Pioglitazone and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 10/2007; 298(10):1180-8. DOI: 10.1001/jama.298.10.1180
Source: PubMed


Pioglitazone is widely used for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but evidence is mixed regarding the influence of medications of this class on cardiovascular outcomes.
To systematically evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on ischemic cardiovascular events.
A database containing individual patient-level time-to-event data collected during pioglitazone clinical trials was transferred from the drug's manufacturer for independent analysis. Trials were included if they were randomized, double-blinded, and controlled with placebo or active comparator.
The primary outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary outcome measures included the incidence of serious heart failure. A fixed-effects approach was used to combine the estimates across the duration strata and statistical heterogeneity across all the trials was tested with the I2 statistic.
A total of 19 trials enrolling 16 390 patients were analyzed. Study drug treatment duration ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. Death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 375 of 8554 patients (4.4%) receiving pioglitazone and 450 of 7836 patients (5.7%) receiving control therapy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.94; P = .005). Progressive separation of time-to-event curves became apparent after approximately 1 year of therapy. Individual components of the primary end point were all reduced by a similar magnitude with pioglitazone treatment, with HRs ranging from 0.80 to 0.92. Serious heart failure was reported in 200 (2.3%) of the pioglitazone-treated patients and 139 (1.8%) of the control patients (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.76; P = .002). The magnitude and direction of the favorable effect of pioglitazone on ischemic events and unfavorable effect on heart failure was homogeneous across trials of different durations, for different comparators, and for patients with or without established vascular disease. There was no evidence of heterogeneity across the trials for either end point (I2 = 0%; P = .87 for the composite end point and I2 = 0%; P = .97 for heart failure).
Pioglitazone is associated with a significantly lower risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke among a diverse population of patients with diabetes. Serious heart failure is increased by pioglitazone, although without an associated increase in mortality.

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Available from: Kathy Wolski, Mar 14, 2014
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    • "Several meta-analyses have supported the idea that rosiglitazone is associated with adverse cardiovascular events [17], which led to its withdrawal from the market. In contrast, a few studies with patients with type 2 diabetes showed beneficial effect of pioglitazone in cardiovascular diseases [18] [19]. Although the United States Food and Drug Administration has eased some restrictions on the use of rosiglitazone [20], the cardiovascular safety concerns for PPARg agonists remains unresolved. "
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