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Associations Between Media Viewing and Language Development in Children Under Age 2 Years

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Abstract

To test the association of media exposure with language development in children under age 2 years. A total of 1008 parents of children age 2 to 24 months, identified by birth certificates, were surveyed by telephone in February 2006. Questions were asked about child and parent demographics, child-parent interactions, and child's viewing of several content types of television and DVDs/videos. Parents were also asked to complete the short form of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). The associations between normed CDI scores and media exposure were evaluated using multivariate regression, controlling for parent and child demographics and parent-child interactions. Among infants (age 8 to 16 months), each hour per day of viewing baby DVDs/videos was associated with a 16.99-point decrement in CDI score in a fully adjusted model (95% confidence interval = -26.20 to -7.77). Among toddlers (age 17 to 24 months), there were no significant associations between any type of media exposure and CDI scores. Amount of parental viewing with the child was not significantly associated with CDI scores in either infants or toddlers. Further research is required to determine the reasons for an association between early viewing of baby DVDs/videos and poor language development.

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... Several studies have indeed found that children's increased screen time is associated with poorer language development [7][8][9][10][11]. However, some studies have not detected such detrimental association between children's screen time and language skills [12,13]. ...
... Thus, to date, the effect of screen time on language skills is unclear, possibly due to the differences in the variables used in different studies. For example, some studies have separated children's screen time spent alone and the co-viewed screen time [15,16], while other studies have explored children's total amount of screen time [8,12,13]. Above all, existing studies investigating the effect of screen time on children's language development have only utilized a general language score or the results of brief screening tests as an index for language ability [10,14,17], or only focused on lexical skills [8,16,18]. Thus, although screen time might affect different language domains differently [19], previous studies have not answered the question of which language domains screen time use specifically influences. ...
... For example, some studies have separated children's screen time spent alone and the co-viewed screen time [15,16], while other studies have explored children's total amount of screen time [8,12,13]. Above all, existing studies investigating the effect of screen time on children's language development have only utilized a general language score or the results of brief screening tests as an index for language ability [10,14,17], or only focused on lexical skills [8,16,18]. Thus, although screen time might affect different language domains differently [19], previous studies have not answered the question of which language domains screen time use specifically influences. ...
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Although children’s increased screen time has been found to associate with poorer language development, it is open to question which part of language ability screen time specifically associates with. Our aim was to examine the association between children’s screen time (alone and together with a parent), mothers’ screen time, and the different domains of children’s language skills. Mothers reported their children’s (N = 164, aged 2.5 to 4.1 years) screen time and their own on a weekday and a day off. Children’s lexical, phonological, morphological, receptive, and general language abilities were measured using validated tests. The connections between children’s and mothers’ screen time and children’s language skills were analyzed using correlation analyses and linear regression models. The more the children used screen time alone, or the greater the amount of the mothers’ screen time, the weaker the children’s lexical and general language abilities when the children’s age, maternal education level, and birth order were controlled for. We also found cumulative, negative links to the children’s lexical and general language abilities when the amount of their screen time alone and the amount of the mothers’ screen time were simultaneously included in the regression model. The results suggest that it is important to restrict both children’s screen time spent alone and mothers’ screen time.
... In addition, 6-month-old children exposed to television for an average of 2 h per day had poorer cognitive performances and lower language levels at 14 months of age than unexposed children (Tomopoulos et al., 2010). Zimmerman et al. (2007a) tested the association of media exposure with language development in children under the age of 2. Parents were asked to assess their child's vocabulary through the short form of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). Among infants (ages 8 to 16 months), each hour per day of viewing infant-directed DVDs/videos was associated with a decrease in CDI scores in a fully adjusted model. ...
... Nonetheless, other authors (Ferguson and Donnellan, 2014) reanalyzed Zimmerman et al. (2007a)'s dataset and showed that opposite conclusions could be drawn depending on the chosen statistical analysis. For one of them, infants exposed to no screen actually had lower levels of language development compared to infants with some exposure. ...
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The past decade has witnessed a rapid increase in the use of screen media in families, and infants are exposed to screens at younger ages than ever before. The objective of this review is twofold: (1) to understand the correlates and demographic factors determining exposure to screens, including interactive screens, when available, and (2) to study the effects of watching screens and using touchscreens on cognitive development, during the first 3 years of life. We argue that the effects of screen viewing depend mostly on contextual aspects of the viewing rather than on the quantity of viewing. That context includes the behavior of adult caregivers during viewing, the watched content in relation to the child’s age, the interactivity of the screen and whether the screen is in the background or not. Depending on the context, screen viewing can have positive, neutral or negative effects on infants’ cognition.
... Digital media may have negative effects on infants' vocabulary development (Ewin et al., 2020;Linebarger & Walker, 2005), replacing other activities that can contribute to their linguistic abilities, such as shared reading and social interactions with their primary caregivers (Dore et al., 2020). Nevertheless, available evidence is mixed (Taylor et al., 2017;Zimmerman et al., 2007), with some studies even finding positive contributions (Rice, 1983). For instance, Mendelsohn et al. (2010), showed that verbal interactions between low-income parents and their infants during media exposure were related to enhanced language development. ...
... This is congruent with the significant associations we observed between PC times and verbal as well as physical scaffolding (see Table S2). Available data shows that TV use is negatively associated with children's language development (Fiorini, 2010;Sundqvist et al., 2021;Taylor et al., 2017;Zimmerman et al., 2007). Several interpretations of these findings have been proposed: (1) transfer deficits, the difficulty or inability of young children to apply information from screens (including vocabulary) to real life, (2) time displacement for practicing skills relevant to developmental milestones, such as language or motor skills, (3) less time available for socially significant caregiver-child interactions, critical for language development at young ages (see Madigan et al., 2020 for a meta-analytic review). ...
Article
This study aimed to analyse the contribution of mothers' home literacy beliefs and practices and the quantity and quality of screen media exposure on Argentinean toddler's language. In addition, we considered parent–child joint engagement, as well as adult scaffolding behaviours during the use of electronic devices. A total of 465 mothers of 18–36 months old children completed an online survey including: the MacArthur Bates CDI, home literacy, screen exposure, joint engagement and scaffolding questionnaires. We observed positive effects of literacy beliefs, PC times and verbal scaffolding on language outcomes. TV exposure contributed negatively to vocabulary and, along with educational content, to sentence use. Shared reading and screen media experiences can be an opportunity for language stimulation, provided there is dialogue and joint engagement. Passive screen exposure and inadequate content may be detrimental for toddlers' language outcomes, probably by displacement of socially significant interactions.
