Is the c-Cbl Proto-Oncogene Involved in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?
Research Unit Immunology and Pathology, Brest University Medical School Hospital, 5 Avenue Foch, 29609 Brest Cedex, France. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
(Impact Factor: 4.38).
06/2007; 1107(1):193-205. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1381.021
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by survival advantage and accumulation of CD5+ mature B lymphocytes. Expression of zeta-chain-associated protein-70 (ZAP-70), normally present in T lymphocytes or immature B cells, is associated with disease aggressiveness, as IgVH mutational status, and some proteins implicated in survival signal pathways are found to be constitutively activated in CLL cells. ZAP-70 signaling is regulated through molecular adaptors, such as the proto-oncogene product c-Casitas B lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl). The aim of this study was to determine the implication of this proto-oncogene product in CLL in survival signals. It appeared that expression of c-Cbl was increased in CLL and not correlated to that of B cell linker protein or ZAP-70. Furthermore, c-Cbl was significantly hypophosphorylated in progressive disease, so that hypophosphorylated form of c-Cbl (c-Cbl.P) along with ZAP-70, set a cutoff ratio distributing patients with stable situation below 1, and those with progressive disease equal or above 1. Given that phospholipase gamma 2 (PLC gamma 2) function is also influenced by c-Cbl hypophosphorylation, the ratio of PLC gamma 2 to c-Cbl.P was measured in CLL B cells and consistently found to be >or= 1 in Binet stage B CLL patients, as opposed to stage A CLL patients. These findings invite analysis of the role of c-Cbl in CLL.
Available from: Yves Renaudineau
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ABSTRACT: The human cd5 gene has two alternative exons 1: exon 1A (E1A) which encodes the full-length (FL) CD5 protein and exon 1B (E1B) which encodes a truncated (TR) isoform. The FL variant of CD5 protein is translocated to the plasma membrane, while its TR variant is retained in the cytoplasm. Because there is an inverse relationship between the levels of FL-CD5 and TR-CD5 in B cells, we have addressed the issue of how the selection of exon 1 is determined. In leukemic B cells, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1-induced methylation of E1B prevents its transcription. Furthermore, the level of mRNA for DNMT1 correlates inversely with that of mRNA for CD5-E1B. However, suppression of E1B transcription is incomplete, and some molecules of TR-CD5 continue to be synthesized. Bortezomid-induced inhibition of the proteasome establishes that these TR-CD5 molecules are cleared through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Transfection of CD5 mutants into COS-1 cells locates the ubiquitin-binding site at the second destruction box of the extracellular region of CD5. Activation of the B cells by anti-IgM, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC), or PMA up-regulates DNMT1, and thereby CD5-E1A mRNA at the expense of CD5-E1B mRNA. Aberrant synthesis of TR-CD5 is thus offset by balanced degradation of excessive protein. Dysregulation of these mechanisms reduces the expression level of membrane CD5, and thereby diminishes the threshold of the response by cells expressing CD5.
Available from: Takahiko Horiuchi
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ABSTRACT: The aberrant regulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling allows unwanted B cells to persist, thereby potentially leading to autoimmunity and B-cell malignancies. Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) proteins suppress BCR signaling; however, the molecular mechanisms that control Cbl function in human B cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CIN85 (c-Cbl interacting protein of 85 kDa) is constitutively associated with c-Cbl, Cbl-b, and B-cell linker in B cells. Experiments using CIN85-overexpressing and CIN85-knockdown B-cell lines revealed that CIN85 increased c-Cbl phosphorylation and inhibited BCR-induced calcium flux and phosphorylation of Syk and PLCγ2, whereas it did not affect BCR internalization. The Syk phosphorylation in CIN85-overexpressing and CIN85-knockdown cells was inversely correlated with the ubiquitination and degradation of Syk. Moreover, CIN85 knockdown in primary B cells enhanced BCR-induced survival and growth, and increased the expression of BcLxL, A1, cyclin D2, and myc. Following the stimulation of BCR and Toll-like receptor 9, B-cell differentiation- associated molecules were up-regulated in CIN85-knockdown cells. Together, these results suggest that CIN85 is required for Cbl-mediated regulation of BCR signaling and for downstream events such as survival, growth, and differentiation of human B cells.
Available from: Marek Mraz
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ABSTRACT: The physiology of B cells is intimately connected with the function of their B cell receptor (BCR). B cell lymphomas frequently (dys)regulate BCR signalling and thus take advantage of this pre-existing pathway for B cell proliferation and survival. This has recently been underscored by clinical trials demonstrating that small molecules (fosfamatinib, ibrutinib, idelalisib) inhibiting BCR-associated kinases (SYK, BTK, PI3K) have an encouraging clinical effect. Here we describe the current knowledge of the specific aspects of BCR signalling in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and normal B cells. Multiple factors can contribute to BCR (dys)regulation in these malignancies and the activation of “chronic” or “tonic” BCR signalling. In lymphoma B cells the balance of initiation, amplitude and duration of BCR activation can be influenced by a specific immunoglobulin structure, the expression and mutations of adaptor molecules (like GAB1, BLNK, GRB2, CARD11), the activity of kinases (like LYN, SYK, PI3K) or phosphatases (like SHIP-1, SHP-1 and PTEN), and levels of microRNAs. We also discuss the crosstalk of BCR with other signalling pathways (NF-κB, adhesion, chemokine signalling) to emphasize that the “BCR inhibitors” target multiple pathways interconnected with BCR, which might explain some of their clinical activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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