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The Joint Effects of Personality and Workplace Social Exchange Relationships in Predicting Task Performance and Citizenship Performance

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Abstract

This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

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... TMX is argued to enhance employees' job performance because higher levels of TMX increase the amount of available material and informational resources and social and emotional support from team members (Seers, 1989). Nevertheless, the literature currently presents equivocal findings concerning the TMX-performance relationship (Smith, 2002;Kamdar & Van Dyne 2007). We propose group-mean TMX as a critical contextual factor for the TMX-job performance relationship. ...
... Third, the current study contributes to the TMX literature by closely examining the TMXperformance relationship. Despite the theoretical arguments for the positive effect of TMX on job performance, limited attention has been paid to the TMX-performance relationship (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). Because teams are ubiquitous in today's organizations, it is important to understand the effect of TMX on job performance (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). ...
... Despite the theoretical arguments for the positive effect of TMX on job performance, limited attention has been paid to the TMX-performance relationship (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). Because teams are ubiquitous in today's organizations, it is important to understand the effect of TMX on job performance (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). Additionally, the current study investigates how the relationship changes depending on the level of group-mean TMX. ...
Article
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Although much research has investigated the effects of supportive leadership on supervisor–subordinate relationships, the mechanism through which supportive leadership affects horizontal relationships among subordinates remains underexplored. Using psychological climate theory, we develop a conditional process model by which supportive leadership influences team-member exchange (TMX) via supportive climate and the relationship between TMX and the individual employee’s job performance is moderated by group-mean TMX. To test our proposed model, we conduct a total of three studies. Study 1 is a scale validation study for our supportive climate measure. Study 2 examines the effect of supportive leadership on TMX through supportive climate and the moderating role of group-mean TMX for the TMX–job performance relationship. Study 3, using a repeated measure design, investigates the causal ordering among the study variables. Our results provide compelling evidence for the conceptual model. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings.
... Some studies have verified that leader-member exchange (LMX) positively affects employees' helping behavior in the Western context. 6,7 However, China is characterized by being relationship-oriented, 8 and employees can obtain more material resources and emotional support from leaders or colleagues by establishing and maintaining relationships. Thus, scholars have begun to pay attention to the role of LMX in helping behavior in the Chinese context. ...
... 13 LMX and TMX are two different social exchange relationships in organizations. According to the reciprocity principle 14 and social exchange theory, 6 LMX may be more related to behaviors regarding superiors, while TMX is more related to behaviors regarding colleagues. The two kinds of social exchange relationships contain social information. ...
... By using data from CGSS, this study further verifies the effects of LMX and TMX on individuals' helping behavior in the Chinese context. Moreover, this study verifies the research by Kamdar 6 and Van Dyne et al 7 on social exchange relationships and helping behavior, and supplements the research by extending it to the Chinese context. Our results indicate that employees' helping behavior is a reciprocation behavior performed under the norms of social exchange, as well as a behavioral choice made from the interpretation and cognition of their relationships with their leaders and colleagues. ...
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Junwei Zheng,1 Yu Gu,1 Yan Wang,2 Hongtao Xie3 1Faculty of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Integration of Terrestrial & Marine Economies, Guangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanning, People’s Republic of China; 3Faculty of Management and Economics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Yan Wang, Collaborative Innovation Center for Integration of Terrestrial & Marine Economies, Guangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanning, 530003, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 13723867575, Email 2020210002@gxufe.edu.cnPurpose: Helping others is a classic virtue and a positive behavior advocated by organizations and society at large in accordance with social norms. Based on social information processing theory, this study examines the mechanisms by which social exchange relationships influence individual helping behavior.Patients and methods: Chinese General Social Survey data from 2015 (CGSS 2015) is applied, and regression analysis and bootstrapping methods are adopted.Results: The findings indicate that leader-member exchange and team-member exchange are positively and significantly related to employees’ helping behavior. Affective commitment and job satisfaction play mediating roles between both leader-member exchange and team-member exchange and helping behavior.Conclusion: Leader-member exchange and team-member exchange have different effects on helping behavior. Compared with team-member exchange, the effect of leader-member exchange on helping behavior is stronger via affective commitment and job satisfaction. These results serve as a starting point for boosting the proactive behaviors of employees, thereby establishing a harmonious organizational climate.Keywords: helping behavior, leader-member exchange, team-member exchange, affective commitment, job satisfaction
... For example, Kamdar and Van Dyne (2007) hypothesised that TMX would be a better predictor of OCBs directed at the peers than LMX. Their results confirmed that TMX was a better predictor of helping behaviours directed towards co-workers than LMX. ...
... co-workers mediated the effect of procedural justice on OCBs directed at the co-workers. Their results reaffirmed the results ofLavelle et al. (2009), in that the mediating effect of commitment on the positive re-lationship of organisational justice on OCBs is more evident when the targets of the commitment and the sources of justice were the same.Kamdar and Van Dyne (2007) conducted an interesting study by looking at the interactive effect of personality and quality of exchange relationships on foci-specific outcomes. Relevant to the current discussionKamdar and Van Dyne (2007) results confirm that individuals differentially reciprocate behaviours towards the peers and supervisors based on the quality of ...
... Their results reaffirmed the results ofLavelle et al. (2009), in that the mediating effect of commitment on the positive re-lationship of organisational justice on OCBs is more evident when the targets of the commitment and the sources of justice were the same.Kamdar and Van Dyne (2007) conducted an interesting study by looking at the interactive effect of personality and quality of exchange relationships on foci-specific outcomes. Relevant to the current discussionKamdar and Van Dyne (2007) results confirm that individuals differentially reciprocate behaviours towards the peers and supervisors based on the quality of their exchange relationships with them. A notable finding from this study is that high quality of exchange relationships with the supervisor (measured with LMX) and the team (measure with TMX) ...
Thesis
Psychological contracts provide a framework for understanding the employment relationship. The literature on psychological contracts has focused on the relationship of a focal-employee with a ’unitary employer’. This thesis employees the target-similarity model, proposed by Lavelle, Rupp, and Brockner (2007), to extend the psychological contract frame- work to include the foci-specific psychological contracts a focal-person establishes with his/her organisation, supervisor, and peers. Three independent studies were carried out for this thesis. The first two studies concurrently tested the effects of foci-specific psychological contracts breach on work-related outcomes. The first study investigated the effect of foci-specific psychological contracts breach on OCBs directed at the specific foci. The results from this study indicate that foci-specific psychological contract breach had a target-similarity effect on the OCBs directed at the foci breaching the psychological contract. Results from this study also indicate that the psychological contract breach by the supervisor has a spill-over effect on the OCBs directed at the organisation and the peers. The results from the second study also confirmed that the foci-specific psychological contract breach had a target-similarity effect on the focal-person’s satisfaction with the foci breaching the psychological contract. Results from this study also confirmed that foci-specific psychological contract breach had spillover effect on the focal-person’s satisfaction with the various organisational foci. Study three was de- signed to empirically test the effects of peer-to-peer psychological con- tract breach on a focal-person’s satisfaction with his/her peers. The results from this study included the identification of the content of the peer- to-peer psychological contract, and confirmed the negative relationship between the breach of peer-to-peer psychological contracts and satisfaction with peers. Implications for the psychological contract theory, future research, and practice are discussed at the end of the thesis.
... Bireylerin kişilik özellikleri, lider ve astları arasındaki ilk karşılaşma ve sonrasında gelişen ilişkileri üzerinde önemli bir etkiye sahiptir (Bono ve Judge, 2004;Dienesch ve Liden, 1986). Zira, yapılmış araştırmalar beş faktör kişilik özelliklerinden dışadönüklüğün (Phillips ve Bedeian, 1994) ve uyumluluğun (Bernerth ve arkadaşları, 2007;Kamdar ve ; Nahrgang ve arkadaşları, 2009) lider ve astları arasındaki ilişkiyi olumlu yönde etkilediğini göstermiştir. Ancak, diğer kişilik özellikleri olan nevrotiklik, özdisiplin ve deneyime açıklığın lider ve astları arasındaki ilişkiyi nasıl etkilediği konusunda birbirinden farklı bulgular vardır. ...
... Örneğin; Bernerth ve arkadaşları (2007) yapmış oldukları çalışmada beş faktör kişilik özelliklerinden sadece uyumluluk ile LÜE arasında, Phillips ve Bedeian (1994) ise dışadönüklük ile LÜE arasında pozitif bir ilişki tespit etmiştir. Uyumluluk özelliğinin LÜE ile pozitif yönde ilişkili olduğunu ortaya koyan başka çalışmalar da bulunmaktadır (Kamdar ve Van Dyne, 2007;Nahrgang vd., 2009, Sears ve Hackett, 2011. Bernerth ve arkadaşları (2008) ise yapmış oldukları çalışmada nevrotiklik, özdisiplin, uyumluluk ve deneyime açıklık ile LÜE algısı arasında negatif yönde ilişki tespit etmişlerdir. ...
... Liderin diğer kişilik özellikleri (nevrotiklik, uyumluluk, dışadönüklük) ile LÜE arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamıştır. Ancak kişilik -LÜE ilişkisini inceleyen birçok araştırmada (Bernerth vd., 2007;Kamdar ve Nahrgang vd., 2009;Phillips ve Bedeian, 1994;Sears ve Hackett, 2011) nevrotiklik, uyumluluk, dışadönüklük kişilik özelliklerinin LÜE üzerinde etkili olduğu gösterilmiştir. Bu araştırmada, bu kişilik özelliklerinin LÜE üzerinde etkili olmamasının bir nedeni örneklemden kaynaklanabilir. ...
Conference Paper
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Zamanının büyük bir kısmını yaşamlarının en merkezi alanlarından birisi olan çalışma hayatında harcayan insanlar her gün psikolojik ve fiziksel birçok etmenden etkilenmektedirler. Ayrıca farklı kişisel ve karakteristik özelliklere sahip olan bireylerin sürekli olarak bir arada çalışması örgütte çeşitli sorunların çıkmasına neden olabilmektedir. Bu sorunlar kişisel sebeplerden kaynaklı olarak ortaya çıkabileceği gibi yapılan görevler, normlar, kişiler arası kıskançlıklar vs. gibi birçok nedenden kaynaklanabilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın hareket noktası, bireylerin örgütte mobbing eylemlerine maruz kalma düzeyleri ve söz konusu eylemlere maruz kalan bireylerin örgütsel sessizlik eğilimlerini ilişkin adaletsizlik ya da mağduriyetin bireylerde neden olduğu intikam niyeti ve affetme eğilimlerini incelemektir.
... Additionally, combining trait activation theory (TAT) (Tett & Burnett, 2003) and SEMT, we propose that, as supervisor support increases, the effects of conscientiousness on thriving and in turn on satisfaction outcomes become weaker. This proposition is driven by the view that supervisor support, which represents a powerful reward contingency, could wash out the effects of traits at work (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). ...
... Consequently, regardless of individual differences in personality profiles, employees exhibit similar reactions in strong rewarding situations (Meyer et al., 2009). That means, the effects of personality on employee outcomes tend to be less salient in stronger reward contingencies (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). ...