... Some research evidence points to the possibility that frequent exposure to baby educational videos may actually be detrimental to cognitive development (e.g., Courage et al., 2010;Zimmerman et al., 2007). For instance, one study reported that each hour 8-to 16-month-old infants watched Baby Einstein videos was associated with learning 6 to 8 fewer vocabulary words (Zimmerman et al., 2007). ...
... Some research evidence points to the possibility that frequent exposure to baby educational videos may actually be detrimental to cognitive development (e.g., Courage et al., 2010;Zimmerman et al., 2007). For instance, one study reported that each hour 8-to 16-month-old infants watched Baby Einstein videos was associated with learning 6 to 8 fewer vocabulary words (Zimmerman et al., 2007). Other research suggests that visual media exposure prior to the age of 2 impairs executive function (Lillard et al., 2015). ...
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In this article I examine children’s evolved learning mechanisms that make humans the most educable of animals. These include: (1) skeletal perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that get fleshed out over the course of development, mainly through play; (2) a high level of plasticity that is greatest early in life but that persists into adulthood; (3) remarkable social-learning capabilities; and (4) dispositions toward exploration and play. I next examine some evolutionary mismatches – conflicts between psychological mechanisms evolved in ancient environments and their utility in modern ones – specifically with respect to modern educational systems. I then suggest some ways educators can take advantage of children’s evolved learning abilities to minimize the effects of evolutionary mismatches, including: (1) following developmentally appropriate practices (which are also evolutionarily appropriate practices); (2) increasing opportunities for physical activities; (3) increasing opportunities to learn through play; and (4) taking advantage of stress-adapted children’s “hidden talents.” I argue that evolutionary theory informs teachers and parents about how children evolved to learn and can result in more-enlightened teaching methods that will result in a more enjoyable and successful learning experiences for children. Key Terms: plasticity; social learning; exploration; play; evolutionary mismatches; developmentally appropriate practice
... Some studies reveal a positive impact of technologies on readiness and cognitive development [1,2] and better visual short-term memory [3]. But most of the evidence points to a negative impact on several components of child development, namely cognitive and language delays [4][5][6], difficulties in attention and self-regulation [3], and physical, nutritional, and behavioral problems [7]. However, these effects are dependent on the age of the child, the extension of the exposure, the content visualized, and the interaction between child and caregiver during the exposure [3,8,9]. ...
... We started with a quantitative study to understand children's patterns of exposure to screens and their language development, nowadays, but we also found it important to complement this view with preschool teachers' perceptions about children's screen-time and its relationship with play patterns and language development. Based on evidence that there is a relationship between screen-time and speech and language delays [5,6] we hypothesized that preschool teachers would report changes in children's play patterns and language skills over the years. ...
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Children’s exposure to screens has been increasing in recent years and so has the concern about its impact on children’s development. This study aims to analyze preschool teachers’ and parents’ views on the influence of screen-time exposure on children’s development. Semi-structured interviews with preschool teachers (n = 9), as well as data from a previous quantitative study, based on an online questionnaire applied to parents of children in preschool (n = 266) were used for data collection. For this study, eminently of qualitative nature, the following dimensions were analyzed: children’s habits of exposure to screens at home, changes in children’s play habits at school, strategies/methodologies used by preschool teachers, use of technologies at school and children’s language development. The results from the study with parents show that screen-time exposure of children is between 1 h to 2 h of television per day, mostly to watch cartoons. Parents also report that most of the children use vocabulary in other languages at home. Most preschool teachers agreed that children are changing their play habits and mainly their behaviors and attitudes, influenced by screen-time exposure. They believe that language development is also changing, mentioning more language problems in children. Changes in pedagogic strategies and specialized training on educational technology are needed to get closer to children’s interests.
... 11 Studies show that greater television exposure among young children is linked to poor language development. 12 In a study involving 6-24 month-old children in the USA, it was found that parental mobile device use and children's exposure to television were associated with an increase in average daily mobile device use and expressive language delay in children. 13 Self-regulation is the conscious management of emotions, thoughts and behaviors. ...
Article
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Today, digital media occupies an important place in human life and children live in this technological environment. Exposure to excessive and inappropriate digital media content, especially in early childhood, when brain development is important, has negative effects both in childhood and adulthood. Excessive and poor quality digital media use has been found to be associated with early effects such as sleep problems, negative self-regulation skills, cyberbullying, psychological disorders, and adult diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. In the light of these data, the American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend screen use for children before 18 months, except for video chat. It is important for parents to choose quality content in the use of digital media, to be a role model for their children, to guide them and to keep in touch with their children while using the screen.
... Throughout the writing of this research, I have received plenty of support and assistance. I would first like to thank my supervisor, Professor Mohammed Alhuqbani, whose expertise These screen time guidelines are based on studies that continue to show the association between screen time in early childhood and language delay (Duch et al., 2013;Zimmerman, Christakis, Meltzoff, 2007). However, many Saudi parents lack awareness of screen time restrictions and their impacts on children's development (Amawi et al., 2018). ...
Article
Young children are growing up in a new era of technology with increasing exposure to touch screen devices. In this study, investigated whether exposure to screen time is associated with children’s early language development. Fifty caregivers of Saudi children aged 24-60 months completed a media exposure questionnaire and language screening survey. Thirty percent needed learning activities, while four percent had a language delay and needed further assessment. Data analysis revealed that spending more than two hours using a mobile device predict language delay (P = 0.034); children of working mothers had low language scores compared to children of housewives (P = 0.005); children who were watching entertainment videos on YouTube had lower language scores than children who watched educational videos (P = 0.049). Thus, the evidence suggests screen time quantity and quality correlate with language development among young Saudi children.
