Evaluation of probable or possible dementia with lewy bodies using 123I-IMP brain perfusion SPECT, 123I-MIBG, and 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT.

Department of Radiology, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Impact Factor: 6.16). 11/2007; 48(10):1641-50. DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.107.042143
Source: PubMed


We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of combination studies with a statistical mapping method in N-isopropyl-p-(123)I-iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP) brain perfusion SPECT, cardiac sympathetic nerve function by (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG), and myocardial function by electrocardiographically gated (99m)Tc-sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI) SPECT for patients with probable or possible dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Twelve patients with probable DLB (7 male, 5 female; mean age +/- SD, 72.3 +/- 5.63 y; range, 65-82 y) and 9 patients with possible DLB (3 male, 6 female; mean age +/- SD, 73.1 +/- 9.23 y; range, 59-88 y) were enrolled in this study. (123)I-IMP SPECT images were analyzed with 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) and the severity of ischemia was classified objectively using quantitatively analytic and display software; stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) methods were compared with a normal database. In addition, we evaluated (123)I-MIBG heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratios. Moreover, we performed (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT to evaluate myocardial perfusion and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) compared with a normal database.
3D-SSP images of group comparison with healthy control subjects showed significantly decreased perfusion in the parietotemporal, occipital cortex, posterior cingulated, and precuneus regions in the probable DLB group but no significant reduction in the possible DLB group. Mean H/M ratios in the probable DLB group were significantly lower than those of the possible DLB group and the control group, respectively. Ten of 12 patients (83.3%) with probable DLB and 1 of 9 patients (11.1%) with possible DLB showed severe reduction in the bilateral occipital lobe and also a low (123)I-MIBG uptake. One patient (8.3%) with probable DLB and 2 patients (22.2%) with possible DLB showed no bilateral occipital hypoperfusion but showed low (123)I-MIBG uptake. One patient (8.3%) with probable DLB and 6 patients (66.7%) with possible DLB showed no occipital hypoperfusion and normal (123)I-MIBG uptake. (99m)Tc-MIBI gated SPECT did not indicate any wall motion abnormality in any subjects.
These results suggest that combined examination of cerebral blood flow with 3D-SSP and SEE analysis, and cardiac sympathetic nerve function with (123)I-MIBG, would be a useful supporting diagnostic method in patients with DLB-particularly, in possible DLB and when cerebral blood flow does not indicate occipital hypoperfusion.

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    • "In extreme cases, typical DLB patients without apparent uptake decreases in the occipital regions tend to be branded as ‘DLB unlikely’ only because of negative SPECT findings. It should be kept in mind that low uptake in the occipital areas is a feature distinguishing DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD) [4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11], and that it is not a ubiquitous finding among patients with DLB [9,12,13]. Compared with normal controls, DLB patients may rather show lowered uptake in the frontal, parietal, temporal and thalamic regions [14]. Thus, ‘occipital uptake decreases on SPECT’ is not the gold standard for the diagnosis of DLB, and blind dependence on this supportive diagnostic feature may be misleading. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate onset patterns and initial symptoms in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and their association with SPECT findings. We studied 29 probable and 12 possible DLB patients. Onset was defined as 'acute' when symptoms (in various combinations) present within a few weeks or 'chronic' when a few symptoms present and progress during a longer period of time. Initial symptoms were dichotomized into 'cognitive' and 'non-cognitive'. We conducted voxel-to-voxel statistical analyses of SPECT, and uptake deviations from age-matched controls were depicted with Z-scores. In acute patients, decreases were more apparent in the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes, whereas chronic patients showed decreases in the bilateral occipital, posterior cingulate and precuneal regions. Differences in the left frontal and left posterior cingulate were significant and those in the left temporal region showed a tendency toward significance. Patients with cognitive symptoms demonstrated more marked decreases in the bilateral temporal, parietal, occipital, cingulate and precuneal regions. Differences in the left parietal area reached significance and the total decreases were larger in patients with cognitive than non-cognitive symptoms, with a trend toward significance. The multiplicity of onset patterns and initial symptoms may possibly be based on pathophysiological diversities in DLB.
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    ABSTRACT: Differential diagnosis between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and other neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment represents a clinical challenge. Due to the overlapping of symptoms, the clinical diagnosis can be modified during the prolonged follow-up of these diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging for early identification of DLB. Since January 2003, all patients with neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment at their first visit at the Memory Unit and clinical criteria of DLB were consecutively recruited and underwent a cardiac (123)I-MIBG study. The heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) and the washout rate (WR) of cardiac MIBG uptake were obtained. Sixty-five patients were included. After a clinical follow-up of 4 years, the progress of the disease procured a definite diagnosis in 44 (68%) patients: 19 DLB, 12 Alzheimer disease (AD), and 13 other neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. HMR was significantly decreased in DLB with respect to the other neurodegenerative diseases. WR was only significantly different between DLB and AD. The HMR cut off point of 1.36 differentiated DLB from the other dementias with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 96% with an accuracy of 95%. Cardiac MIBG imaging performed at the time of the first clinical diagnosis of DLB can help early clinical identification or exclusion of this disease.
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