... Following TAT, we propose that supervisor support, which reflects a critical reward contingency for employees (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007), buffers the effect of conscientiousness on thriving. Supervisors are implementers of organizational policies (Guan & Frenkel, 2018). ...
Article
Based on a three-wave survey of 223 full-time workers, this study investigates how trait conscientiousness affects career satisfaction and job satisfaction and the boundary condition of these effects. We found that conscientiousness fostered career and job satisfaction through enabling thriving at work. Results also revealed that the impact of conscientiousness on thriving at work, and subsequently on career and job satisfaction, was stronger when individuals received less supervisor support. These findings advance our theoretical and practical knowledge of how personality traits and situational factors jointly impact on employee wellbeing.
... Dyadic relationship development is grounded in social exchange theory and the theory of reciprocity. The theory of social exchange and reciprocity is based on the claim that if a subordinate perceives a leader's support, then that individual feels the obligation to reciprocate by trying to be an effective employee regarding work-related performance (Ilies, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007;Kamdar &Van Dyne, 2007). In addition, if a supervisor perceives efficient work-related performance from an employee, the leader feels the urge to be reciprocal towards the subordinate. ...
... Dyadic relationship development is grounded in social exchange theory and the theory of reciprocity. Social exchange theory and reciprocity can be used to help explain that if a subordinate perceives leader support, then that individual feels the obligation to reciprocate by trying to be an effective employee (Ilies et al., 2007;Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). In addition, if a supervisor perceives efficient work-related performance from an employee, the leader feels the urge to be reciprocal towards the subordinate. ...
Thesis
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The personality congruence of supervisors and subordinates and its influence on work outcomes is a relatively new topic in social and behavioral sciences. Most well-known personality theory is Big Five that includes openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits. LMX theory focuses on the mutual relationship between a supervisor and a subordinate. There is a gap in the literature regarding the mediating role of LMX perceptions of subordinates on the relationship between personality congruence of supervisors and subordinates and affective commitment (AC). The purpose of this cross-sectional design was first to explore the direct relationship between supervisors and subordinates personality congruence and AC of subordinates. The second purpose of this study was to explore the role of LMX as a mediator between the personality congruence of supervisors and subordinates and AC of the subordinates. A cluster sampling method was used to gather 400 supervisorsubordinate dyads from 3 technopolises in Ankara, who completed self-reported questionnaires. A technopolis is a technology science park. Polynomial regression analysis was conducted to measure the congruence level of dyads’ personality traits and structural equation modeling was used to analyze the mediating effect of LMX. Results revealed that, LMX has no mediating effect on personality congruence and AC. The results also revealed that there is a significant relation between the agreeableness congruence of supervisors and subordinates, and AC. This information can be used by organizations by pairing up agreeable dyad members to increase affective commitment. The findings of this study may create positive social change by promoting optimum functioning organizations that have committed employees which would affect the society and economy in a positive way.
... Social exchange has a fundamental impact on the strength of social ties, leading to many other positive outcomes as well, such as increased collaboration performance or workplace satisfaction (e.g. Chun et al., 2016;Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007; view of SET and focus on exchanges that occur in interpersonal communication. Cropanzano and Mitchell (2005, p. 887) define this type of social exchange as "social transaction in a social relationship" and thus clearly distinguish these exchanges from economic transactions and relationships. ...
... On the contrary, in addition to the strengthening of social ties (Blau, 1964;Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005), positive social exchange is often linked to organizations' critical success factors, such as increased job performance (e.g. Chun et al., 2016;Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007;Liao et al., 2010;Robert and You, 2018). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of the paper is to examine how media synchronicity facilitates the emergence of social exchange (i.e. trust and reciprocity) in organizations’ information and communication technology (ICT)-mediated interactions. A model of media synchronicity in organizational social exchange (MSiOSE) is proposed. Design/methodology/approach The paper has a design and review approach. The theoretical analysis is based on social exchange theory (SET) and media synchronicity theory (MST). Findings The authors propose that, in general, social exchange benefits from both asynchronous and synchronous communication processes. However, media synchronicity has different boundary conditions (i.e. pros and cons) in relation to the emergence of social exchange, determined in accordance with the mutually interacting patterns of trust and reciprocity predicted by SET. The authors provide testable theoretical propositions to support the analysis. Originality/value Social exchange is a critical business factor for organizations due to its well-known positive outcomes, such as the strengthening of social ties. The need for successful social exchange in remote work conditions is particularly emphasized. However, with regard to the communication and behavioral patterns that lead to social exchange via ICT, the theoretical understanding is limited. The study reveals previously unmapped heuristics between social exchange and physical media capabilities. Thus, the study's propositions can be used to study and analyze social exchange in the ever-changing media landscape. As a practical contribution, the study helps organizations to improve their communication strategies and use of ICT.
... This was further recommended by Gkorezis (2015) that as supervisor support, guidance and LMX are important determinants of organizational citizenship behavior for the environment, and specifically transformational leaders due to a high level of inspiration and LMX relationships can boost the OCBE. Many behavioral outcomes of LMX have been reported in past studies which include organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment, and performance respectively (Eisenberger et al., 2010;Ilies et al. 2007;Kamdar and Van Dyne 2007;Li and Hung 2009). For Paillé and Raineri (2015), LMX should be investigated in discretionary behavior like organizational citizenship behavior for interesting insights. ...
... Due to the high level of inspiration and LMX relationships, OCBE is stimulated. Many behavioral outcomes of LMX have been reported in past studies which include organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment, and performance, respectively (Eisenberger et al. 2010;Ilies et al. 2007;Kamdar and Van Dyne 2007;Li and Hung 2009). For Paillé and Raineri (2015), LMX should be investigated in discretionary behavior like organizational citizenship behavior for interesting insights. ...
Article
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Many researchers and intellectuals focused on the topic of organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE); however, employees’ pro-environmental behaviors, such as eco-helping, eco-civic engagement, and eco-initiatives, are often being ignored. Also, the investigation of the stimulating factors behind these behaviors remains weak. Hence, this research aims to explore the role of environmental transformational leadership (ELT) in these three types of organizational citizen behaviors for the environment (OCBE) considering the indirect effects of psychological empowerment and leader-member exchange (LMX). We examined the effects of meditation by using four steps for mediation analysis and the Sobel test. Chi-square (χ²) tests for observing the difference were also applied. The results from a survey of 500 employees from the manufacturing industry in China provide that environmental transformational leadership contributes indirectly and directly to promoting environmental behavior within organizations due to the inspirational nature of transformational leaders. Furthermore, the intentions of employees for organizational environmental behavior stimulate on account of a high sense of leader-member exchange and psychological empowerment. Based on these findings, the study suggests that leadership in organizations should facilitate their employees with psychological empowerment and sharing of information and initiative regarding the environment for boosting OCBE. It is also recommended that at the time of recruitment and selection of employees, they should be given orientations regarding environmental protection and resource conservation. Moreover, organizations should promote the transformational style of leadership to achieve environment-related goals.
... Dado esto, los CEO´s expatriados son los focos en la gestión de las filiales, quienes son capaces de superar las barreras culturales y lingüísticas para organizar un grupo de trabajo idóneo (Colakoglu & Caligiuri, 2008). Este grupo ayuda a identificar oportunidades locales (Fang, Jiang, Makino & Beamish, 2010), sensibilizando cambios (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007) y alineando actividades promovidas por la casa matriz (Asakawa, 2001;Birkinshaw, 2002;Mudambi, 2002). ...
Chapter
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La gestión de filiales extranjeras es una preocupación para las empresas multinacionales que operan en un mundo cada vez más globalizado (Gupta & Govindarajan, 1994). Esto ha llevado a un creciente interés en las competencias de los expatriados con cargos como CEO y otros expatriados con cargos gerenciales (Varma, Toh & Budhwar, 2006). Dado esto, los CEO´s expatriados son los focos en la gestión de las filiales, quienes son capaces de superar las barreras culturales y lingüísticas para organizar un grupo de trabajo idóneo (Colakoglu & Caligiuri, 2008). Este grupo ayuda a identificar oportunidades locales (Fang, Jiang, Makino & Beamish, 2010), sensibilizando cambios (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007) y alineando actividades promovidas por la casa matriz (Asakawa, 2001; Birkinshaw, 2002; Mudambi, 2002)
... Dado esto, los CEO´s expatriados son los focos en la gestión de las filiales, quienes son capaces de superar las barreras culturales y lingüísticas para organizar un grupo de trabajo idóneo (Colakoglu & Caligiuri, 2008). Este grupo ayuda a identificar oportunidades locales (Fang, Jiang, Makino & Beamish, 2010), sensibilizando cambios (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007) y alineando actividades promovidas por la casa matriz (Asakawa, 2001;Birkinshaw, 2002;Mudambi, 2002). ...
Chapter
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La presente publicación recoge resultados preliminares y finales de algunas de las investigaciones desarrolladas por profesores vinculados a los grupos de investigación del Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Desarrollo Regional (CEIDER), de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales de la Universidad Santiago de Cali, en trabajo colaborativo con investigadores nacionales e internacionales, cofinanciados con recursos de la Universidad y de otras instituciones mediante convocatorias de investigación.
... Our findings are partially in alignment with prior research. As Kamdar & Van Dyne (2007) claim that economic exchanges associated with a narrowing of job roles would encompass only required performance, Shore et al. (2006) found that, because of its contractual nature, relationships characterized by economic exchanges can be unrelated to work performance. ...
... Dado esto, los CEO´s expatriados son los focos en la gestión de las filiales, quienes son capaces de superar las barreras culturales y lingüísticas para organizar un grupo de trabajo idóneo (Colakoglu & Caligiuri, 2008). Este grupo ayuda a identificar oportunidades locales (Fang, Jiang, Makino & Beamish, 2010), sensibilizando cambios (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007) y alineando actividades promovidas por la casa matriz (Asakawa, 2001;Birkinshaw, 2002;Mudambi, 2002). ...
Book
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La presente publicación recoge resultados preliminares y finales de algunas de las investigaciones desarrolladas por profesores vinculados a los grupos de investigación del Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Desarrollo Regional (CEIDER), de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales de la Universidad Santiago de Cali, en trabajo colaborativo con investigadores nacionales e internacionales, cofinanciados con recursos de la Universidad y de otras instituciones mediante convocatorias de investigación.
... The Demographic control variables in this study included age, education, work tenure, and gender to consider the potential confounding effects on the dependent variables [66]. The first two variables (age and gender) are both significant predictors of the frequency of using IM [67,68]. ...
Article
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This study investigates the extending negative effects of impression management (IM) on organizational outcomes in the nursing context. Specifically, this study aims to understand the impact of IM on workplace exclusion through workplace deviance. The data came from 277 head nurses (nurses in leadership positions) in elderly care homes in Belgium. Structured paper-and-pencil questionnaires were administered on site in the respondents’ workplaces. In the findings of the current research, IM is positively related to workplace exclusion and the relationship is mediated by workplace deviance. Although, initially, IM is performed by the actors as a natural behavior to maintain their image, at some point, the actors can become fatigued with maintaining their image. Under ego depletion theory, the exhausted IM actors will be highly experienced in deviance or bad performance. Furthermore, consistent with social information processing theory and a correlation study between employees’ poor performance and workplace exclusion, the IM actors who fail to deliver good performance or behavior following their like-based rewards may be subject to social exclusion in their workplace.