... This situation is known to develop secondary to the direct effects of rapid progression of the images on the screen on the developing brain, the decrease in the interaction between parents and children when the screen is on, and poor family functionality. [21][22][23] In this context, a study, conducted on children between the ages of 3 and 10 years in Turkey, determined that screen exposure in the pediatric age group increased significantly during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period regardless of sociodemographic data.a. 24 Two separate studies evaluating the relationship with speech delay and screen exposure found that the duration of screen exposure in the first 6 months was correlated with low cognitive and language development at 14 months 23 and that screen exposure of 2 hours or more per day before the 12th month caused speech delay 6-fold more compared to the control group, 25 respectively. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the number and diagnosis of patients admitted to the Developmental Pediatrics Unit. Materilas and Methods: We compared the number and the diagnosis of patients admitted to the Developmental Pediatrics Unit by using International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th revision (ICD-10) codes of our institution's electronic health data before and after 18 months from March 16 2020, when coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was declared in Turkey. Statistical analyses were performed by using International Business Machines Statistical Package for Social Sciences for windows version 22.0 (Armonk, NY) program. Results: We found that the number of patients admitted to the Developmental Pediatrics Unit decreased during the pandemic period (pre-coronavirus disease 2019 n = 1107, during coronavirus disease 2019 n = 761). There was no significant difference between the ratio of the most common diagnosis (prematurity) before and during the pandemic period (32% and 30.6% respectively). It was observed that the ratio of children with speech delay (17.4%-23%, P = .003) increased during the pandemic, while there was a significant decrease in the ratio of admissions with Down syndrome (11.6%-6.6%, P < .001). Conclusion: We found that the number of admissions to the Developmental Pediatrics Unit with developmental difficulties decreased significantly during the pandemic. The ratio of admissions of speech delay increased during the same period, while admissions with Down syndrome decreased. This increase may be due to lockdown, increase in electronic screen exposure, and lack of stimuli and the decrease may be due to the risk of severe illness from coronavirus disease 2019. The decrease in admissions of patients who require developmental follow-up reveals the need for additional efforts such as implementing tele-health to our daily practice.
... Whether digital media affects children's language development in a significant way is, to this day, not a question with a definitive answer. Some studies have found a negative relation between digital media in early childhood and language development (e.g., Chonchaiya & Pruksananonda, 2008;Zimmerman et al., 2007), whereas other studies have not found any significant associations between digital media and language development (e.g., Schmidt et al., 2009;G. Taylor et al., 2018). ...
... In a cross-sectional study including 893 children a positive correlation was found between handheld screen time and communication delays (van den Heuvel et al., 2019). Further, in a survey with more than 1000 parents of toddlers, the researchers found that children who watched more videos said fewer words (Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007). Even though the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2019) recommends a 1-hour limit for preschool aged children over 2 years of age and discourages screen time altogether for children under 2 years, it appears that caregivers do not follow the proposed guidelines (Vanderloo & Tucker, 2015). ...
Article
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Purpose: The aims of the present study were twofold: first, to investigate reading and screen time habits in a large clinical sample of caregivers of children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) before and after an 8 week intervention focussed on daily joint book reading and, second, to capture the caregivers’ experiences of the activity. Method: Preschool aged children with SLCN and their caregivers were consecutively recruited during their first visit to the department of Speech and Language Pathology, Gävle County Hospital, Sweden. They participated in a survey-based interview before and after receiving an intervention with recommendations of at least 10 minutes of daily book reading with an interactional focus, as an add-on to ordinary speech-language pathology services. The results were analysed using descriptive statistics of the answers to the questions in the interview, as well as a thematic analysis of free-text comments. Result: The 135 families who participated in the pre-intervention interview survey reported variable reading frequency and screen time. The post-intervention interview survey was completed by 107 families. The results demonstrated significant increases in reading frequency and reading time, and a significant decrease in screen time per day. Caregivers also reported positive experiences of the daily interactive book reading. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that a speech-language pathologist-(SLP) managed, caregiver-led book reading intervention is feasible and might have a positive impact on reading, other factors related to reading, and screen time in families of children with SLCN.
... The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages digital media use (other than video chatting) for children younger than 18 months, recommends that parents co-watch only highquality programming for children 18-24 months, and recommends limiting children between 2 and 5 years to 1 h per day of high-quality programming, 1 but recent (2008-2020) cohort studies indicate that most families do not follow these guidelines. [2][3][4][5] The amount of time in which young children engage with digital media (i.e., screen time) has been associated with poorer cognitive development, especially among children under 2 years, [6][7][8][9][10][11][12] but it is unclear why digital media use has negative effects. One long-standing theory is that digital media displaces other important activities that contribute to healthy child development. ...
Article
Background: Young children's digital media use may adversely affect child development, but the mechanisms of this association are unclear. We evaluated whether screen time displaces reading and peer play time, which are subsequently associated with child development. Methods: When children were 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months, mothers (n = 3894) reported the time their children spent on screens, being read to by an adult, and playing with other children. At 36 months, mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire©, an assessment of their child's developmental status. Results: In unadjusted models, screen time from 12 to 36 months was not associated with reading but was associated with less time engaging in play with peers. In adjusted models accounting for developmental delay at 12 months, family and child characteristics, screen time was not directly associated with developmental delay. More peer play time was associated with a lower likelihood of developmental delay, and having higher screen time increased the likelihood of developmental delay indirectly through reduced peer play time. Results were similar for developmental delays in fine and gross motor, communication, and personal-social domains. Conclusions: Screen time in early childhood did not displace reported time spent reading, but did displace reported peer play time. Impact: Among children 1-3 years of age, more screen time was associated with less time engaged in peer play but not less reading with an adult. Having higher screen time from 1 to 3 years increased the odds of developmental delay indirectly through reduced peer play time. Ensuring that children engage in adequate time playing with peers may offset the negative associations between screen time and child development.
... This finding indicates that many children aged less than 2 years spend about 1/3 of their waking hours watching an electronic screen [9]. Many studies in different countries suggest that increased screen time exposure in young children is associated with negative health outcome such as: Impaired language development, mood and autistic like behavior including hyperactivity, short attention span and irritability [10][11][12][13][14]. In addition, excessive screen exposure leads to poor child Curr Pediatr Res 2022; 26 (4): [1308][1309][1310][1311][1312][1313][1314][1315][1316] ISSN 0971-9032 www.currentpediatrics.com ...
