4-Aryleyelohexylaianine analogs as potent, selective, and orally active inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (Impact Factor: 2.42). 12/2007; 17(21):5806-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.08.049
Source: PubMed


A novel series of 4-arylcyclohexylalanine DPP-4 inhibitors was synthesized and tested for inhibitory activity as well as selectivity over the related proline-specific enzymes DPP-8 and DPP-9. Optimization of this series led to 28 (DPP-4 IC50 = 4.8 nM), which showed an excellent pharmacokinetic profile across several preclinical species. Evaluation of 28 in an oral glucose tolerance test demonstrated that this compound effectively reduced glucose excursion in lean mice. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    ABSTRACT: New therapeutic agents are needed to combat the ever-increasing prevalence of diabetes. The two incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1(7-36)) amide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released from the small intestine in response to the ingestion of nutrients and regulate glucose homeostasis in a glucose-dependent fashion; however, the action of both incretins is terminated by the rapid N-terminal cleavage of two amino acid residues of GLP-1 and GIP by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). The preservation of active GLP-1 and GIP by inhibiting DPP-IV activity is an attractive strategy for the treatment of diabetes in patients who exhibit a reduced incretin response. This strategy has resulted in the launch of two DPP-IV inhibitor drugs; sitagliptin in North America, several European territories, and various other countries, and vildagliptin in the EU as well as various countries. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in and the lessons learned from the design of potent and selective small-molecule inhibitors of DPP-IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Current opinion in drug discovery & development
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging as an epidemic of the 21st century type 2 diabetes has become a major health problem throughout the globe. The number of deaths attributable to diabetes reflects the insufficient glycemic control achieved with the treatments used in recent past. DPP-4 inhibitors have been investigated as a new therapy with novel mechanisms of action and improved tolerability. DPP-4, a protease that specifically cleaves dipeptides from proteins and oligopeptides after a penultimate N-terminal proline or alanine, is involved in the degradation of a number of neuropeptides, peptide hormones and cytokines, including the incretins GLP-1 and GIP. As soon as released from the gut in response to food intake, GLP-1 and GIP exert a potent glucose-dependent insulinotropic action, thereby playing a key role in the maintenance of post-meal glycemic control. Consequently, inhibiting DPP-4 prolongs the action of GLP-1 and GIP, which in turn improves glucose homeostasis with a low risk of hypoglycemia and potential for disease modification. Indeed, clinical trials involving diabetic patients have shown improved glucose control by administering DPP-4 inhibitors, thus demonstrating the benefit of this promising new class of antidiabetics. Intense research activities in this area have resulted in the launch of sitagliptin and vildagliptin (in Europe only) and the advancement of a few others into preregistration/phase 3, for example, saxagliptin, alogliptin and ABT-279. Achieving desired selectivity for DPP-4 over other related peptidases such as DPP-8 and DPP-9 (inhibition of which was linked to toxicity in animal studies) and long-acting potential for maximal efficacy (particularly in more severe diabetic patients) were the major challenges. Whether these goals are achieved with the present series of inhibitors in the advanced stages of clinical development is yet to be confirmed. Nevertheless, treatment of this metabolic disorder especially in the early stages of the disease via DPP-4 inhibition has been recognized as a validated principle and a large number of inhibitors are presently in various stage of pre-clinical/clinical development. Sitagliptin is a new weapon in the arsenal of oral antihyperglycemic agents. This review will focus on the journey of drug discovery of DPP-4 inhibitors for oral delivery covering a brief scientific background and medicinal chemistry approaches along with the status of advanced clinical candidates.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Defective insulin secretion is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and agents that increase the concentration of circulating insulin have proven beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new oral approach to T2DM that lower glucose via stabilization of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has clearly established roles in insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon production. These agents have been shown to produce clinically meaningful glucose control in a range of patients with type 2 diabetes without many of the liabilities that are associated with other oral therapies, including weight gain, edema, GI intolerability, and hypoglycemia. Accordingly, DPP-4 inhibitors have excellent potential for use in both monotherapy and combination with established agents. Extensive structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies in many different laboratories have resulted in the identification of a number of clinical candidates. The most advanced of these have recently been approved for the treatment of T2DM, representing the first new oral therapy for treatment of this disease since the introduction of troglitazone in 1998.Keywords:diabetes;dipeptidyl peptidase 4;DPP-4 inhibitors;incretin
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2010
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