... That is to explore the mediating effect of psychological contract violation. Trait activation theory argues that personality trait plays an increasingly important role in the workplace (Byrne, Stoner, Thompson, & Hochwarter, 2005;Foo, Uy, & Baron, 2009;Greenbaum, Hill, Mawritz, & Quade, 2017;Hirst, Knippenberg, & Zhou, 2009;Hochwarter, Witt, Treadway, & Ferris, 2006;Hoogh, Hartog, & Koopman, 2005;Judge & Zapata, 2015;Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007;Li, Liang, & Crant, 2010), traits and job characteristics jointly influence employee work outcomes (Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013). So our model positions responsibility for change as an important boundary condition. ...
Article
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Emerging research in the idiosyncratic deals literature is to examine its negative effects. Thus far, much remains unknown about how and when idiosyncratic deals are associated with employee creative process engagement. Invoking fairness heuristic theory and trait activation theory, we propose and test a model that coworker's idiosyncratic deals have a negative association with witness's creative process engagement through psychological contract violation. Furthermore, we theorize and test the combination of the responsibility for change and perceived exploitative leadership as important boundary conditions, associate interact with coworker's idiosyncratic deals to strengthen the positive impact on psychological contract violation, thereby reducing witness's creative process engagement. We use two time-lagged studies to provide support for these mediation and moderation effects, and also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
... Because personality is considered stable across contexts (McCrae & John, 1992), we use research on conscientiousness in the workplace as a basis for theorizing about the household performance of conscientious wives and thus their propensity to provide services upon which their husbands can rely. Conscientiousness is positively associated with helping others in the workplace (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007;Organ & Ryan, 1995), in part because those higher in conscientiousness are accustomed to performing broader roles (Jiao et al., 2013;Organ & Ryan, 1995). Moreover, when the success of their work depends on smooth interpersonal relationships, conscientious employees are more likely to cooperate with others, volunteer to do extra work, incur inconvenience, and persist in support of the organization (LePine & Van Dyne, 2001). ...
Article
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Research has shown that disagreeableness predicts financial success (especially for men), and this association is attributed to workplace behavior. However, this effect remains puzzling given that disagreeableness is negatively associated with valued workplace behaviors, such as cooperation and prosocial behavior. We theorize that the male disagreeableness premium can be further understood by considering social exchanges at home in which married men are less concerned with and helpful to their wives, especially when harboring traditional gender role attitudes. Such exchanges should allow disagreeable men to demonstrate higher job involvement, resulting in higher pay, especially when their wives demonstrate higher household performance and are highly conscientious. As expected, Study 1 data from 195 married couples indicated that male disagreeableness predicts higher pay as mediated by lower wife-orientation and higher job involvement, and moderated by traditionalism and a wife's household performance (and conscientiousness). In Study 2, we replicated key aspects of our model in a nationally representative sample of 1,558 married couples: Again, disagreeableness in married men predicts higher pay if they are more traditional and their wives are more conscientious. Our findings build on the literature's conventional wisdom (that organizations seem to reward disagreeable workplace behaviors) and highlight the importance of social exchange at home for success at work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... However, when it comes to estimation of job performance it is more common to rely on various types of questionnaires including self-reports, and supervisory and peer evaluations [14], [52], [121]. Job performance varies depending on demographic information (e.g., age, gender) [90] and individual traits (personality, emotional intelligence) [12], [13]. It has been widely reported that anxiety is affected by context, e.g., [41], [107], [108]. ...
Article
Assessment of individuals' job performance, personalized health and psychometric measures are domains where data-driven ubiquitous computing will have a profound impact in the near future. Existing work in these domains focus on techniques that use data extracted from questionnaires, sensors (wearable, computer, etc.), or other traits to assess well-being and cognitive attributes of individuals. However, these techniques can neither predict individuals' well-being and psychological traits in a global manner nor consider the challenges associated with processing the often incomplete and noisy data available. In this paper, we create a benchmark for the predictive analysis of individuals from a perspective that integrates physical and physiological behavior, psychological states and traits, and job performance. We develop a novel data mining framework that can extract meaningful predictors from noisy and incomplete data derived from wearable, mobile and social media sensors to predict nineteen constructs based on twelve standardized and well-validated tests. The framework can be used to build a predictive model of outcomes of interest. We validate the framework using data from 757 knowledge workers in organizations across the United States with varied work roles. Our framework and resulting model provides the first benchmark that combines these various instrument-derived variables in a single framework to understand people's behavior. The results show that our framework is reliable and capable of predicting our chosen variables better than the baselines when prediction includes the noisy and incomplete data.
... We found that agreeableness is positively related to daily interpersonal harmony, which is in line with results from previous research that show the positive effect of agreeableness on citizenship behaviors (Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007). Thus, restaurant employees with high agreeableness are more likely to maintain good relationships with others (i.e. ...
Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of service employees’ agreeableness personality and daily self-esteem on their daily interpersonal behaviors in terms of interpersonal harmony and counterproductive work behavior toward other individuals (CWB-I). Furthermore, this study examines whether the impact of daily self-esteem on daily interpersonal behaviors is moderated by the quality of service employees’ relationship with their manager and leader–member exchange (LMX). Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 111 restaurant employees in China who took daily surveys with 1,412 ratings for 10 consecutive days, a longitudinal analysis was conducted to test the research hypotheses using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings The results show that agreeableness personality predicted daily interpersonal harmony but had no significant effect on daily CWB-I. It was also found that daily self-esteem predicted both daily interpersonal harmony and daily CWB-I, and LMX moderated the effect of daily self-esteem on daily interpersonal behaviors. Practical implications Given the fluctuation of employees’ interpersonal behaviors, organizations should guide the variability of interpersonal behaviors in the positive direction. To promote daily interpersonal harmony and reduce daily CWB-I, managers could focus on recruiting employees with agreeableness, offering daily self-esteem training and enhancing the quality of LMX. Originality/value This research is unique in its objectives to examine what influences service employees’ interpersonal behaviors on a daily basis and its methods to implement a longitudinal approach unlike previous studies that often relied on cross-sectional designs to enhance the ecological validity of the findings.
... Low agreeableness was positively related to experienced workplace incivility, indicating that people low on agreeableness draw attention to become a target [27,40,57]. A low level of agreeableness is associated with mistrustfulness, suspicion, non-cooperation, rudeness and stubbornness [58,59]. Individuals high in agreeableness perceive less interpersonal workplace deviance, even in undesirable social surroundings [60]. ...
Article
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Uncivil behavior at work can have numerous consequences for individuals and the organization. This paper examines the interplay of personality traits and organizational culture as antecedents of workplace incivility. Empirical research on a sample of 251 employees has shown that the perceptions and occurrence of workplace incivility can be significantly related to personality traits and features of organizational culture. When looking at the combined effect of personality and organizational culture, culture determines one’s perception and experience of incivility stronger than personality traits alone. The research showed that personality trait agreeableness and emphasizing values related to clan, market or adhocracy culture could reduce the odds of workplace incivility.
... Drawing on social exchange theory, leader-member exchange (LMX) [37] (i.e., the relationship between a group leader and its members) can be described as a unique form of social exchange relationship that varies in quality between the respective agents of interaction [38][39][40][41]. In high-quality LMX relationships, leaders and members form social relationships based on trust, liking, and respect, which engenders feelings of mutual obligation and reciprocity [14,42]. ...
Article
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Civil society groups and their members are important agents within the multi-stakeholder change process towards more ecological, social, global, and economic sustainability. To better understand civil society group members’ drivers within this complex societal change process, the present study examines the impact of perceived participation, leader–member exchange (LMX), procedural justice, and procedural justice climate on change-supporting behavior. Referring to social exchange theory, data from 125 members of 34 civil society groups that engage in the Agenda 21 process in Germany were gathered by paper/pencil and online questionnaires. Multi-level analyses were conducted to examine interactions between group-level and individual-level phenomena. We found that participation and LMX positively affected group members’ procedural justice perceptions and that procedural justice positively affected group members’ change-supporting behavior. Procedural justice further mediated the relationship between participation, LMX, and change-supporting behavior. The study’s results suggest that fair social exchange processes with civil society group members should be more encouraged by other societal stakeholders (i.e., government, civil society group leaders) wishing to maximize civil society group members’ change-supporting behavior. This study demonstrates ways to promote change initiatives in civil society. Fair social exchange processes help to overcome participation hurdles in the complex field of sustainable local development.
... Thus, constructive interactions among organizational members have been portrayed as a primary element in organizational life and also critical for organizational effectiveness (Amason & Sapienza, 1997;Jehn & Mannix, 2001;Stachowski, Kaplan, & Waller, 2009). This is perhaps why researchers and practitioners have called for meaningful research on this topic (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007;Katz & Kahn, 1978;Settoon & Mossholder, 2002). ...
Article
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Despite the extensive interest in open-minded discussion in organizations, inconsistencies regarding its antecedents and consequences remain. Drawing upon cooperation and competition theory, we propose a theoretical framework of open-minded discussion. On the basis of 114 primary studies (128 independent samples), a meta-analytic investigation showed that cooperative goal interdependence was positively associated with open-minded discussion, which in turn was positively related to desirable work outcomes, including performance, creativity, relationship quality, LMX, and commitment, whereas competitive and independent goal interdependence were negatively related to open-minded discussion and desirable outcomes. We also explored three moderators: culture (i.e., East Asian cultures and North American cultures), level of analysis (i.e., incident, individual and team level), and research area (i.e., goal interdependence and conflict management). Results support the theorizing that cooperative goal interdependence develops mutual benefit motivation and integrative conflict management that in turn lead to open-mindedness where collaborators combine their best ideas that result in high quality contributions to organizations. Through the meta-analysis, we offer a more stringent test of cooperation and competition theory and expand the research on open-minded discussion in organizations across various contexts.
... 2005), there are fewer studies that examine citizenship behaviors directed at specific supervisors. While some of these studies rely on supervisor-report data (Choi, 2008;Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007;Liao & Rupp, 2005; Van Dyne, Kamdar, & Joireman, 2008); these studies minimize social desirability by directly accessing the supervisors via the employing organization (independent of the subordinate). Our study design, on the other hand, required us to obtain data from employees in multiple organizations across multiple industries so as not to introduce confounding organizational or industry effects. ...
Article
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We explore how relational identification (RI) complements the influence of relational exchange within work role-relationships. In two temporally-lagged studies, we examine the contribution of RI, after accounting for relational exchange quality (REQ), in predicting organizationally-relevant behaviors and attitudes – namely, (1) interpersonal citizenship behaviors (ICBs; person-focused and task-focused), (2) job satisfaction, and (3) affective organizational commitment. Across samples of ‘non-professional’ ( N = 152) and ‘professional’ ( N = 197) employees, we found that RI (after accounting for REQ) significantly predicted outcomes. Indeed, we found RI to be the only predictor (after accounting for REQ) with affective commitment (‘non-professional’ sample only), person-focused ICBs (both samples), and task-focused ICBs (both samples). We discuss potential approaches for better specifying both identification and exchange as well as their unique and interactive effects within work role-relationships as well as managerial implications, limitations, and future research directions.
