Article

Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: Identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss

Biopsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
International journal of obesity (2005) (Impact Factor: 5). 01/2008; 32(1):177-84. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803712
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To identify and characterize the individual variability in compensation for exercise-induced changes in energy expenditure (EE).
Twelve-week exercise intervention.
Thirty-five overweight and obese sedentary men and women (body mass index, 31.8+/-4.1 kg m(-2); age, 39.6+/-11.0 years) were prescribed exercise five times per week for 12 weeks under supervised conditions.
Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total daily energy intake (EI) and subjective appetite sensations were measured at weeks 0 and 12.
When all subjects' data were pooled, the mean reduction in body weight (3.7+/-3.6 kg) was significant (P<0.0001) and as predicted, which suggested no compensation for the increase in EE. However, further examination revealed a large individual variability in weight change (-14.7 to +1.7 kg). Subjects were identified as compensators (C) or noncompensators (NC) based on their actual weight loss (mean NC=6.3+/-3.2 kg and C=1.5+/- 2.5 kg) relative to their predicted weight loss. C and NC were characterized by their different metabolic and behavioural compensatory responses. Moderate changes in RMR occurred in C (-69.2+/-268.7 kcal day(-1)) and NC (14.2+/-242.7 kcal day(-1)). EI and average daily subjective hunger increased by 268.2+/-455.4 kcal day(-1) and 6.9+/-11.4 mm day(-1) in C, whereas EI decreased by 130+/-485 kcal day(-1) and there was no change in subjective appetite (0.4+/-9.6 mm day(-1)) in NC.
These results demonstrate that expressing the exercise-induced change in body weight as a group mean conceals the large inter-individual variability in body weight and compensatory responses. Individuals who experience a lower than predicted weight loss are compensating for the increase in EE.

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    • "Ainsi, certains sujets « répondeurs » bénéficient-ils de façon spectaculaire de cet effet amaigrissant de l'exercice, alors que d'autres, au contraire, ne maigrissent pas, voire grossissent. Les « répondeurs » ont ressenti une diminution de leurs pulsions hyperphagiques, tandis que les non-répondeurs ont au contraire des fringales et augmentent leur prise alimentaire [14]. Ainsi, l'exercice n'est pas seulement un moyen de dépenser de l'énergie, mais un modulateur du métabolisme énergétique et du comportement alimentaire. "
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    • "Therefore, these eating behaviors were able to discriminate between individuals according to their weight loss in response to training intervention. Most studies have examined the compensatory responses used moderate-intensity training (King et al., 2008; Rosenkilde et al., 2012). For example, Church et al. (2009) compared three exercise groups based on the volume of weekly EE (4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg/week) at moderate-intensity levels in sedentary overweight women for 12 weeks. "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
    • "Therefore, these eating behaviors were able to discriminate between individuals according to their weight loss in response to training intervention. Most studies have examined the compensatory responses used moderate-intensity training (King et al., 2008; Rosenkilde et al., 2012). For example, Church et al. (2009) compared three exercise groups based on the volume of weekly EE (4, 8, and 12 kcal/kg/week) at moderate-intensity levels in sedentary overweight women for 12 weeks. "
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