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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) characterized by persistent impairment in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests and activities. Many studies in different countries suggest that increased screen time exposure in young children is associated with negative health outcome such as: Impaired language development, mood and autistic like behavior. A cross sectional case control study was done in Al-Nasiriya city, south of Iraq, during a period of 2 years from 1st of January 2019 to the end of December 2020. The study included 107 child diagnosed with ASD in Al-Nasiriya Autism center, their mean age was 5.3 years, and 263 child included as a control group, their mean age was 5.6 years. Specially designed structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. The data was collected by direct face-to-face interview. Patients were followed up for a period of 6-12 months. The study showed that there was a significant relationship between age of starting electronic screen exposure and ASD in which more than 81% of ASD patients started electronic screen exposure at ≤ 2years of age (27.1% at age <1 year and 54.2% at age 1-2 years) compared to 62.8% of control group (P value=0.001). Most ASD patients (75.7%) watched screen devices for more than 4 hours/day (P value=0.001). TV watching has a significant relation with ASD, and mixed electronic devices watching was dominant in both groups (P value=0.001). Watching and listening to children songs was significantly associated with ASD, P value=0.001. There was a significant association between ASD and increased level of education of both parents. The study showed that there was a significant improvement in about 2/3 of patients after eliminating or reducing screen exposure. Early and prolonged exposure to screen devices is an important trigger for ASD. Education of society about the risk of early and prolonged exposure of children to electronic screen devices is recommended and screen device exposure for children below 2 years of age should be discouraged.
... Effects reported in the literature include cognitive and language delays, 5,6 difficulties with attention and self-regulation 7 and physical, nutritional and behavioural problems. 8,9 Thus, the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have released recommendations for limiting digital media use, including discouraging use altogether, for children younger than 18 months old. ...
Article
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Aim: Digital media use is prevalent among children and linked to potential developmental and health risks, but validated measures of children's digital media use are lacking. The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of the ScreenQ with three distinct children's age groups. Methods: Parents of children living in Portugal completed an online survey including the 16-item version of the ScreenQ and items related to home activities and digital media use. A combination of classical and modern theory (Rasch) methods was used for analysis. Results: A total of 549 mothers and 51 fathers of 325 girls and 322 boys from 6 months to 9 years and 11 months-old responded to the survey. Point-measure correlations were all positive and endorsement of item values were within acceptable ranges. Cronbach's coefficient α was acceptable for a new measure and test-retest reliability was high. Statistically significant correlations were found between ScreenQ total scores and relevant demographic, play-related, parenting, and digital media-use items. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the ScreenQ exhibited sound psychometric properties, including internal consistency and concurrent validity referenced to external items. Higher ScreenQ scores were correlated with higher digital media multitasking, lower parent-child interaction, and higher concerns regarding child's learning and behaviour.
... In fact, the association between television exposure in infancy and decreased language development appears to be proportional. Specifically, Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff (2007) report that each hour of television watched per day among eight-to eighteen-month-old infants was proportionally related to decreases in vocabulary and language production at twenty-four months. Similarly, researchers have shown that high amounts of television exposure in infancy is related to poorer language development and production (Varadarajan et al., 2021). ...
Article
Infant television exposure has been related to poorer language development and poorer executive functions in preschool and early childhood. Wide variability exists in the amount of television infants are exposed to in the first few years of life. The current study examined 256 primary caregiver-infant dyads over the first four years of life. Primary caregivers reported on their infant's television viewing each year as well as their language development and executive functions (year 4 only). Children also completed direct assessments of language development (year 4) and executive functions (including effortful control measures year 4). Growth mixture models showed three distinct trajectories of infant television exposure across the four years. Infants who started high and remained high in terms of their television viewing at the end of four years performed the most poorly on all assessments of language development and emerging executive functions. Infants with low television exposure in the first year of life who remained low in television exposure across the four years preformed the best on measures of language development and executive functions. Trajectories associated with early and persistent television exposure in the first few years of life were particularly problematic to preschooler's cognitive development. The current study supports AAP recommendations for limited screen-based media in the first few years of life.
... For many children growing up in today's world, the use of digital screen devices permeates their lives ( Feierabend, Rathgeb, & Reutter, 2018 ;Rideout, 2017 ). Accordingly, interest in the benefits and costs of this development has led to numerous reports on the effects of screen-time and digital media usage in early development, for example on language ( Wright et al., 2001 ;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007 ), cognition ( Lillard, Drell, Richey, Boguszewski, & Smith, 2015 ;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005 ), and later academic achievement ( Kostyrka-Allchorne, Cooper, & Simpson, 2017 ). One key feature of media usage appears to have been largely neglected, namely, that during media usage sensorimotor experience is fundamentally altered. ...
Article
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Media form an integral part of children's environments and represent, amongst other domains, altered sensorimotor experiences. Fine motor skills (FMS) represent a fundamental prerequisite for learning and cognition and initial work has begun to show links with screen media usage-although work is scarce and the directionality is uncertain. Therefore, using a cross-lagged-panel design with 2 waves 1 year apart, we examined longitudinal links between media usage and FMS in 141 preschool children. Results show a negative cross-lagged path from media usage to FMS, which was also statistically significant when only newer media were examined, after controlling for parental educational attainment, immigrant status , device ownership, age of first use, working memory, and vocabulary. The study contributes to our understanding of links between media usage and FMS development.
... Mozek dětí a dospívajících se nachází v období tzv. kritického vývoje, který mohou technologie zásadním způsobem ovlivňovat (3,4,5). Existují přesvědčivé doklady o vlivu frekvence používání obrazovek na dětskou nadváhu a obezitu (6), kvalitu spánku (7,8), dokonce depresivitu a spokojenost se životem (9). ...
... Screen-based sedentary time increases the risk of obesity (Mitchell et al., 2013), cardiovascular disease (Ford and Caspersen, 2012), diabetes (An and Yang, 2018) and other physical diseases. Excessive use of screen media could negatively affect preschool children's language ability (Zimmerman et al., 2007), cognitive and psychological development (McNeill et al., 2019). A Previous study illustrated that TV/movie viewing increased aggressive behavior, social problems and thinking problems in children (Guerrero et al., 2019). ...
Article
Several studies have investigated the effect of screen time interventions on obesity in children and adolescents, but the existing results were controversial. This study aimed to analyze the effect of screen time intervention on obesity in children and adolescents. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Embase databases were searched through December 2020 to identify publications meeting a priori inclusion criteria and references in the published articles were also reviewed. Finally, 14 randomized controlled trials and 1894 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that interventions targeting screen time are effective in reducing total screen time (MD: −6.90 h/week, 95% CI: [−9.19 to −4.60], p < 0.001) and television time (MD: −6.17 h/week, 95% CI: [−10.70 to −1.65], p < 0.001) in children and adolescents. However, there was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in body mass index and body mass index-z score. In conclusion, there is no evidence that screen time interventions alone can decrease obesity risk in children and adolescents, though they can effectively reduce screen time.