... Examples of self-sacrifice leadership include the boss performing more work than employees, not abusing their authority, taking responsibility for ambiguous responsibilities, or yielding compensation [55]. This motivates employees to perform well on the job and creates a sense of obligation to achieve the organization's goals [56,57]. Leaders who self-sacrifice cultivate one-on-one relationships with their subordinates and inspire consideration for their needs and growth. ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-sacrifice leadership and social capital or job performance in the hotel industry. Four hypotheses have been proposed to accomplish this. First, self-sacrifice leadership positively affects social capital. Second, social capital has a positive impact on job performance. Third, self-sacrifice leadership has a positive effect on job performance. Fourth, self-sacrifice leadership positively affects job performance through the mediation of social capital. Further, eligible respondents (n = 371; 282 male and 89 female) were recruited from hotels with a three-star or above rating in metropolitan areas and then evaluated for the online survey method. Results showed that self-sacrifice leadership had significant positive effects on social capital and job performance. Moreover, social capital significantly improved job performance and mediated the interaction between self-sacrifice and job performance. Therefore, building social capital for employees is critical, which implies that hotels require education and training to promote self-sacrificing leadership. In particular, self-sacrificing leadership has a decisive influence on employees’ job performance; thus, a system that improves the working environment must be established.
... Specifically, an employee's voice may be more strongly associated with their influence when it is combined with both high LMX and quality peer relationships. Employees with high LMX and high centrality in friendship networks can receive specific supports and opportunities necessary for effective job performance through unique relationships with the supervisor [50] and have access to resources from coworkers through collaboration as well [34,51]. Therefore, employees with both high LMX and high centrality rather than those with low LMX and high centrality are likely to receive higher performance expectations, i.e., the generalized anticipation of their competence to contribute to the work. ...
Article
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From the perspective of social relationships, this study extends the understanding of employee voice by examining voice outcomes, especially a voicer’s influence in their work team. In particular, we explore how two different social relationships, LMX and peer relationship, separately and jointly affect the ‘voice-influence’ relationship. Drawing on social network theory, we propose that higher LMX and central positions in peer networks (i.e., centrality in the friendship network) strengthen the positive impact of voice on individual influence. From a sample of 128 employees from three firms in South Korea, we found that two types of voice (promotive and prohibitive) are positively related with individual influence. This study also found that LMX strengthened the positive effect of promotive voice on a voicer’s influence. Moreover, LMX and peer relationship jointly affect the voice-influence relationship as follows: (1) a voicer with a high LMX-high centrality (in the peer network) is most influential within their team, (2) as for a low LMX-high centrality member, speaking up rather decreases individual influence. These results suggest that voice outcome is not unilateral. Rather, whose voice it is and where a voicer stands may matter more. We discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings in employee voice research.
... La teoría del intercambio social (Blau, 1964) en el contexto laboral, implica las interacciones entre los integrantes de la organización, incluidas las actitudes y los comportamientos, donde los subordinados desarrollan una relación con sus líderes basada en la reciprocidad (Gouldner, 1960), es decir, a través de contribuciones y beneficios mutuos (Kamdar y Van Dyne, 2007;Henderson et al., 2008;Lan et al., 2020). De esta manera las actitudes positivas incentivan a los trabajadores y favorecen la generación de confianza, motivación y satisfacción laboral (Cropanzano y Mitchell, 2005;Kakarika et al., 2017), mientras que si existe un desequilibrio en ese intercambio se pueden generar comportamientos negativos y desincentivar a los miembros del equipo (Lee y Park, 2020). ...
Article
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En este documento, utilizando la teoría del intercambio social como base teórica, proponemos identificar la presencia de acoso laboral en profesores universitarios, a través de máquinas de vectores soporte, y la aplicación de un instrumento que mida la satisfacción en el trabajo, en lugar de evaluar el nivel de acoso laboral explícitamente. La muestra fue de 248 docentes de cuatro universidades públicas en México. Obtuvimos los siguientes resultados: la desvalorización del trabajo es el tipo de acoso más frecuente, mientras que el mobbing personal es el menos frecuente. El kernel RBF es la mejor opción para predecir acoso laboral en las dimensiones: sobrecarga de trabajo, mobbing personal y devalorización del trabajo; el núcleo polinomial es el mejor para el mobbing organizacional. La precisión de clasificación de los modelos es superior al 91%, y la puntuación F = 0.93, ambos en el peor de los casos. Según el rendimiento de los modelos, se puede predecir el acoso laboral con precisión.
... Although a great deal of research has been undertaken in this regard (e.g., Carmeli and Josman, 2006;Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007;Tsai et al., 2007;Shantz et al., 2013;Yu and Frenkel, 2013;Kim et al., 2015;Du et al., 2016;Bodla and Ningyu, 2017;Yang and Wei, 2017;Chen and Tang, 2018;Khoreva and Wechtler, 2018;Khalid, 2020;Lin et al., 2020;Kim and Kim, 2021;Tran et al., 2021), the JP literature has some notable gaps. For instance, research has yet to look into the links between bright-side aspects of organizational life, for example, workplace dignity (WD), and employees' JP (Chen and Tang, 2018). ...
Article
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Despite growing interest in workplace dignity, there is a paucity of empirical research regarding whether and when it leads to higher job performance. To address these research gaps, this study examines the relationship between workplace dignity and job performance, identifying and examining the boundary condition role of workplace inclusion. Multi-source and time-lagged data were obtained from employee–supervisor dyads (n = 169) in non-governmental organizations in Pakistan to test the hypothesized model, employing techniques, such as confirmatory factor analysis, moderated multiple regression, post-hoc slope, and Johnson–Neyman analyses. As predicted, workplace dignity and workplace inclusion positively influenced employees’ job performance, while workplace inclusion moderated the dignity-performance relationship such that this relationship was more strongly positive when workplace inclusion was high. At the theoretical level, this study adds new insights to the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, which is used as theoretical lens in this study. Specifically, this study is the first to examine workplace dignity and its consequences from the perspective of the JD-R model, thus introducing a new theoretical perspective into the dignity literature. This study also provides useful advice for management practice, policymaking, and employees, and is germane to the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 8.
... 2005), there are fewer studies that examine citizenship behaviors directed at specific supervisors. While some of these studies rely on supervisor-report data (Choi, 2008;Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007;Liao & Rupp, 2005; Van Dyne, Kamdar, & Joireman, 2008); these studies minimize social desirability by directly accessing the supervisors via the employing organization (independent of the subordinate). Our study design, on the other hand, required us to obtain data from employees in multiple organizations across multiple industries so as not to introduce confounding organizational or industry effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
We explore how relational identification (RI) complements the influence of relational exchange within work role-relationships. In two temporally-lagged studies, we examine the contribution of RI, after accounting for relational exchange quality (REQ), in predicting organizationally-relevant behaviors and attitudes-namely, (1) interpersonal citizenship behaviors (ICBs; person-focused and task-focused), (2) job satisfaction, and (3) affective organizational commitment. Across samples of 'non-professional' (N = 152) and 'professional' (N = 197) employees, we found that RI (after accounting for REQ) significantly predicted outcomes. Indeed, we found RI to be the only predictor (after accounting for REQ) with affective commitment ('non-professional' sample only), person-focused ICBs (both samples), and task-focused ICBs (both samples). We discuss potential approaches for better specifying both identification and exchange as well as their unique and interactive effects within work role-relationships as well as managerial implications, limitations, and future research directions.
... Based on the selection of control variables in previous studies (Detert and Burris, 2007;Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007), this manuscript used employees' gender, age, education level, marital status, and working years as control variables. ...
Article
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The complexity of today’s organizational environment increasingly requires leaders to think in a dynamic and flexible way to resolve contradictory issues. This study explored and compared the effects of servant leadership and authoritarian leadership on employees’ work behavior from the perspectives of ambidextrous leadership theory and social exchange theory, and further examined the mediating role of psychological empowerment. In this study, 315 employees from state-owned communication companies in Shandong and Zhejiang Provinces in China were selected as subjects, and path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that servant leadership positively predicted organizational citizenship behavior and task performance. While authoritarian leadership negatively predicted organizational citizenship behavior and positively predicted task performance, psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between the two leadership styles and organizational citizenship behavior and task performance. Moreover, psychological empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior played a multiple mediating role between the two leadership styles and task performance. The theoretical implications of these findings for advancing the ambidextrous leadership theory in Chinese organizational contexts and practical approaches for corporate managers to effectively use ambidextrous leadership style were discussed.
... The mutuality perspective (Kochan and Osterman, 1994) on the employment relationship is often grounded in SET (Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005;Cropanzano and Rupp, 2003 (Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007), with an emphasis on subjective value and fairness of exchange (Mitchell, Cropanzano and Quisenberry, 2012). In respect of wellbeing, the premise is that, if an employer focuses on wellbeing, employees react positively through performance (Guest, 2017;Peccei et al., 2013). ...
Article
Employee wellbeing activities constitute a space for organisations to realise a shared agenda with employees, and therefore a means to pursue mutuality. The pursuit of mutuality draws on assumptions of reciprocity in social exchange theory (SET) but is dynamic and put under pressure by external shocks. The first UK COVID-19 lockdown provided the setting to explore how organisations addressed employee wellbeing concerns under conditions of crisis. Using qualitative data from five organisations, we identify authenticity-building, which is the constellation of past and present activities through which organisations channel efforts to be authentic in their concern for employees. Attributions of authenticity emerge as fundamental to authenticity-building, while authenticity-work (the organisation noticing, understanding and acting on shifts in interests) is enabled by dialogic processes. Authenticity-building shifts the quality of the exchange relationship to allow for mutual benefits and is therefore, a vital and dynamic component of mutuality. Our findings contribute to the mutuality literature by providing a theoretically-embedded extension of SET and show how organisations may become more (or less) authentic within the context of the employment relationship. We highlight the complexity of organisational endeavour for mutuality and show how mutuality need not be compromised during external shocks.
... It serves as a foundation to many fields, including job performance (Organ, 1988), organizational support (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002), intra-organization relationships (Coyle-Shapiro and Shore, 2007), trust (Blau, 1964) and other aspects of leadership (Liden et al., 1997). Additionally, SET's influence extends to personality research (Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007), organizational commitment (Klein et al., 2009), job satisfaction (Lavelle et al., 2007), turnover , justice (Colquitt et al., 2005) and workplace safety (Hofmann et al., 2003). One of the reasons why SET is such a useful, practical and important theory is that it is easy to test and operationalize, and it allows scholars to understand the process (the how) and the content (the what) of human interactions (Coyle-Shapiro and Conway, 2004). ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between career commitment, job stress, and work-related dimensions of work routinization, role clarity, social support, and promotional opportunity. The mediating role of job stress on the relationship between work-related dimensions and career commitment was also tested. A primary research was conducted using a survey questionnaire which was distributed online to 300 academic staff in Nigeria via emails. The lecturers were selected using convenience sampling based on availability. Only 175 lecturers responded to the questionnaire representing about 58% response rate. The data collected were analysed quantitatively using the SPSS software. Several tests conducted include: Cronbach's Alpha, Principal component analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Barlett's test of sphericity, descriptive statistics, Skewness and Kurtosis, multicollinearity (Tolerance and Variance inflation factor), Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis. The mediation analysis was tested using SPSS PROCESS utilizing Baron and Kenny (1986) model. Findings showed that, two of the work-related dimensions namely: social support and promotional opportunity have significant relationship with career commitment while work-related dimensions namely work routinization and role clarity did not have significant relationship with career commitment. The findings also showed that job career did not significantly relate to career commitment among the academic staff in Nigerian universities and there was no significant mediating role of job stress on the relationship between work-related dimensions and career commitment among academic staff in Nigerian universities. The study contributed to work-related stress and employee management research. Future research should look into CFA and SEM analysis to test the mediation with a bigger sample size.
