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    • "Its diagnosis requires the report of at least six symptoms in each subtype by either the child parents or his/her teachers (AAP, 2000). ADHD is one of the most common childhood disorders, with 2–9% prevalence worldwide (Froehlich et al., 2007). This disorder is present in one-third to one-half of the children referred for mental health services (Faraone et al., 2003). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    • "Its diagnosis requires the report of at least six symptoms in each subtype by either the child parents or his/her teachers (AAP, 2000). ADHD is one of the most common childhood disorders, with 2–9% prevalence worldwide (Froehlich et al., 2007). This disorder is present in one-third to one-half of the children referred for mental health services (Faraone et al., 2003). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    • "The possible influence of ADHD stimulant medication on the linear growth response to pediatric GH treatment is not19,20To address this important question, the current study examined a large sample of pediatric patients from the ANSWER Program with diverse diagnostic indications for GH treatment over a 4-year follow-up period. A comparison of the total group of patients not receiving ADHD medication with those receiving ADHD medications revealed a lower DHSDS increment in patients receiving ADHD medications . "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medication modified the linear growth response to growth hormone (GH) treatment in children enrolled in the American Norditropin Studies: Web-Enabled Research Program. Study design Short, GH treatment-naive children with or without GH deficiency (GHD) received GH therapy. A subset also received ADHD stimulant medication (n = 1190), and others did not (n = 7230). Linear mixed models (adjusted means) examined height SDS (HSDS) and body mass index (BMI) SDS from baseline through year 4. Analyses were repeated with ADHD groups matched for baseline age, height, weight, BMI, and sex. Groups with and without GHD were compared between ADHD groups. Results Adjusted change in HSDS for the group receiving ADHD stimulant medication was slightly lower than that for patients not receiving stimulant medication at years 1 to 4 (P<.05). However, adjusted change in HSDS was similar between children receiving and not receiving ADHD stimulant medication when matched for baseline measurements. At year 4, 86.7% of patients receiving ADHD stimulant medication, 86.8% of total patients not receiving ADHD stimulant medication, and 84.6% of matched group patients not receiving ADHD stimulant medication achieved HSDS >-2. Year 4 adjusted change in BMI SDS was greater in the patients receiving ADHD stimulant medication compared with both groups not receiving ADHD stimulant medication (P<.05). Patients with GHD showed comparable differences in adjusted change in BMI SDS among the ADHD groups at year 4, whereas patients without GHD showed no significant differences. Conclusions ADHD medication did not affect the linear growth response of children treated with GH when those receiving or not receiving ADHD stimulant medication were matched for baseline measurements. Underlying reasons for the observed greater increase in BMI in patients with GHD concomitantly treated with ADHD medication remain to be elucidated.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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