Spectroscopic and Theoretical Insights into Sequence Effects of Aminofluorene-Induced Conformational Heterogeneity and Nucleotide Excision Repair †

Department of Physical Chemistry , Palacký University of Olomouc, Olmütz, Olomoucký, Czech Republic
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.02). 10/2007; 46(40):11263-78. DOI: 10.1021/bi700858s
Source: PubMed


A systematic spectroscopic and computational study was conducted in order to probe the influence of base sequences on stacked (S) versus B-type (B) conformational heterogeneity induced by the major dG adduct derived from the model carcinogen 7-fluoro-2-aminofluorene (FAF). We prepared and characterized eight 12-mer DNA duplexes (-AG*N- series, d[CTTCTAG*NCCTC]; -CG*N- series, d[CTTCTCG*NCCTC]), in which the central guanines (G*) were site-specifically modified with FAF with varying flanking bases (N = G, A, C, T). S/B heterogeneity was examined by CD, UV, and dynamic 19F NMR spectroscopy. All the modified duplexes studied followed a typical dynamic exchange between the S and B conformers in a sequence dependent manner. Specifically, purine bases at the 3'-flanking site promoted the S conformation (G > A > C > T). Simulation analysis showed that the S/B energy barriers were in the 14-16 kcal/mol range. The correlation times (tau = 1/kappa) were found to be in the millisecond range at 20 degrees C. The van der Waals energy force field calculations indicated the importance of the stacking interaction between the carcinogen and neighboring base pairs. Quantum mechanics calculations showed the existence of correlations between the total interaction energies (including electrostatic and solvation effects) and the S/B population ratios. The S/B equilibrium seems to modulate the efficiency of Escherichia coli UvrABC-based nucleotide excision repair in a conformation-specific manner: i.e., greater repair susceptibility for the S over B conformation and for the -AG*N- over the -CG*N- series. The results indicate a novel structure-function relationship, which provides insights into how bulky DNA adducts are accommodated by UvrABC proteins.

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    • "The major reaction products of metabolically activated AAF and AF with guanine in DNA include the N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-C8-AAF) and N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) adducts (Figure 1A) (24). The mutagenicity and tumorigenicity of AF and AAF have been studied extensively (22,23) and the susceptibility of their adducts to human (25–27) and prokaryotic NER (25,28–32) have also been investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) efficiencies of DNA lesions can vary by orders of magnitude, for reasons that remain unclear. An example is the pair of N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) and N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-C8-AAF) adducts that differ by a single acetyl group. The NER efficiencies in human HeLa cell extracts of these lesions are significantly different when placed at G1, G2 or G3 in the duplex sequence (5′-CTCG1G2CG3CCATC-3′) containing the NarI mutational hot spot. Furthermore, the dG-C8-AAF adduct is a better substrate of NER than dG-C8-AF in all three NarI sequence contexts. The conformations of each of these adducts were investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods. In the base-displaced conformational family, the greater repair susceptibility of dG-C8-AAF in all sequences stems from steric hindrance effects of the acetyl group which significantly diminish the adduct-base stabilizing van der Waals stacking interactions relative to the dG-C8-AF case. Base sequence context effects for each adduct are caused by differences in helix untwisting and minor groove opening that are derived from the differences in stacking patterns. Overall, the greater NER efficiencies are correlated with greater extents of base sequence-dependent local untwisting and minor groove opening together with weaker stacking interactions.
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    ABSTRACT: The NarI recognition sequence (5'-G1G2CG3CN-3') is the most vulnerable hot spot for frameshift mutagenesis induced by the carcinogen 2-aminofluorene and its analogues in Escherichia coli. Lesioning of the guanine in the G3 position induces an especially high frequency of -2 deletion mutations; vulnerability to these mutations is modulated by the nature of the nucleotide in the N position (C approximately A > G > T). The objective of the present study was to probe the structural basis of this N-mediated influence on the propensity of the G3 lesion to form a slipped mutagenic intermediate (SMI) during translesion synthesis. We studied NarI-based fully paired [(5'-CTCG1G2CG3*CNATC-3')(5'-GATNCGGCCGAG-3'), N = dC or dT] and -2 deletion [(5'-CTCG1G2CG3*CNATC-3')(5'-GATNGCCGAG-3'), N = dC or dT] duplexes, in which G* was either AF [N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene] or the 19F probe FAF [N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-7-fluoro-2-aminofluorene]. The latter sequences mimic the bulged SMI for -2 deletion mutations. Dynamic 19F NMR, circular dichroism, and UV melting results indicated that the NarI-dC/-2 deletion duplex adopts exclusively an intercalated conformer, whereas the NarI-dT/-2 deletion duplex exists as multiple conformers. The data support the presence of a putative equilibrium between a carcinogen-intercalated and a carcinogen-exposed SMI for the dT/-2 duplex. A similar dT-induced conformational heterogeneity was observed for the fully paired duplexes in which all three guanines were individually modified by AF or FAF. The frequency of the carcinogen stacked S-conformation was found to be highest (69-75%) at the G3 hot spot in NarI-dC duplexes. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the conformational stability of the SMI is a critical determinant for the efficacy of -2 frameshift mutagenesis in the NarI sequence. We also provide evidence for AF/FAF conformational compatibility in the NarI sequences.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study carcinogen-induced conformational heterogeneity in DNA duplexes. The fluorophore 2-aminopurine (AP) was incorporated adjacent (5') to the lesion (G*) in eight different DNA duplexes [d(5'-CTTCT PG* NCCTC-3'):d(5'-GAGGN XTAGAAG-3'), G* = FAF adduct, P = AP, N = G, A, C, T, and X = C, A] modified by FAF [ N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-7-fluoro-2-aminofluorene], a fluorine-tagged model DNA adduct derived from the potent carcinogen 2-aminofluorene. Steady-state measurements showed that fluorescence intensity and Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) derived from acrylamide quenching experiments decreased for all carcinogen-modified duplexes relative to the controls, which suggests greater AP stacking in the duplex upon adduct formation. Conformation-specific stacking of AP with the neighboring adduct was evidenced by a sequence-dependent variation in fluorescence intensity, position of emission maximum, degree of emission quenching by acrylamide, and temperature-dependent spectral changes. The magnitude of stacking was in the order of FAF residue in base-displaced stacked (S) > minor groove wedged (W) > major groove B type (B). This work represents a novel utility of AP in probing adduct-induced conformational heterogeneities in DNA duplexes.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Chemical Research in Toxicology
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