The Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised: Development of a 13-item scale

Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Disability and Rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 1.99). 02/2008; 30(2):114-21. DOI: 10.1080/09638280701223876
Source: PubMed


The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ) was developed as a subjective measure of memory failure in everyday life. Previous studies have investigated the factor structure of the EMQ in both healthy participants and people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to confirm the factor structure of the EMQ, to determine the internal consistency and criterion validity of the scale and to develop a shortened version.
A retrospective design, including participants from a study on MS patients and their carers and a study on stroke patients. Psychometric properties of the EMQ-28 were explored, and the measure was further revised from comparative analyses between the clinical and non-clinical groups.
Reliability and factor analysis of the EMQ-28 identified two main factors, general memory and attentional function, showing some concordance with previous research. Further analysis reduced the questionnaire to a 13-item measure (EMQ-R), with two main factors (Retrieval and Attentional tracking), strong internal reliability, and good discriminatory properties between clinical and control groups.
The 28-item questionnaire consistently differentiated between two broad systems of memory and attention, with some differentiation of visual and verbal, or language systems. Results showed some consistency with previous findings. The revised, 13-item questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that has good face validity for use with neurological patients. Further exploration of the revised EMQ is recommended to provide information regarding its psychometric and clinical properties.

    • "Participants completed the 13-item Everyday Memory Questionnaire – revised version (EMQ; [62]) to document subjective memory difficulties in everyday life (e.g., " forgetting when it was that something happened; for example, whether it was yesterday or last week " ), with higher scores indicating higher frequency . In addition to a total score, factor scores include 'Retrieval' (loading on retrieval failures), 'Attentional Tracking' (identifying disruption to attention/working memory), and 'Other' (unspecified) [62]. Additionally, subjective ratings of disability were measured using the 36-item self-administered World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS; [63]). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: With predicted increases in dementia incidence, interventions targeting neuroplasticity and neuroprotection are required. Cognitive training (CT) is an intervention which has been shown to improve aspects of cognition, but the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to its efficacy are unknown. Objective: We aimed to explore the neurobiological correlates of CT using mismatch negativity (MMN), a neurophysiological marker of pre-attentive information processing, which in turn, is postulated to underpin higher-order cognitive processes. Methods: As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, forty 'at risk' (i.e., mild cognitive impairment or late-life depression) participants aged 51-79 years underwent neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychiatric assessments before and after a multi-faceted seven-week CT program or a 'treatment-as-usual' seven-week waitlist period. Results: The treatment group demonstrated significantly increased fronto-central MMN responses (p < 0.05), as well as improved phonemic verbal fluency (p < 0.05) and decreased self-rated memory difficulties (p < 0.05) following CT, in comparison to the waitlist control group. However, there were no significant correlations between enhanced MMN and cognitive/psychosocial outcomes. Conclusions: Results from this preliminary investigation indicate that CT is associated with enhanced neurophysiological mechanisms suggestive of improved pre-attentive processing, which may reflect alterations in underlying neurobiology. Further research is warranted to confirm these findings, to explicate whether CT is associated with restorative or compensatory neuroplastic processes and to determine whether MMN is a useful biomarker for treatment response.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
  • Source
    • "En ellos está implicada la memoria de trabajo en su aspecto de planificación y monitorización de tareas (―dificultades en seguir una historia por televisión‖, ―no seguir una trama al leer‖, ―mezclar cosas que le han dicho‖). Podríamos decir que es el factor más ―cultural‖ pues los olvidos tienen que ver con lectura, lenguaje, comprensión de la información recibida, etc. Para otros autores estos ítems están encuadrados en componentes como ―monitorización de tareas‖ y ―monitorización de conversaciones‖ (Cornish, 2000), ―comunicación receptiva y expresiva‖ (Richardson, 1996), ―memoria prospectiva‖ , ―memoria general‖, ―aprendizaje nuevo‖ y ―repetición de respuestas‖ (Efklides et al., 2002) y ―atención‖ (Royle y Lincoln, 2008). En estos olvidos se involucran áreas como la memoria a corto plazo y la memoria de trabajo, así como componentes atencionales, de lenguaje y otros. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uno de los instrumentos más utilizados para valorar los olvidos cotidianos es el Cuestionario de Fallos de Memoria de la Vida Cotidiana (MFE). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura factorial de una adaptación española del MFE y la relación de los factores tanto con el rendimiento en memoria objetiva como con variables de tipo afectivo en una muestra de 647 sujetos adultos (19-64 años). Para la evaluación se emplearon: MFE, Lista de Palabras y Escenas de Familia de la Escala de Memoria de Wechsler, Escala de Depresión y Ansiedad de Goldberg y dos preguntas sobre quejas de memoria. El estudio estadístico se realizó con los programas Mplus y SPSS. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de una estructura de tres factores, que explicaban el 29.3 % de la varianza: 1. Memoria relacionada con Actividades, 2. Reconocimiento y 3. Comunicación y Memoria de trabajo. Los dos factores con olvidos más frecuentes son Actividades y Comunicación, están más relacionados entre sí que con el de Reconocimiento y se relacionan más con aspectos afectivos y con las preguntas de quejas. La edad y el rendimiento objetivo de memoria se correlacionan más con el factor Reconocimiento.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Anales de Psicología
  • Source
    • "Self-and significant other's report of cognitive and functional impairments Pamela's self-report on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire—Revised (Royle & Lincoln, 2008) indicated that she experiences difficulties in attending to and retrieving information on a daily basis (e.g., forgetting you were told something, losing track of a story-line), and her overall impairment score (3.70) was higher than the mean for individuals poststroke (M = 1.51: Royle & Lincoln). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many individuals with stroke experience difficulty resuming their pre-injury lifestyle, that which may lead to feelings of discouragement, shame, and self-criticism. Self-criticism has been associated with heightened risk of depression and anxiety. Therefore, managing self-criticism may be a key component in psychotherapeutic interventions; however, this is yet to be evaluated in the context of stroke. A case study is presented of “Pamela”, a forty-eight-year-old woman who experienced an aneurysm located in the right posterior communicating artery eighteen months prior to therapy. She was initially referred for an assessment of memory functioning and cognitive rehabilitation. However, it became apparent that her subjective cognitive concerns were not consistent with the likely site of neurological damage, and that her high levels of anxiety were exacerbating her functional impairments in daily life. This had resulted in the use of avoidance as a safety strategy, and an overall reduction in her activity and social participation. Following a comprehensive assessment of cognitive functioning and feedback (five sessions), therapy adopted an integrated cognitive behavioural/ compassion-focused approach aimed at enhancing self-acceptance and compassion, and reducing avoidance and psychological distress. After ten sessions of psychotherapy, Pamela reported a clinically significant reduction in emotional distress, fewer avoidance behaviours, and an increase in self-compassion. At the three-month follow-up Pamela’s improvement in emotional status was maintained, despite an increase in avoidance behaviours to almost pre-treatment levels.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
Show more