... Regardless the link between high screen use and negative physical and psychosocial outcomes in young children [15][16][17][18], mixed evidence concerning the use of screens for educational purposes may allude to some possible benefits of high-quality and interactive screen use [7,[19][20][21][22]. With the duration and availability of screen use increasing [23], as well as the context in which this screen-viewing takes places (intentional and unintentional exposure, background vs. foreground exposure, coviewing, at home vs. school, etc.) [24,25], many queries remain regarding their impact on children's preparedness to begin their scholarly journey. ...
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Background The primary aim of this study was to determine if screen use in early childhood is associated with overall vulnerability in school readiness at ages 4 to 6 years, as measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). Secondary aims were to: (1) determine if screen use was associated with individual EDI domains scores, and (2) examine the association between screen use and EDI domains scores among a subgroup of high screen users. Methods This prospective cohort study was carried out using data from young children participating in a large primary care practice-based research network in Canada. Logistic regression analyses were run to investigate the association between screen use and overall vulnerability in school readiness. Separate linear regression models examined the relationships between children’s daily screen use and each separate continuous EDI domain. Results A total of 876 Canadian participants participated in this study. Adjusted logistic regression revealed an association between increased screen use and increased vulnerability in school readiness (p = 0.05). Results from adjusted linear regression demonstrated an association between higher screen use and reduced language and cognitive development domain scores (p = 0.004). Among high screen users, adjusted linear regression models revealed associations between increased screen use and reduced language and cognitive development (p = 0.004) and communication skills and general knowledge domain scores (p = 0.042). Conclusions Screen use in early childhood is associated with increased vulnerability in developmental readiness for school, with increased risk for poorer language and cognitive development in kindergarten, especially among high users.
... As accessible outdoor space becomes rarer over time, "extinction of experience" (Pyle 1978) will increasingly drive children toward the excessive usage of technology. The result of this would be dire: Unrestrained screen time has been linked to speech delay (Zimmerman et al. 2007), poor sleeping habits (Brambilla et al. 2017;Parent et al. 2016;Nathanson and Fries 2014;Magee et al. 2014), reduced mineral density of bones (Shao et al. 2015;Winther et al. 2015;Chastin et al. 2014), poor posture (Lui et al. 2011), increased depression, hypertension, aggression, and suicidal tendency among adolescents (Wood and Scott 2016;Maras et al. 2015) and much more (Lissak 2018). What is not clear, however, is whether excessive use of screens caused reduced use of outdoor space or vice versa: Do children prefer screens over outdoor time or is it just where they can meet their friends than in parks? ...
Chapter
Children’s access to urban recreational space has decreased rapidly due to urban densification, increased road-connectivity, and parents’ growing sense of perceived danger and their desire to protect their children even at the detriment of children’s cognitive-development. However, this inaccessibility has also resulted in a movement towards bringing nature indoors, home-bound recreation, biophilic design and search for micro-scale recreational space. Moving forward, it is clear that urban planning must move beyond the simplistic idea of ‘pocket utopias’ of distant parks and playground and rather integrate contact with recreational space on a smaller scale into the established city as a whole rather than overhaul large-scale city blocks
... Child development research has long sought to identify factors that interfere with healthy development. Screen time has received considerable attention ( Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ), with most screen time research focused on the effect of traditional screen media (e.g., television, video gaming consoles) on young children's well-being and development (e.g., Hinkley et al., 2014 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn, Eirich & Christakis, 2020 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ;Thompson & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007 ). However, the potential for smartphone and tablet use to adversely affect development in early childhood has been given relatively less attention. ...
Preprint
The current study provides the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations of smartphone and tablet use with psychosocial, cognitive, and sleep-related factors in early childhood development. The meta-analysis aimed to provide an overall assessment of the evidence while the systematic review offered a rich overview of the methodological approaches adopted to assess these associations. Studies were included in the review if they examined the association of smartphone or tablet use with a measure of psychosocial development, cognitive development, or sleep in toddlers or preschoolers. Out of 1050 articles that were initially identified, 26 studies were included in the final sample of the systematic review, of which 19 were included in the meta-analysis. Data were screened, extracted, and synthesized according to PRISMA guidelines. A random-effects meta-analysis of correlations found a significant yet weak association of increased smartphone and tablet use with poorer overall child developmental factors. Additionally, a similar but stronger association was found between parental perceptions of problematic device use and poorer overall child factors. Meta-correlations with device use were significant for sleep, but not for psychosocial and cognitive factors. Overall, the results suggest that longitudinal cohort and experimental investigations would elucidate more causal relationships of child factors with smartphone and tablet use. Employing multiple methods of screen-use assessment, and considering the multiple levels of proximal and distal influences on child smartphone and tablet use, would also be useful. Adopting more rigorous research practices in the future, will facilitate deeper insights into the potential developmental implications of smartphone and tablet use in early childhood.
... Child development research has long sought to identify factors that interfere with healthy development. Screen time has received considerable attention ( Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ), with most screen time research focused on the effect of traditional screen media (e.g., television, video gaming consoles) on young children's well-being and development (e.g., Hinkley et al., 2014 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn, Eirich & Christakis, 2020 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ;Thompson & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007 ). However, the potential for smartphone and tablet use to adversely affect development in early childhood has been given relatively less attention. ...
Article
The current study provides the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations of smartphone and tablet use with psychosocial, cognitive, and sleep-related factors in early childhood development. The meta-analysis aimed to provide an overall assessment of the evidence while the systematic review offered a rich overview of the methodological approaches adopted to assess these associations. Studies were included in the review if they examined the association of smartphone or tablet use with a measure of psychosocial development, cognitive development, or sleep in toddlers or preschoolers. Out of 1050 articles that were initially identified, 26 studies were included in the final sample of the systematic review, of which 19 were included in the meta-analysis. Data were screened, extracted, and synthesized according to PRISMA guidelines. A random-effects meta-analysis of correlations found a significant yet weak association of increased smartphone and tablet use with poorer overall child developmental factors. Additionally, a similar but stronger association was found between parental perceptions of problematic device use and poorer overall child factors. Meta-correlations with device use were significant for sleep, but not for psychosocial and cognitive factors. Overall, the results suggest that longitudinal cohort and experimental investigations would elucidate more causal relationships of child factors with smartphone and tablet use. Employing multiple methods of screen-use assessment, and considering the multiple levels of proximal and distal influences on child smartphone and tablet use, would also be useful. Adopting more rigorous research practices in the future, will facilitate deeper insights into the potential developmental implications of smartphone and tablet use in early childhood.
