Geographical distribution of HCV genotypes in Mexico

Departamento de Gastroenterología. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. México, D.F., México.
Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology (Impact Factor: 2.07). 07/2007; 6(3):156-60.
Source: PubMed


Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is the second cause of endstage liver disease in our country and one of the main indications of liver transplantation. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is the principal prognostic factor and the determinant of the therapeutic scheme. In our country few data exist regarding the prevalence of HCV infection and genotype distribution in the Mexican Republic has not been determined. The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence of the different HCV genotypes and to explore their geographical distribution.
Mexican patients with hepatitis C infection, detected throughout the country between 2003 and 2006, were included. All samples were analyzed by a central laboratory and Hepatitis C genotype was identified by Line Immuno Probe Assay in PCR positive samples (Versant Line Probe Assay Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, San Juan Capistrano CA). Data were analyzed according to the four geographical areas in Mexico.
One thousand three hundred and ninety CHC patients were included. The most frequent genotype detected was genotype 1 (69%) followed by genotype 2 (21.4%) and genotype 3 (9.2%). Genotype 4 and 5 were infrequent. There was no subject infected with genotype 6. Genotype 1 and 2 exhibit very similar distribution in all geographical areas. Genotype 3 infected patients were more frequent in the North region (52%) compared with other areas:center-western (30%), center (17%), South-South east (1%) (p < 0.001).
The most prevalent HCV genotype in Mexico is genotype 1. Geographical distribution of HCV genotypes in the four geographical areas in Mexico is not homogenous with a greater frequency of genotype3 in the north region. This difference could be related to the global changes of risk factors for HCV infection.

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Available from: Misael Uribe
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    • "Initially, it was shown that genotypes 1 and 2 predominate in Mexico and that genotypes 3 and 4 are scarce. Further studies in the following years have confirmed such data (Sanchez-Avila et al., 2007; Santos-Lopez et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes may be helpful to identify the source of an HCV outbreak among a specific group of individuals within a given country or the pattern of spread throughout nations worldwide. Mexico is a transit country for people who migrate north towards the United States from Central and South America, however, to date, no Mexican HCV sequences have been reported. The present study was conducted to identify the HCV genotypes and subtypes prevalent in Mexico by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis in the NS5B region of the HCV genome. Serum samples from a total of 75 anti-HCV positive patients were included in this study. Out of the 75 samples, 48 cases (64%) were amplifiable in the 5' UTR and 46 (61%) in NS5B region. HCV genotype 1a determined in 54.3% (25/46) was predominant in this cohort, followed by 1b 21.8% (10/46), 2b 13% (6/46), 3a 6.5% (3/46), and 2a 4.4% (2/46). Phylogenetic analysis showed that HCV sequences of genotype 1 (1a and 1b) were clustering more closely to the United States isolates published previously. These results may suggest that both Mexico and the United States share an epidemiological network of HCV genotype 1 while other genotypes represent sporadic infections that are specific to Mexico.
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    ABSTRACT: Information about HCV genotypes in infected patients from different regions of Mexico is limited. To determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes in a group of HCV infected patients who attended a third level Hospital in Northeast of Mexico. Genotyping analysis was performed using the InnoLiPA-HCV genotype assay in 147 patients (65 males and 82 females, mean age 44 +/- 12 years) with positive anti-HCV antibodies and detectable HCV-RNA levels. Infected individuals were more likely to be female (56%). Histological data showed that 63% of the patients had chronic hepatitis, while the remainder presented cirrhosis (37%). The most frequent HCV genotype was 1 (73%). We found the following distribution: genotype 1 (2.7%), 1a (28.6%), 1b (37.4%), 1a/1b (4.1%), 2a (1.4%), 2b (8.8%), 2c (0.7%), 2a/2c (2.7%), 3 (2%), 3a (10.2%), 4 (0.7%) and 4c (0.7%). The most frequent associated risk factor was blood transfusion (72.5%). Prevalence of HCV genotypes in the Northeast of Mexico is similar to those reported previously in other Mexican regions and the most frequent risk factor continues being blood transfusion.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology
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