... This is important for several reasons. First, high-quality relationships between leaders and followers increase employees' tolerance for injustice, allow them to focus on more positive factors, and urge them to return goodwill in different ways (Kamdar and Van Dyne, 2007). Second, high-quality relationships improve reciprocal exchange among group members (Hantula, 2009) and promote open communication between leaders and employees (Vinarski-Peretz et al., 2011), enhance mutual understanding (Liao et al., 2010), give employees a more positive outlook on the behavior of others in the organization (including self-serving leadership), and make employees believe that leaders' benefit distribution is reasonable. ...
Article
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Self-serving leadership is a typical example of destructive leadership that has negative effects on its subordinates and organization. According to social identity theory, we propose a theoretical model that self-serving leadership induces employee interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance through organization identification, and we explore the moderating role of moral identity in this relationship. Based on survey data collected from 377 questionnaires by using a three-wave time lagged design, structural equation modeling results showed that (1) there was a significant positive correlation between self-serving leadership and employees’ deviant behavior, (2) organizational identification partially mediates the relationship between self-serving leadership and employees’ deviant behavior, and (3) employees’ moral identity negatively moderates the relationship between self-serving leadership and employees’ organizational identification. The findings further extend the research on the influence of self-serving leadership on employee workplace deviance. They also reveal the mechanisms and boundary conditions of the effect of self-serving leadership on employee workplace deviance.
... For example, Lee and Sukoco [39] found that social support moderates the effects of expatriates' personalities on their job performance. Kamdar and Van Dyne [40] explored the joint effects of employee personality and social exchange relationships at work in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. The results indicated that high-quality social exchange relationships weaken the positive effect of personality on performance. ...
Article
Cabin attendants are mainly responsible for maintaining in-flight safety, and they are crucial to enhance air travel safety and alleviate passenger concerns. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between proactive personality, social support, safety climate and safety behaviors among cabin attendants. A self-assessment questionnaire was used to investigate a sample of 560 cabin attendants from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results show that proactive personality and safety climate positively influence cabin attendants' safety behaviors. Social support was found to weaken the positive effect of proactive personality on safety behaviors. Furthermore, social support and safety climate jointly moderate the relationship between proactive personality and safety behaviors, suggesting that this relationship is the strongest when the levels of social support and safety climate are both high. Theoretical and practical implications for researchers and practitioners in designing interventions and strategies to promote safety behaviors in airline context are discussed.
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This study examined the individual and combined effect of work ethics on employees' performance in selected money banks in Ogun State, Nigeria. It measured the constructs of Integrity, Moral Value and Trust as correlates of Job Commitment, Work Quality and Timeliness of Delivery respectively. For this, the study adopted survey research design on the target population of 800 employees of the selected banks. Stratified random sampling was used in © Barretto, Adeoye Akewusola & Ayeni Licensed under Creative Common Page 2 selecting the sample size of 481 employees. In assembling data, a structured and self-administered questionnaire was adapted, validated and employed. The response rate was 83% representing 399 responses. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of variables ranged between 0.81 and 0.91, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that integrity had positive and significant effect on employees job commitment in the selected money banks (β=.682, F(1,396) = 68.141, R 2 = .147, p < 0.05). Moral value had significant effect on quality of work in the selected money banks (β= .862, F(1,396) = 88.311, R 2 = .182, p < 0.05). Trust had significant effect on timeliness of delivery in the selected money banks (β= .282, F (1,396) = 13.277, R 2 = .032, p < 0.05). Integrity, moral value, and trust, have combined significant effect on employees performance of the selected money banks (F (3,394) = 25.265, R 2 = .161, p < 0.05). The results create awareness for the employees and management of the selected money banks to intensify on measures, policies, and programs that enhance better performance in their various organizations. This study is valuable as it contributes to knowledge on scholarly argument of work ethics and employees performance of selected money banks in a developing nation. Banking industries can embrace work ethics as customer winning strategies in their various organizations.
Article
Recognizing the need for organizational change in a transition setting, we specify a research model entailing the effects of two important workplace variables on the relationship between dispositional resistance to change and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment is important because of its relationship with a host of considerations relevant to successful organizational change and development. We test the model with samples from four Ukrainian firms undergoing comparable substantive change, including in their human resource systems. The results indicate that the negative relationship between resistance to change and organization commitment is moderated by trust in management. Specifically, it is the lack of trust that exacerbates the negative influence of resistance to change on commitment. Also, high procedural justice strengthens the negative relationship, thereby reducing organizational commitment, an interesting divergence from the Western literature. These indigenous findings in a markedly different context from the West hold potential for theory that is richer and more comprehensive in its explanatory reach. The findings also provide useful insights for managers in Ukraine in their efforts to change organizational practices.
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This study is an attempt to elucidate the effects of workforce racial diversity on organizational performance by incorporating an important organization-level moderating condition—an organization’s use of human resource management (HRM) practices. Specifically, this study examines how options- and project-based HRM have influence on the racial diversity–performance relationship. Using the longitudinal data sets of 192 U.S. law firms spanning multiple years (2001–2008), we examined the interactive effects of workforce racial diversity and a set of HRM practices (use of nonstandard employees, lateral hiring, pay dispersion, and training/communication) on organizational performance (profitability). Our findings revealed that while an organization’s reliance on nonstandard employment, lateral hiring, and large pay dispersion has significant negative influence on the racial diversity–performance relationship, training/communication has no clear moderating impact. In sum, the results indicated that when organizations adopt more project-based HRM practices (high levels of nonstandard employment, lateral hiring, and pay dispersion) rather than options-based ones, the effect of workforce racial diversity is likely to become negative on organizations’ bottom-line performance.
Article
Purpose Organizational research has long been dominated by the assumption that relationships between variables are linear, which can be overly simplistic or even misleading. This study proposes and tests a model in which subordinate organizational justice perceptions influence the linearity of the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX) and subordinate task performance. Design/methodology/approach A time-lagged anonymous survey study was conducted in Romania on a sample consisting of 274 subordinates nested under 42 leaders from a wide range of work settings. Supervisors rated the performance of their direct reports, while subordinates rated LMX and justice perceptions. Findings Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that the associations of LMX and LMX affect with task performance were best described by an inverted U shape when perceptions of supervisory interpersonal justice were high. Relationship strength was also affected. No such moderating effects were confirmed for other types of justice. We also found an unmoderated nonlinear effect of LMX-professional respect on task performance. Practical implications Results suggest that for supervisors who are perceived as fair in terms of interpersonal justice, a moderate level of LMX (especially LMX affect), slightly above the mean, maximizes subordinate task performance, while high LMX is preferable otherwise. Similarly, a moderate level of LMX professional respect seems optimal for performance. Originality/value The present paper challenges the linearity assumption for the established LMX–performance association, demonstrating that both the linearity and strength of the association may be influenced by justice. Second, results suggest that the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect may be the result of additive effects. Third, differential effects of LMX and justice dimensions are revealed.
Article
Catalyst study stated that female leaders suggestively can exhibit better leadership behaviour than male and can have more positive effect on their subordinate’s work psychology and performance. But these proclamations, grounded mostly on inadequate research verdicts and subjective evidence, continue empirically unverified in Asian countries. The experiential study is directed to compare whether female managers differ in their leadership style from male managers in bank. Added to that, study led to recognize and compare the difference in subordinate’s work performance behaviour due to the supervisor’s gender. Through multi-stage sampling method, 364 male and 58 female supervisors were examined based on structured questionnaire proposing two hypothetical consent-attainment status quo. Results exhibited and confirmed the significant difference among supervisor’s gender in their leadership style. Noteworthy variances were revealed in subordinates’ work behaviour because of their manager’s gender. Though the effects varied for diverse dimensions of managerial behaviour and employees conduct. Hypothesis verified that female supervisors are more transformational and transactional in style than male. Furthermore, female leaders were rated more significantly positive on subordinates’ task and contextual performance than male. Research entitled that Indian female supervisor with transformational and transactional style could be more influential to induce subordinates work behaviour and performance in banks. It is imperious to analyse leader’s behaviour in context to their gender, as female leaders play a substantial role in organization growth and performance.
Article
In this study, we investigated the effect of cross‐level factors, including team members’ altruistic personalities, the quality of team member exchange (TMX), interdependence of team structure, as well as interactions between these variables, on team members’ organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Using the military teams in Taiwan as samples, we collected empirical data of 90 teams, each with three team members and one team leader. Results of hierarchical linear modelling analysis showed that (a) a team member’s altruistic personality has no significant relationship with OCB, (b) both TMX and team interdependence have positive relationships with OCB, and (c) team interdependence has a cross‐level moderating effect on the relationship between TMX and OCB. For team management, establishing high TMX and interdependent working styles can promote OCB among team members. The results of this study add to knowledge on team members’ display of OCB from a holistic perspective. Findings of this study also support the important influence of TMX and team interdependence, especial for team management, strengthening the cross‐level theory in the study of OCB.
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Khái niệm hành vi công dân tổ chức là một khái niệm mới trong các doanh nghiệp Việt Nam hiện nay đặc biệt là trong ngành dịch vụ khi mà vai trò của nhân viên được đặt lên hàng đầu. Xuất phát từ quan điểm trao đổi xã hội và dịch vụ nội bộ, nghiên cứu thảo luận về các yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến hành vi công dân tổ chức định hướng dịch vụ của nhân viên ngành hàng không. Nghiên cứu cung cấp lý thuyết, hướng dẫn thực tiễn cho ngành hàng không trong nước đang phát triển nhanh chóng cũng như những gợi ý cụ thể cho các doanh nghiệp trong ngành hàng không để phát triển hành vi tốt của nhân viên và để quản lý nhân viên một cách chiến lược. Kết quả phân tích hồi quy dựa trên mẫu khảo sát là 298 nhân viên làm việc trong các doanh nghiệp ngành hàng không Việt Nam cho thấy sự hài lòng công việc và sự gắn kết công việc có tác động mạnh mẽ đến những hành vi ngoài vai trò của nhân viên. Các yếu tố vốn tâm lý và nhận thức được sự hỗ trợ của tổ chức cũng ảnh hưởng không nhỏ đến những hành vi tích cực của nhân viên trong công việc. Kết quả này làm cơ sở cho các hàm ý quản trị tương ứng.