... Overexposure to electronic media has a significant impact on children, affecting their language learning ability and leading to attention deficit as well as various negative effects, such as aggression, eating disorders, sleep problems, and learning difficulties [6][7][8] . There have been recurrent claims in literatures that specific features of entertainment media may cause ADHD-related behaviors among children [9] . ...
Article
There are several theoretical reasons to believe that overall media use might be related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-related behaviors (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). Although studies on media-ADHD relationship have accumulated, they have yielded inconsistent results, especially those from different countries. Therefore, it is still undisclosed whether children’s overall media use and ADHD-related behaviors are related to region and culture. A meta-analysis has been performed on three empirical studies investigating the relationship between overall media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents from China. The results indicated significant relationship between overall media use and ADHD-related behaviors, OR = 2.597.
... Children's screen exposure is associated with developmental delays, worse health outcomes, and poor psychological well-being (Twenge & Campbell, 2018;Zimmerman et al., 2007), especially when this exposure systematically happens during mealtime and bedtime (Carter et al., 2016;Willis et al., 2016). According to Arufe-Giráldez et al. (2020), the period of home confinement made it challenging to comply with World Health Organization recommendations regarding physical activity, sleep hours, and screen time in children under 5 years of age. ...
Article
This study compared children's and mothers’ digital media use and mothers’ mental health in two samples: one accessed before (Group 1; N = 257; M = 33.18 years; SD = 4.79) and the other accessed during (Group 2; N = 256; M = 33.51 years; SD = 4.96) the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Mothers of children up to 3 years old (Group 1: M = 17.95 months, SD = 9.85; Group 2: M = 16.48 months, SD = 10.15) answered an online survey. Bivariate analysis, factorial ANOVA tests, and multiple linear regression were performed. Results suggest that mothers’ and children's media use duration was higher during the pandemic only among children over 12 months. Mothers’ media use duration (β = .18) and mothers’ intention to offer media (β = .23) contributed to the explanation of children's media use duration (F(4, 474) = 16.81; p < .001; R² = .12; R² adjusted = .117). Higher mothers’ common mental disorders symptoms were also positively correlated to mothers’ intention to offer media to children both before and during the pandemic. Results suggest that interventions focusing on infants and toddlers screen time reduction should target maternal aspects such as mental health, maternal screen time, and intention to offer media, taking into account the mothers’ needs when planning these actions.
... In addition, studies have found that excessive screen time is associated with poor early cognitive and motor development outcomes in children [5,6]. Greater screen time for children may reduce engagement in interactive activities with other children or adults and may lead to fewer learning opportunities t [6,7]. Therefore, global increases in screen time for children are of major concern given child development may have long-term effects across the life course including on adult productivity [8]. ...
Article
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Background Globally, children’s exposure to digital screens continues to increase and is associated with adverse effects on child health. We aimed to evaluate the association of screen exposure with child communication, gross-motor, fine-motor, problem-solving, and personal-social development scores. Methods We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study with cluster sampling among children 0–60 months of age living in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Child screen time was assessed by maternal report and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations were used to define excessive screen time exposure. Child development was assessed with the Brazilian Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Generalized linear regression was used to determine the association of screen exposure with developmental outcomes. We also examined the potential non-linear relationship of screen time with development scores using spline analyses. Results A total of 3155 children 0–60 months of age had screen time exposure evaluated and 69% percent were identified as exposed to excessive screen time. This percentage of excess screen time increased with child age from 41.7% for children 0–12 months to 85.2% for children 49–60 months. Each additional hour of screen time was associated with lower child communication (standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.03; 95% CI: − 0.04, − 0.02), problem solving (SMD: -0.03; 95% CI: − 0.05, − 0.02) and personal-social (SMD: -0.04; 95% CI: − 0.06, − 0.03) domain scores. Conclusions Excess screen time exposure was highly prevalent and independently associated with poorer development outcomes among children under 5 years of age in Ceará, Brazil.
... In the study by Byeon and Hong, [33] toddlers with more than 2 h but <3 h of TV watching time had around 2.7 times more risk of language delay than those with <1 h, and those with more than 3 h had about 3 times more risk. In an epidemiological study by Zimmerman et al. [34] in the USA, in 8-16-month-old infants, watching more than 1 h of video per day had a negative association with vocabulary acquisition. In a Thai case-control study on infants under 1, the risk of language delay was 6 times more in infants watching TV than those who did not. ...
... Children are exposed to an average of 1-4 hours of television per day [13,14], with higher exposure in children who are economically disadvantaged [15,16]. In previous screentime research with infants, toddlers and preschoolers, more television exposure has been associated with impaired self-regulation [17,18], lower language outcomes [19,20], and lower cognitive development [21,22], however, association with curiosity has not been examined, and is a gap in the literature. Screen media exposure, including television, can displace exploratory activities such as play and parent-child interactions [23] that are thought to be necessary for the cultivation of curiosity [24]. ...
Article
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Objective To examine the main and interactive effects of the amount of daily television exposure and frequency of parent conversation during shared television viewing on parent ratings of curiosity at kindergarten, and to test for moderation by socioeconomic status (SES). Study design Sample included 5100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Hours of daily television exposure and frequency of parent screen-time conversation were assessed from a parent interview at preschool, and the outcome of early childhood curiosity was derived from a child behavior questionnaire at kindergarten. Multivariate linear regression examined the main and interactive effects of television exposure and parent screen-time conversation on kindergarten curiosity and tested for moderation by SES. Results In adjusted models, greater number of hours of daily television viewing at preschool was associated with lower curiosity at kindergarten (B = -0.14, p = .008). More frequent parent conversation during shared screen-time was associated with higher parent-reported curiosity at kindergarten with evidence of moderation by SES. The magnitude of association between frequency of parent conversation during television viewing and curiosity was greater for children from low SES environments, compared to children from high SES environments: (SES ≤ median): B = 0.29, p < .001; (SES > median): B = 0.11, p < .001. Conclusions Higher curiosity at kindergarten was associated with greater frequency of parent conversation during shared television viewing, with a greater magnitude of association in low-SES families. While the study could not include measures of television program content, digital media use and non-screen time conversation, our results suggest the importance of parent conversation to promote early childhood curiosity, especially for children with socioeconomic disadvantage.
