Evaluation of a circumferential femoral head osteophyte as an early indicator of osteoarthritis characteristic of canine hip dysplasia in dogs

ArticleinJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 231(6):889-92 · October 2007with50 Reads
DOI: 10.2460/javma.231.6.889 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
To determine the relationship between a circumferential femoral head osteophyte (CFHO) and osteoarthritis characteristic of canine hip dysplasia, and to ascertain whether CFHO, like osteoarthritis, varies between diet-restricted and control-fed dogs. Longitudinal cohort study. 48 Labrador Retrievers. Dogs were paired by size, sex, and litter and assigned to 1 of 2 equal groups at 2 months of age. The control-fed group was fed ad libitum, and the diet-restricted group was fed 25% less on a pairwise basis of the same diet for life. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed yearly for life. Each radiograph was evaluated for radiographic signs of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia and for the presence and severity of a CFHO. 41 of the 48 (85.4%) dogs had a CFHO, which was detected at a median age of 5.4 years, and 33 of those 41 (80.5%) developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Nineteen (79.2%) dogs in the diet-restricted group and 22 (91.7%) in the control-fed group had a CFHO at a median age of 9 and 3 years, respectively. Of the dogs with a CFHO, 12 (63.2%) in the diet-restricted group and 20 (90.0%) in the control-fed group developed radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis characteristic of hip dysplasia at a median age of 11 and 6.5 years, respectively. Results indicated a relationship between the CFHO and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. If a CFHO is present in Labrador Retrievers, it might be considered an early indicator of osteoarthritis.
    • "Perhaps the best example of this comes from a study of dietary restriction using a small group of Labrador Retrievers (48 dogs) in an experimental setting. This controlled trial has yielded an array of findings on the effect of dietary restriction on mortality [38,39], immune function [40] , and developmental joint disease414243444546474849. The time-span and depth of this trial (including blood sampling and radiography at regular intervals) made it prohibitively expensive to perform on a larger scale but data on specific aspects, such as the life-long progression of osteoarthritis, could only be collected by following a cohort longitudinally in this manner. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the use of cohort studies in canine medicine to date and highlights the benefits of wider use of such studies in the future. Uniquely amongst observational studies, cohort studies offer the investigator an opportunity to assess the temporal relationship between hypothesised risk factors and diseases. In human medicine cohort studies were initially used to investigate specific exposures but there has been a movement in recent years to more broadly assess the impact of complex lifestyles on morbidity and mortality. Such studies do not focus on narrow prior hypotheses but rather generate new theories about the impact of environmental and genetic risk factors on disease. Unfortunately cohort studies are expensive both in terms of initial investment and on-going costs. There is inevitably a delay between set up and the reporting of meaningful results. Expense and time constraints are likely why this study design has been used sparingly in the field of canine health studies. Despite their rather limited numbers, canine cohort studies have made a valuable contribution to the understanding of dog health, in areas such as the dynamics of infectious disease. Individual exposures such as neutering and dietary restriction have also been directly investigated. More recently, following the trend in human health, large cohort studies have been set up to assess the wider impact of dog lifestyle on their health. Such studies have the potential to develop and test hypotheses and stimulate new theories regarding the maintenance of life-long health in canine populations.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
    • "Com relação aos resultados de concordância pode-se notar que o Kappa foi considerado moderado quando na avaliação pelo MCR no diagnóstico da displasia, ou seja, o observador 1 (menos experiente) conseguiu detectar a presença da displasia em 80% dos animais, e observador 2 (mais experiente) conseguiu detectar a presença da displasia em 93,3%. Ressalta-se que as lesões secundárias relativas a doença articular degenerativa, mesmo que tênues auxiliaram tal diagnóstico (Powers et al., 2004; Szabo et al., 2007). Pelos dados obtidos, verificou-se que os novos radiologistas apresentaram uma maior dificuldade em identificar a incongruência articular, bem como, os primeiros sinais radiográficos da doença articular degenerativa. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to assess the difficulties of implementing PennHIP method in diagnosis of hip dysplasia, comparing this method with the recommended by CBRV and determining the influence of training in the interpretation through interobserver analysis. Fifteen dogs of the Labrador breed were used to evaluate the radiographic examination as the recommendations of CBRV and analysis of joint distraction. The agreement correlations of both methods were made by subjective and Kappa study. The values of conventional diagnostic method were K=0.44 (moderate) and almost perfect for PennHIP method (K=1.0). However, there was higher variability in PennHIP when were compared both limbs. We concluded that the method PennHip showed greater diagnostic accuracy and higher interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of bilateral hip dysplasia in dogs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventrodorsal extended hip radiographs were analyzed from Foxhounds, Irish setters, Greyhounds, and Labrador retrievers radiographed four to seven times between 8 and 110 weeks of age. Occurrence in these 91 dogs of a puppy line, an ill-defined zone of proximal femoral metaphyseal sclerosis, a femoral neck linear sclerosis, or circumferential linear femoral head osteophytosis at 15-17 weeks of age were compared with hip joint laxity, as measured by distraction index, and to later findings of caudal curvilinear femoral neck osteophytes, circumferential femoral head osteophytes, hip incongruity consistent with hip dysplasia and degenerative joint disease by 52 weeks of age. A puppy line and/or femoral metaphyseal sclerosis was common at 15-17 weeks of age for dogs at mimimal risk (Greyhounds) and high risk (Foxhounds) of developing early degenerative joint disease associated with canine hip dysplasia. Though 44% of Greyhound hips had puppy lines and 28% had femoral metaphyseal sclerosis at 15-17 weeks of age, no Greyhound had a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte or circumferential femoral head osteophyte at 24-27 or 52 weeks of age. No significant relationship was found between occurrence of a puppy line, a circumferential femoral head osteophyte or femoral metaphyseal sclerosis at 15-17 weeks and canine hip dysplasia or degenerative joint disease incidence at 42-52 weeks. Presence of a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte in at least one hip at 24-27 weeks was significantly related to the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia by 42-52 weeks. When both a caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte and a circumferential femoral head osteophyte were present in a hip at 24-27 weeks, degenerative joint disease was evident in all such hips by 42-52 weeks of age.
    Article · Mar 2009
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