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This study investigates the relationship between the fulfillment of epistemic, diversive curiosity of employees in the workplace, and their work performance. We conceptualize the relationship in two modes: direct and mediated by intellectual stimulation and workplace loneliness. Drawing on social exchange theory, we argue that, in the absence of intellectual stimulation provided by motivational leaders to their followers, it could be generated by curiosity-fulfilling social exchanges among like-minded employees. We also argue that the nonfulfillment of curiosity could give rise to workplace loneliness, causing performance to decline. We further view the relationships in light of two moderating influences: employee self-efficacy and organizational panoptic surveillance. Based on a field study of 537 employees in 17 software development projects in a multinational firm, we found empirical support for the mediated relationships and the moderating influences. However, the direct association was not supported. We discuss the implications of our findings for organizational theory and practice.
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Purpose Behavioral effects of contextual factors that organizations subject to daily life and social dynamics of ongoing organizational life are conveyed to interactional context. It is considered as a form of coorientation blending organizational and individual ethics in relational form. This study aims to examine well-known effects of ethical leadership on unethical behaviors in interactional context. Sequentially related mediator effects of leader member exchange and symmetrical communication in this relationship are empirically explored. Design/methodology/approach Survey is applied to 494 personnel from 29 large companies. Obtained survey data is analyzed by confirmatory factory analysis, and hypotheses are tested for serial mediation by structural equation modelling with bootstrapping procedure. Findings Study proves the impact of interactional context on organizational constructs. It is demonstrated that individual behaviors are influenced by interactional, dynamical, contextual and social factors. Study finds that leadership effect can be empowered by socialization processes. Quality of social relationships and social interactions; socializing impact of symmetrical communication can foster ethical management. Interactional context can facilitate organizations’ adaptation to changing conditions. Originality/value A human is a relational being. They cannot act in vacuum, rather, act in ongoing context of relationships. Taking account of relational aspect of individual–organizational interaction, this study contributes to literature by proposing a definition of interactional context and by exploring the impact of interactional context on organizational behaviors. Also, the impact of ethical leadership on unethical behaviors is empirically explored in relational dimension which seems to be neglected by ethics literature.
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Although research has suggested that enterprise system (ES) implementations have major impacts on employee job characteristics and outcomes, there has been limited research that has examined the impacts of ES implementations on interpersonal relationships over time. Building on and extending recent studies that have examined changes in employee job characteristics and outcomes during an ES implementation, this research examined the nature, extent, determinants, and outcomes of changes in an important interpersonal relationship construct—coworker exchange (CWX)—following an ES implementation. CWX is considered a critical aspect of employees’ job and an important determinant of their success in the workplace. Drawing on social exchange theory, we theorize that employees will perceive a change in CWX following an ES implementation. A longitudinal field study over a period of 6 months among 249 employees was conducted. Latent growth modeling was used to analyze the data. We found that employees’ work process characteristics, namely perceived process complexity, perceived process rigidity, and perceived process radicalness, significantly explained change, i.e., decline in our case, in CWX during the shakedown phase of an ES implementation. The decreasing trajectory of change in CWX led to declining job performance and job satisfaction. The role of CWX and its importance in the context of ES implementations is a key novel element of this work.
Article
Objective - The aim of this study is to examine the joint relationship between the Big Five personality and transfer climate on transfer of training. Drawing on trait activation theory, this study examines how the relationship between Big Five personality and transfer of training is moderated by supervisor support and opportunity to perform. Methodology/Technique - The sample of this study consists of 183 police officers who have attended driver training in one of the police training centres in Malaysia. Three sets of questionnaires comprising of the Big Five inventory, driving knowledge test, driving competency, and transfer climate were distributed to the respondents pre-training, post-training, and after two months of training. The data was analysed using statistic package for social science (SPSS) Version 19.0 and SmartPLS 3.0. Findings - A high level of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience were found to encourage increased transfer of training. Opportunity to perform moderated the relationship between agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience and transfer of training which is congruent with the trait activation theory. Novelty - The findings of this research emphasise the importance of the joint relationship between personality and situational factors on transfer of training. These findings allow the researcher to understand how opportunity to perform enables trainees to express their personality and enhance their performance. Type of Paper: Empirical. Keywords: Big Five Personality; Transfer of Training; Supervisor Support; Opportunity to Perform; Trait Activation Theory. JEL Classification: M12, M19.
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Changes in the last decades have led to exploring and considering alternative conceptualizations for job performance that may be relevant in an organizational context that has distinctive characteristics. A series of economic crises and technological developments have led to an unstable and insecure work environment, which in turn has required greater adaptability not only for organizations but also for employees, who have seen how their work was no longer guaranteed for the rest of their lives like yesteryear (Walton, 2016). In search of greater employability and adaptability, employees have been forced to display performance that goes beyond basic job specifications. In this context, the general objective of this doctoral dissertation is to study the antecedents and dynamics of organizational citizenship behavior and creative performance, two relevant dimensions of job performance that meet this requirement of going beyond the job description, commonly associated with in-role performance. The first of the constructs that we analyze is organizational citizenship behavior. It is considered as discretionary individual behavior, not recognized directly or explicitly by the formal reward system that, taken together, promotes the effective functioning of the organization (Organ, 1988). On the other hand, creative performance is "the production of useful and new ideas by an individual or small group of individuals working together (Amabile, 1988, p. 126)". To study both constructs, we start from a validation study (Study 1) that supports the notion that in-role performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and creative performance are separate constructs and with sufficient identity in themselves but that at the same time are part of a second-order construct such as job performance. Later, Study 2 analyzes the factors that promote organizational citizenship behavior and examine the processes that can lead to it, specifically the possible mechanism that operates between job autonomy and self-efficacy and organizational citizenship behavior through the four dimensions of job crafting ('increasing structural job resources', 'decreasing hindering job demands', 'increasing social job resources', and 'increasing challenging job demands'). Study 3 examines the dynamic relationship that can exist between a classic indicator of well-being, such as job satisfaction, in its two facets of intrinsic and extrinsic, with creative performance; thus, the possible effect of job satisfaction on creative performance is considered, as well as the possible effect of creative performance on job satisfaction. Last but not least, in order to begin to intuit more clearly the causal processes involved in the relationships studied, the studies have been carried out from a longitudinal perspective, thus gathering an increasingly strong demand in the scientific community. In our case, we are working with two (Study 2) and three (Study 3) sample collection times.
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Drawing on job demands and resources and the conservation of resources theories, we examine the relationship between employees’ emotional labor (EL) toward their co-workers and turnover intention with a mediator of team-member exchange and a moderator of supervisory listening. The results of this study using 312 hotel employees revealed that the relationship between employees’ emotional labor (EL) toward their co-workers and turnover intention was mediated by team member exchange. A moderating effect of supervisory listening between surface acting toward co-workers and team member exchange was found, while a significant moderating effect of supervisory listening on the relationship between deep acting toward co-workers and team member exchange was not found.
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Günümüzde örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları hem örgütün çevresel değişikliklere uyumun sağlaması hem de çalışanların verimliliği ve performansı üzerindeki olumlu etkileri açısından giderek önem kazanan konulardan biri olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı sosyal desteğin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı üzerinde etkili olup olmadığını incelemektir. Sosyal destek (iş temelli ve iş temelli olmayan destek kaynakları) ve örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı (diğerkâmlık, vicdanlılık, nezaket, centilmenlik ve sivil erdem) arasındaki ilişki alt boyutlar çerçevesinde ele alınmıştır. Araştırmaya Gaziantep Üniversitesi’nin farklı idari birimlerde görevli toplam 302 personel katılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında elde edilen verilere tanımlayıcı istatistikler, faktör analizi, korelasyon ve regresyon analizleri uygulanarak, araştırma hipotezi test edilmiştir. Korelasyon analizi sonucu genel anlamda iş temelli ve iş temelli olmayan destek kaynaklarının örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışının her bir boyutuyla ilişkili olduğunu belirlenmiştir. Araştırma sonunda, iş temelli ve iş temelli olmayan (kişisel) desteğin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı alt boyutlarının (diğerkâmlık, vicdanlılık, nezaket, centilmenlik ve sivil erdem) üzerine etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, gerek sosyal desteğin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı nasıl etkilediği konusunda yeni bakış açılarına işaret edecek olması gerekse iş hayatında iş temelli ve iş temelli olmayan desteğe dikkat çekmesi açısından oldukça önemlidir.
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By applying the equity theory, organizational support theory, signaling theory, and the social exchange theory to the customer context, this study intends to investigate the antecedents and consequences of service customers’ corporate reputation evaluation by examining the direct and indirect relationships between customers’ corporate reputation evaluation, customer justice perception, customer support perception, and customer citizenship behavior. Self-administered online surveys were conducted by implementing snowball sampling among real airline customers in Turkey, and 741 valid surveys were collected. Direct and indirect relationships between the research variables were tested via structural equation modeling and bootstrapping methods. Results showed that distributive justice perception, interactional justice perception, and customer support perception positively affect customers’ corporate reputation evaluation, whereas customers’ corporate reputation evaluation positively affects customer citizenship behavior as well. Furthermore, it was found that customers’ corporate reputation evaluation has a mediation role in the relationships between distributive justice perception, interactional justice perception, customer support perception, and customer citizenship behavior.
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Over the past decade, HR managers have been much concerned about the demographic changes and advised to take positive approaches to the management of organizations. These changes significantly cause population aging globally, resulting in economic and social challenges. This study aims to examine older workers’ retention, policy adjustment, and the aging workforce in Thailand. Purposive sampling was used to select a total of 520 respondents higher education institutions. We found that despite the call to retaining older workers, the majority of employers exhibit stereotypic attitudes, and finding it difficult to retain and attract older workers. Even though there have been initiatives toward discrimination legislation concerning older workers, however, policymakers should be proactive. Government should need to develop policies that would permit increased levels of older workers’ retention and create better competencies in achieving planned economic goals. Organizations need to adopt strategic approaches to age management and labor unions must show great commitment to the campaign against age discrimination.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine the workplace team member self-reported social loafing (SL) in relation to the dark triad personality traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy. The moderating effect of team member exchange (TMX), a social contextual factor, on each proposed dark trait-SL relationship was also examined. A person X situation interactionist perspective was adopted. Design/methodology/approach American employees were recruited to complete surveys consisting of previously published, validated and reliable scales. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were used to test the study hypotheses. Findings As hypothesized, all positive dark trait-SL relationships were supported. TMX moderated the Machiavellianism-SL and psychopathy-SL relationships, as hypothesized. Unexpectedly, TMX was not found to moderate the narcissism-SL relationship. Originality/value Findings imply increased managerial monitoring costs when supervising employees with elevated levels of dark traits. This is especially so when workers are assigned to team tasks and SL is a concern. To alleviate loafing tendencies, the nurturing of high-quality TMX relations among employees with elevated levels of traits Machiavellianism and psychopathy likely moderates the positive Machiavellianism- and psychopathy-SL relations. The emerging SL literature that accounts for both personality and situation, the dark trait-deviant workplace behavior literature stream and research evidencing the ability of TMX to remedy problematic characteristic behaviors are all extended by the present research.