Thesis
Les technologies numériques sont omniprésentes dans le quotidien des enfants et adolescents. Les technologies interactives comme les tablettes tactiles semblent particulièrement attractives et faciles d’utilisation, apportant des bénéfices sur les apprentissages scolaires. La question se pose alors de savoir si ces avantages peuvent s’observer également pour d’autres formes d’activité ne faisant pas l’objet d’un apprentissage. Dans ce cadre, nous nous intéresserons aux activités créatives. Bien que la créativité soit conçue comme un phénomène de nature multifactorielle, les composantes sensorimotrices n’ont été que très peu intégrées dans le processus créatif. Pourtant, Dietrich et Haider (2015) ont récemment suggéré que le processus permettant de générer une idée créative emprunterait le même mécanisme que celui utilisé pour contrôler une action réalisée ou imaginée au travers de la prédiction sensorimotrice. Les afférences sensorielles étant centrales dans le contrôle de l’action sensorimotrice, elles pourraient être considérées comme des facteurs constitutifs de la créativité. Selon cette proposition, il pourrait être suggéré que modifier les afférences sensorielles disponibles dans une tâche pourrait moduler la créativité. Dans cette thèse, nous interrogeons cette relation entre créativité et sensorimotricité. Au travers de 4 études expérimentales, nous avons fait varier les afférences sensorielles disponibles dans une tâche créative en faisant dessiner des enfants et adolescents de 6 à 15 ans sur tablette tactile au doigt, au stylet, et sur papier au stylo. Les résultats montrent effectivement qu’augmenter les afférences sensorielles en utilisant le doigt sur tablette tactile améliore l’originalité à tout âge. En revanche, réduire les afférences sensorielles lors de l’utilisation du stylet n’amène pas aux mêmes effets sur les performances d’originalité selon l’âge des participants. Chez les enfants de 6-7 ans, utiliser le stylet sur tablette tactile ne modifie pas les performances d’originalité. Après 8 ans, les enfants réalisent des dessins plus originaux au stylet sur tablette tactile qu’au stylo sur papier. L’effet bénéfique du stylet sur les performances créatives à partir de cet âge pourrait s’expliquer par l’acquisition de la capacité à compenser la perte d’afférences sensorielles qui permet de maximiser les informations sensorielles, apportant ainsi des bénéfices sur l’originalité. Ces bénéfices de la tablette tactile s’observent également chez des adolescents qui, du fait de troubles du comportement, présentent des difficultés dans la mobilisation de leurs capacités cognitives. De plus, ces adolescents rapportent une préférence majoritaire pour l’utilisation du support tactile en comparaison du support papier, qui serait lié à une plus grande mobilisation sensorielle dans la production des gestes graphiques sur l’interface. Nous discutons de l’implication de ces résultats pour la nature du processus créatif et son développement, ainsi que l’utilisation d’afférences sensorielles pour aider les enfants et adolescents typiques, comme atypiques, à mobiliser plus efficacement leurs capacités cognitives.
Chapter
Because young language learners (YLLs) are in the midst of cognitive development while they are developing their languages, it is important for educators of YLLs to understand children’s cognitive abilities in relation to their linguistic development in order to develop appropriate pedagogy for them. This chapter offers a current understanding of major cognitive abilities that are associated with YLL’s language learning. After sketching main theoretical approaches in general cognitive development, the chapter discusses major research findings concerning the potential influence of bilingualism in cognition/metacognition in the three most studied domains; namely, executive function, theory of mind, and metalinguistic awareness. The chapter also covers emerging neuropsycholinguistic research as well as studies concerning greater use of digital technology by children and its potential impact on cognition. The chapter pays special attention to the kinds of measurements that researchers have used to capture YLLs’ cognitive abilities, and the roles of linguistic inputs and other environmental factors (e.g., socioeconomic status). Although research indicates that there is certainly an association between bilingualism and cognition, there are also substantial variabilities in that association across studies. The underlying mechanisms explaining the nature of the relationships and developmental trajectories are not totally clear. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research.
Article
Home literacy environment (HLE) is an umbrella term to describe a wide range of home activities and experiences that promote literacy development. The present study explored whether there is a relationship between certain components of children’s language and literacy knowledge at school entry and their home literacy environment conceptualised in three different ways: active (e.g., reading books to the child), child-led (e.g., playing educational games on a tablet or smartphone), and passive or parent-led (e.g., parents reading articles for themselves online). A sample of 35 five-year old children and their parents participated. Children completed assessments of four indicators of early language and literacy development: receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and early word reading. Parents completed a questionnaire asking about their home literacy environment activities that were active, child-led, or passive. The results showed that active home literacy environment predicted receptive vocabulary, and vocabulary predicted the three measures of early literacy. Passive home literacy environment, that is, literacy behaviours of parents themselves such as reading books or articles online helped to predict children’s phonological processing. It seems that oral language (facilitated by active home literacy environment activities and experiences) enables children to acquire phonological awareness, which in turn enables children to acquire letter-sound knowledge and early word
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Importance: Whether the association between higher screen time in infancy and later suboptimal neurodevelopment can be mitigated by frequency of outdoor play is unknown. Objective: To investigate whether higher screen time at age 2 years is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 4 years and whether this association is mediated by frequency of outdoor play at age 2 years 8 months. Design, setting, and participants: Participants were a subsample of the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort Study for Mothers and Children (HBC Study, N = 1258). Children were born between December 2007 and March 2012 and followed up from 1 year 6 months to 4 years. The analysis was conducted from April 2021 to June 2022. Exposures: Screen time longer than 1 hour a day at age 2 years was coded as higher screen time. Main outcomes and measures: Standardized scores for communication, daily living skills, and socialization domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, second edition, at age 4 years were used (mean [SD], 100 [15]). The mediating factor was frequency of outdoor play at age 2 years 8 months, with 6 or 7 days per week coded as frequent outdoor play. Results: Of 885 participants, 445 children (50%) were female; mean (SD) screen time per day was 2.6 (2.0) hours. Causal mediation analyses revealed that higher screen time at age 2 years was associated with lower scores in communication at age 4 years (nonstandardized coefficient b = -2.32; 95% CI, -4.03 to -0.60), but the association was not mediated by frequency of outdoor play. Higher screen time was also associated with lower scores in daily living skills (b = -1.76; 95% CI, -3.21 to -0.31); 18% of this association was mediated by frequency of outdoor play. Frequency of outdoor play was associated with socialization (b = 2.73; 95% CI, 1.06 to 4.39), whereas higher screen time was not (b = -1.34; 95% CI, -3.05 to 0.36). Conclusions and relevance: Higher screen time at age 2 years was directly associated with poorer communication at age 4 years. It was also associated with daily living skills, but frequency of outdoor play at age 2 years 8 months alleviated it, suggesting outdoor play mitigated the association between higher screen time and suboptimal neurodevelopment. Future research should specify the nature of the associations and intervention measures, enabling targeted interventions that reduce the potential risk in screen time.