Article
Purpose The study aims to explore ‘motivational climate', which designs the recurring patterns associated with employees' attitudes, behaviour, and feelings. If organizations successfully adopt a motivational climate, such climate influences the performance and behavior of employees to a great extent. Responsible leadership plays a constructive role in injecting a motivational climate in an organization to ensure information flow. In a motivational climate, top management or leaders reward their employees for individual progress, improvement and mastery. Knowledge sharing is supported in a mastery climate because such a climate can reduce the motive of knowledge hiding and instead further help in stimulating creativity. Design/methodology/approach Study was to scrutinize a moderated-mediation model, a quantitative hypothetic deductive approach to verify the hypotheses of the study. The data were gathered from employees and supervisors of advertising agencies and marketing departments in metropolitan cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Such firms and departments are considered because they offer a great opportunity to relevant variables and their relations. These organizations and departments are the most creativity-seeking domains and involve frequent interactions (for instance, regular meetings) between leaders with their employees and among peers. Data were primarily gathered from managerial employees performing their duties in the areas mentioned above. Findings Current study reveals that RL has a positive and significant relation with employee creative behaviour. Increasing RL characteristics can ultimately boost employee performance in the creativity domain. Being a responsible leader becomes mandatory for leaders to foster employee creativity to maintain the sustainability of an organization. It is confirmed from the results that responsible leadership articulates the mind thinking of employees, which creates an open environment of information while persuading creative and similar behaviour. Originality/value The current research investigates how responsible leadership can efficiently leverage the stakeholder approach in influencing employees through a knowledge-based pathway to boost their creative behaviour. The current study tends to uncover the mediating effect of the basic construct of knowledge management, which is knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing enables employees to exchange their information while creating mutual understanding, which helps in the smooth flow of knowledge within the organization; this flow enriches employees to think openly in a creative and appreciative environment.
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This study reports the results of a concurrent validation designed to test recent multidimensional theories of job performance. Drawing on Borman and Motowidlo's (1993, 1997) distinctions between task and contextual performance, several alternative measures of performance were examined to assess their unique relations with alternative predictor measures. As expected, results indicated that a measure of cognitive ability added incrementally to the prediction of sales performance after controlling for conscientiousness, but did not add incrementally to the prediction of absenteeism, tardiness, or organizational citizenship. In contrast, a measure of conscientiousness added incrementally to the prediction of absenteeism and citizenship after controlling for cognitive ability, but did not add to the prediction of sales performance or tardiness. The implications of the results for theory building in the area of criterion measurement, and some practical implications of the results for personnel selection, are discussed.
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Accumulated empirical evidence, some telling criticisms, and even the most cursory glance at the business press compel us to rethink the defining character of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It no longer seems fruitful to regard OCB as extra-role, beyond the job, or unrewarded by the formal system. A more tenable position is one that defines OCB much along the lines of what Borman and Motowidlo (1993) called contextual performance. Some preliminary suggestions are offered for the repositioning and articulation of the OCB construct as redefined; due attention is given to the problems that nonetheless remain, and will occupy us for some time to come as we reckon with root changes in the very character of organizations.
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A measure of a wide array of employee activities on the job was completed by employees' supervisors at two points in time; employees reported their own job satisfaction via the Job Descriptive Index. Implications of relationships much higher than typically found in the job satisfaction-performance literature are discussed. Apparently the dust has settled over what once was a controversial issue: the satisfaction-performance linkage. Organizational psychologists (Lawler & Porter, 1967) generally endorse the view that any covariance between job satisfaction and job performance emerges only when satisfaction results from performance-contingent rewards. Any notion that satisfaction "causes") performance is regarded as naive folk wisdom, not supportable by the empirical record. Organ (1977) has cautioned that such a position might prematurely reject something of value in lay psychology that endorsed the satisfactioncauses-performance proposition. He suggested that a clue to the possible reconcilability between the phenomenology of countless practitioners and the noncorroborating empirical record might lie in the meaning of "performance.'" Defined narrowly as quantity of output or quality of craftsmanship-as perhaps operationalized in most of the formal research addressed to this issue-performance does not consistently or appreciably follow from satisfaction in a direct functional relationship. But there are 1An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 42nd National Academy of Management meetings, New York, 1982.
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Employees develop exchange relationships both with organizations and immediate superiors, as evidenced by research on perceived organizational support (POS) and leader-member exchange (LMX), respectively. Despite conceptual similarities between these two constructs, theoretical development and research has proceeded independently. In an attempt to integrate these literatures, we developed and tested a model of the antecedents and consequences of POS and LMX, based on social exchange theory. Results indicated that POS and LMX have unique antecedents and are differentially related to outcome variables, providing support for the importance of both types of exchanges.
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This study attempts to refine the construct of contextual performance by dividing it into 2 narrower constructs, interpersonal facilitation and job dedication. Supervisors rated 975 U.S. Air Force mechanics on at least 1 of 4 aspects of job performance (different supervisors rated each aspect of performance), and 515 of these mechanics also completed self-report individual difference measures. Correlations between performance ratings and individual difference variables support distinguishing task performance from interpersonal facilitation but not from job dedication. Thus this study suggests the need to redefine task performance to include motivational elements of job dedication. Then task performance would include task proficiency and motivation to perform one's own tasks effectively, and contextual performance would include interpersonal skills, the motivation to maintain good working relationships and help others perform their tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A review of criterion-related validities of personality constructs indicated that 6 constructs are useful predictors of important job-related criteria. An inventory was developed to measure the 6 constructs. In addition, 4 response validity scales were developed to measure accuracy of self-description. These scales were administered in 3 contexts: a concurrent criterion-related validity study, a faking experiment, and an applicant setting. Sample sizes were 9,188, 245, and 125, respectively. Results showed that (a) validities were in the .20s (uncorrected for unreliability or restriction in range) against targeted criterion constructs, (b) respondents successfully distorted their self-descriptions when instructed to do so, (c) responsive validity scales were responsive to different types of distortion, (d) applicants' responses did not reflect evidence of distortion, and (e) validities remained stable regardless of possible distortion by respondents in either unusually positive or negative directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The leader–member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader–member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Argues that a category of performance called citizenship behavior is important in organizations and not easily explained by the same incentives that induce entry, conformity to contractual role prescriptions, or high production. Data were collected from 422 employees and their supervisors from 58 departments of 2 banks to examine the nature and predictors of citizenship behavior. Results suggest that citizenship behavior includes at least 2 dimensions: altruism, or helping specific persons, and generalized compliance, a more impersonal form of conscientious citizenship. Job satisfaction, as a measure of chronic mood state, showed a direct predictive path to altruism but not generalized compliance. Rural background had direct effects on both dimensions of citizenship behavior. The predictive power of other variables (e.g., leader supportiveness as assessed independently by co-workers and extraversion and neuroticism as assessed by the Maudsley Personality Inventory) varied across the 2 dimensions of citizenship behavior. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tests the merit of the distinction made by W. C. Borman and S. J. Motowidlo (1993) between task performance and contextual performance. Supervisors rated 421 US Air Force mechanics on their task performance, contextual performance, and overall performance. Data on length of Air Force experience, ability, training performance, and personality were also available for many of these mechanics. Results show that both task performance and contextual performance contribute independently to overall performance. Experience is more highly correlated with task performance than with contextual performance, and personality variables are more highly correlated with contextual performance than with task performance. These results support the distinction between task performance and contextual performance and confirm that performance, at least as judged by supervisors is multidimensional. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research has not adequately separated the factors responsible for prosocial behaviors intended to benefit specific individuals from those intended to benefit an organization. Antecedents of the behavior of 100 secretaries were examined as a function of the beneficiary of the behavior. The value of concern for others and empathy explained significant variance in prosocial behaviors directed only at specific individuals (prosocial individual behavior). Perceptions of reward equity and recognition explained significant variance in behaviors directed only at the organization (prosocial organizational behavior). With these effects removed, the relationship between job satisfaction and prosocial organizational behavior was no longer significant, whereas the relationship between job satisfaction and prosocial individual behavior remained significant. Results suggest that the psychological processes that underlie prosocial behavior are different depending on the beneficiary of the behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the 1st 6 mo that 166 newly hired employees and their immediate supervisors worked together. Expectations, perceived similarity, liking, demographic similarity, and performance were examined as determinants of leader–member exchanges (LMXs). Leader and member expectations of each other assessed in the 1st 5 days in the life of the dyad predicted LMXs at 2 wks and at 6 wks following the 1st day of the dyads' existence. Member expectations of leaders also predicted LMXs at 6 mo. Following nearly the same pattern, perceived similarity and liking from both the leaders' and members' perspectives predicted LMXs at most time periods. Demographic similarity between leaders and members had no significant effects on LMX development, and subordinate performance ratings were relatively less important in predicting LMX than were affective variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A common practice in applications of structural equation modeling techniques is to create composite measures from individual items. The purpose of this article was to provide an empirical comparison of several composite formation methods on model fit. Data from 1, 177 public school teachers were used to test a model of union commitment in which alternative composite formation methods were used to specify the measurement components of the model. Bootstrapping procedures were used to generate data for two additional sample sizes. Results indicated that the use of composites, in general, resulted in improved overall model fit as compared to treating all items as individual indicators. Lambda values and explained criterion variance indicated that this improved model fit was due to the creation of strong measurement models. Implications of these results for researchers using composites are discussed.
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The use of an alternative to the research strategies employed for the past 20 yrs and more to investigate leadership produced results which question the traditional models and open new avenues for empirical exploration. Approaching leadership as an exchange relationship which develops within the vertical dyad over time during role making activities, this longitudinal study found that the degree of latitude that a superior granted to a member to negotiate his role was predictive of subsequent behavior on the part of both superior and member. Contrary to traditional views of leadership, superiors typically employed both leadership and supervision techniques within their units. With a select subset of their members, superiors developed leadership exchanges (influence without authority), and with others, superiors developed only supervision relationships (influence based primarily upon authority). Some of the many implications of these findings are discussed.
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This article develops and empirically examines a social exchange model of organizational citizenship behavior. An employee's trust in a supervisor is proposed to mediate the relationship between procedural fairness in the supervisor's decision making and employee citizenship. Data from 475 hospital employees and their supervisors were consistent with our model. We discuss future research directions.
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This study examined the relationship between workplace justice afforded by the grievance system and the union outcomes of citizenship behavior and turnover intentions and the mechanisms that underpin these relationships. Respondents (N = 187) were members of a large public sector union in Singapore. Results revealed that perceived union support and union instrumentality fully mediated the relationship between the dimensions of workplace justice and citizenship behavior directed toward the union (OCBO) and citizenship behavior directed at other union members (OCBI). Union instrumentality partially mediated the procedural justice-turnover intentions relationship.
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The authors used socioanalytic theory to understand individual differences in people's performance at work. Specifically, if predictors and criteria are aligned by using theory, then the meta-analytic validity of personality measures exceeds that of atheoretical approaches. As performance assessment moved from general to specific job criteria, all Big Five personality dimensions more precisely predicted relevant criterion variables, with estimated true validities of .43 (Emotional Stability), .35 (Extraversion-Ambition), .34 (Agreeableness), .36 (Conscientiousness), and .34 (Intellect-Openness to Experience).
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Evidence for situational specificity of personality-job performance relations calls for better understanding of how personality is expressed as valued work behavior. On the basis of an interactionist principle of trait activation (R. P. Tett & H. A. Guterman, 2000), a model is proposed that distinguishes among 5 situational features relevant to trait expression (job demands, distracters, constraints, releasers, and facilitators), operating at task, social, and organizational levels. Trait-expressive work behavior is distinguished from (valued) job performance in clarifying the conditions favoring personality use in selection efforts. The model frames linkages between situational taxonomies (e.g., J. L. Holland's [1985] RIASEC model) and the Big Five and promotes useful discussion of critical issues, including situational specificity, personality-oriented job analysis, team building, and work motivation.
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Identifying factors that help or hinder new executives in "getting up to speed" quickly and remaining with an organization is vital to maximizing the effectiveness of executive development. The current study extends past research by examining extraversion as a moderator of relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX) and performance, turnover intentions, and actual turnover for an executive sample. The sample consisted of 116 new executives who were surveyed prior to starting their employment and at 3 months postentry. A total of 67 senior executives rated these new executives in terms of overall performance at 6 months postentry. Turnover data were gathered from company records 3 1/2 years later. Hierarchical regression results showed that LMX was not related to performance or turnover intentions for those high in extraversion; but for individuals low in extraversion, there was a relation between LMX, performance, and turnover intentions. Furthermore, survival analyses showed that LMX was only related to turnover-hazard rate for individuals low in extraversion.
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The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated in functional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between the concepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctions are also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutually contingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folk belief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm of reciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it is hypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components" of moral codes. As Westermarck states, "To requite a benefit, or to be grateful to him who bestows it, is probably everywhere, at least under certain circumstances, regarded as a duty. This is a subject which in the present connection calls for special consideration." Ways in which the norm of reciprocity is implicated in the maintenance of stable social systems are examined.
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The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of “citizenship” behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.
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A dynamic, compartmental, simulation model (WETLAND) was developed for the design and evaluation of constructed wetlands to optimize nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control. The model simulates the hydrologic, nitrogen, carbon, dissolved oxygen (DO), bacteria, vegetative, phosphorous, and sediment cycles of a wetland system. Written in Fortran 77, the WETLAND models both free-water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) wetlands, and is designed in a modular manner that gives the user the flexibility to decide which cycles and processes to model. WETLAND differs from many existing wetland models in that the interactions between the different nutrient cycles are modeled, minimizing the number of assumptions concerning wetland processes. It also directly links microbial growth and death to the consumption and transformations of nutrients in the wetland system. The WETLAND model is intended to be utilized with an existing NPS hydro-logic simulation model, such as ANSWERS or BASINS, but also may be used in situations where measured input data to the wetland are available. The model was calibrated and validated using limited data from a FWS wetland located at Benton, Kentucky. The WETLAND predictions were not statistically different from measured values for of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Effluent DO predictions were not always consistent with measured concentrations. A sensitivity analysis indicated the most significant input parameters to the model were those that directly affected bacterial growth and DO uptake and movement. The model was used to design a hypothetical constructed wetland in a subwatershed of the Nomini Creek watershed, located in Virginia. Two-year simulations were completed for five separate wetland designs. Predicted percent reductions in BOD5 (4 to 45 percent), total suspended solids (85 to 100 percent), total nitrogen (42 to 56 percent), and total phosphorous (38 to 57 percent) were similar to levels reported by previous research.
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This study investigated the relation of the "Big Five" personality di- mensions (Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Consci- entiousness, and Openness to Experience) to three job performance criteria (job proficiency, training proficiency, and personnel data) for five occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled). Results indicated that one dimension of person- ality. Conscientiousness, showed consistent relations with all job per- formance criteria for all occupational groups. For the remaining per- sonality dimensions, the estimated true score correlations varied by occupational group and criterion type. Extraversion was a valid pre- dictor for two occupations involving social interaction, managers and sales (across criterion types). Also, both Openness to Experience and Extraversion were valid predictors of the training proficiency criterion (across occupations). Other personality dimensions were also found to be valid predictors for some occupations and some criterion types, but the magnitude of the estimated true score correlations was small (p < .10). Overall, the results illustrate the benefits of using the 5- factor model of personality to accumulate and communicate empirical findings. The findings have numerous implications for research and practice in personnel psychology, especially in the subfields of person- nel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal.
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A field study was conducted to examine the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and two types of employee behavior: citizenship behavior and impression management. One form of citizenship behavior, altruism, and one form of impression management, other-focused were significantly related to LMX. Implications of the results are discussed.
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This article distinguishes between task and contextual activities, and a taxonomy of contextual performance containing elements of organizational citizenship behavior and prosocial organizational behavior is offered. Evidence is presented demonstrating that supervisors weight roughly equally subordinate task and contextual performance when making overall judgments of their performance. This, along with data showing that personality successfully predicts contextual performance, provides an alternative explanation for recent meta-analytic findings that personality correlates moderately with overall performance. Personality may be predicting the contextual component of overall performance. Results from studies using the Hogan Personality Inventory confirm that correlations between personality and contextual criteria are higher than correlations between personality and overall performance. We argue that finding such links between predictors and individual criterion elements significantly advances the science of personnel selection.
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Previous organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) research (a) has not demonstrated that extra-role behaviors can be distinguished empirically from in-role activities, and (b) has not examined the relative contributions of components ofjob satisfaction a nd organizational commitment to the performance of OCBs. Factor analysis of survey data from 127 employees' supervisors supported the distinction between in-role behaviors and two forms of OCBs. Hierarchical regression analysis found two job cognitions variables (intrinsic and extrinsic) to be differentially related to the two types OCBs, but affective variables and organizational commitment were not significant predictors. The link between the present findings and previous research is discussed, as are directions forfuture research.
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This article describes a theory of job performance that assumes that job performance is behavioral, episodic, evaluative, and multidimensional. It defines job performance as the aggregated value to the organization of the discrete behavioral episodes that an individual performs over a standard interval of time. It uses the distinction between task and contextual performance to begin to identify and define underlying dimen- sions of the behavioral episodes that make up the performance domain. The theory predicts that individual differences in personality and cognitive ability variables, in combination with learning experiences, lead to variability in knowledge, skills, and work habits that mediate effects of personality and cognitive ability on job perform- ance. An especially important aspect of this theory is that it predicts that the kinds of knowledge, skills, work habits, and traits that are associated with task performance are different from the kinds that are associated with contextual performance.
Article
The study examines the effects of a wide array of rater–ratee relationship and ratee-characteristic variables on supervisor and peer job-performance ratings. Interpersonal ratings, job performance ratings, and ratee scores on ability, job knowledge, and technical proficiency were available for 493 to 631 first-tour US Army soldiers. Results of supervisor and peer ratings-path models showed ratee ability, knowledge, and proficiency accounted for 13% of the variance in supervisor performance ratings and 7% for the peer ratings. Among the interpersonal variables, ratee dependability had the strongest effect for both models. Ratee friendliness and likability had little effect on the performance ratings. Inclusion of the interpersonal factors increased the variance accounted for in the ratings to 28% and 19%, respectively. Discussion focuses on the relative contribution of ratee technical and contextual performance to raters' judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the need to demonstrate agreement among individuals' perceptions of climate prior to averaging climate scores from the perspective of aggregation. It is shown that estimates of agreement based on group mean scores have been incorrectly interpreted as perceptual agreement among individuals. Of initial importance is a study by J. A. Drexler (see record 1977-22375-001), who concluded that a considerable proportion of the variance in climate perceptions was accounted for by organizational membership. This conclusion has been employed recently by other authors to support the assumption that individuals in the same environment tend to agree with climate perceptions (e.g., J. R. Hackman and E. E. Lawler, Hackman and G. R. Oldham, and Oldham et al—see PA, Vols 46:9858, 54:2031, and 57:2102, respectively). It is demonstrated that Drexler's analysis provided inflated estimates of agreement among individuals, and the logic of the approach is extended to other studies in which inflated estimates of agreement appeared likely. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Social information processing and social learning theories were utilized to hypothesize that an employee's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is influenced by the collective OCB in one's workgroup. An aggregate measure of OCB was constructed based upon Podsakoff, MacKenzie, and Fetter's (1993) measures of Organ's (1988) typology of OCB, and the study was replicated using both supervisor and employee-provided ratings of OCB. The sample for this study included 566 employees (488 for the supervisor-rated analysis) from 56 workgroups in a manufacturing organization. The mean level of OCB for other members of one's workgroup explained significant variance in individual levels of OCB. We also found that this effect is moderated by the consistency of the display of the OCB within the workgroup. The consistency of OCB across coworkers was associated with more OCB by individuals and this effect was replicated across both supervisor and employee ratings. Explanations and uses for our findings are discussed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Team-member exchange quality is proposed as a role-making construct complementary to leader-member exchange quality. Data from a sample of blue collar industrial workers show that team-member exchange quality adds to the prediction of job attitudes by leader-member exchange quality, and that team-member exchange quality varies systematically between groups in relation to the autonomy given teams by management and within groups in relation to job attitudes. Team-member exchange quality also predicted rated performance, subject to the moderating effects of peer motivation. Implications for role-making theory and research as well as for the practice of team-based management are discussed.
The job characteristics model has guided a great deal of research on the relationship between task characteristics and employee satisfaction and performance. Research in this area has indicated the necessity of incorporating nontask factors of jobs for further theory building in organizational behavior. Based upon the framework of organizational role theory, the dual attachment model is proposed for the integration of the job characteristic model and the leader-member exchange model. Questionnaire data from 101 employees in a federal agency is used to analyze the three models with respect to the prediction of job attitudes and performance. The results indicate the complementarity of task and interpersonal factors in the prediction of job outcomes. An additive model, as opposed to an interactive model, is supported for the combination of these factors. Findings from time lagged analysis of these models are generally consistent with those from concurrent analyses, but the findings from dynamic analysis are only partially consistent with those of the concurrent and time lagged analyses. Individual difference variables are found to be of little importance in these models.
Article
A model hypothesizing relationship quality and relationship context as antecedents of two complementary forms of interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB) was tested. Measures with coworkers as the frame of reference were used to collect data from 273 individuals working in 2 service-oriented organizations. As hypothesized, variables reflecting relationship quality were associated with person-focused ICB, as mediated by empathic concern. Also as hypothesized, a relationship context variable, network centrality, exhibited a direct relationship with task-focused ICB. Unexpectedly, network centrality was directly associated with person-focused ICB. and empathic concern was associated with task-focused ICB. The results are discussed, and implications for research and practice are offered.
Article
Previous research on workplace deviance has examined the relationship of either personality or employees' situational perceptions with deviant behavior. In this study, the authors focused on the joint relationship of personality and perceptions of the work situation with deviant behavior. Using 4 samples of employees and multiple operationalizations of the core constructs, the authors found support for the hypothesis that positive perceptions of the work situation are negatively related to workplace deviance. In addition, consistent with hypotheses, the personality traits of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness moderated this relationship. Specifically, the relationship between perceptions of the developmental environment and organizational deviance was stronger for employees low in conscientiousness or emotional stability, and the relationship between perceived organizational support and interpersonal deviance was stronger for employees low in agreeableness.