Chapter
This chapter addresses how early childhood professionals can implement technology in early childhood settings with infants and toddlers. Early childhood educators face complex expectations to ensure children learn and develop optimally. Technology use with infants and toddlers in early childhood settings introduces additional intricacies and nuances. This chapter explores and assesses technology usage with infants and toddlers. The impact of violent media on infants and toddlers is explored. The use of applications in early childhood settings is discussed, including consideration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on technology usage, along with research-based solutions and recommendations to using technology with infants and toddlers. Implications for early childhood teacher education and professional development are also summarized. Finally, future trends related to technology usage with infants and toddlers are discussed.
Article
Background: There is growing concern regarding early screen media exposure and its potential effects on developmental delays including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is little research examining whether interventions can decrease screen media exposure and ASD behaviors among children with ASD. Methods: Participants were nine children, 18 to 40 months old, with an ASD diagnosis who watched screens at least 2 h per day. Screen viewing history and weekly screen viewing and social interaction were assessed. The intervention involved a parent education program followed by weekly 1 h in-home support visits aimed at replacing screen time with social engagement time over a 6 month period. Child autism symptoms (Brief Observation of Social Communication Change), functional behavior (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales), and development (Mullen Scales of Early Learning) were assessed before and after intervention; parents completed questionnaires on parental stress (Autism Parenting Stress Index) and their perceptions of the intervention. Results: Children's screen viewing decreased from an average of 5.6 h/day prior to intervention to 5 min/day during the study. Significant improvements were observed in core autism symptoms and parental stress from pre- to post-intervention. Conclusions: Parent education and training/support to minimize screen time and increase social interaction for young children with ASD was tolerated well by parents and children. These promising preliminary results suggest that further research on early screen media viewing, ASD, and screen reduction intervention is warranted.
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Parental beliefs and motivation are instrumental in improving childhood digital media use (DMU). Parents (n = 611) completed questionnaires about childhood DMU assessing knowledge, interest in counseling, motivation to change, self-efficacy, and beliefs. Less than a third correctly recognized screen time limits. Twenty-seven percent received childhood DMU information from a doctor, while 46% stated they would like such information. Only 2% had a doctor-recommended DMU plan. Interest in DMU topics, motivation to improve, and management self-efficacy were moderate. Top negative beliefs were addiction to DMU (52%), sleep problems (39%), obesity (33%), social skills (33%), and inappropriate content (32%). Differences between age categories existed for social (48%, P = .01) and language (14%, P = .01) concerns (highest for toddlers), attention concerns (27%, P = .02; highest in preschoolers), and depression (13%, P < .001) and low self-esteem (8%, P = .04; highest in teens). Findings support further development of approaches to address DMU, tailored by age-specific common parental views.
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Screen time has substantially increased for children and youth in Ontario and globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency measures introduced during the pandemic such as closures of schools and recreation contributed to increased screen time. There is a growing body of evidence associating increased screen time with harms to physical (e.g., decreased physical activity, eye strain and headaches), cognitive (e.g., attentiveness) and mental (e.g., reported symptoms of depression and anxiety) health in children and youth. There are evidence-based strategies to promote healthy screen habits for children and their families which offer an approach to encourage healthier screen use in the home setting and mitigate potential harms. However, the burden to reduce screen time cannot fall to parents and families alone. Policies are needed to avoid closures of schools and recreation, and ensure alternatives to screen time for children and youth of all ages that promote socialization and physical activity. In addition, there are key equity considerations when it comes to accessibility of alternatives to screen time such as child care and community recreation.
Chapter
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Chapter
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The other contributors confirmed the absence of a reportable conflict of interests The influence of dynamically changing habits associated with the use of digital devices (DD) on the child’s brain is one of the most topical issues of the last decade. Ambiguous or contradictory data on this issue indicate the need of systematizing all the results of scientific research. This analysis shows negative effect of large amount of screen time on the development of children at early age, their academic performance, and attention at older ages due to media absenteeism, as well as the correlation between the use of digital devices with delayed reward. It is necessary to update and to conduct qualitative research to understand the issue in more comprehensive way.
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This statement describes the possible negative health effects of television viewing on children and adolescents, such as violent or aggressive behavior, substance use, sexual activity, obesity, poor body image, and decreased school performance. In addition to the television ratings system and the v-chip (electronic device to block programming), media education is an effective approach to mitigating these potential problems. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers a list of recommendations on this issue for pediatricians and for parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry.
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The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) are a pair of widely used parent-report instruments for assessing communicative skills in infants and toddlers. This report describes short-form versions of the CDIs and their development, summarizes newly available normative data and psychometric properties of the instruments, and discusses research and clinical applications. The infant short form (Level I, for 8- to 18-month-olds) contains an 89-word checklist for vocabulary comprehension and production. The two parallel versions of the toddler short form (Level II, Forms A and B, for 16- to 30-month-olds) each contain a 100-word vocabulary production checklist and a question about word combinations. The forms may also be useful with developmentally delayed children beyond the specified age ranges. Copies of the short forms and the normative tables appear in the appendices.
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Developmental norms for young children’s vocabularies have a number of applications in research design, assessment, and intervention, but have previously been very difficult to obtain. In the present study, month-by-month norms for comprehension and production of 396 words from 8 to 16 months, and production of 680 words from 16 to 30 months, were derived from a norming study of 1,789 children between the ages of 8 and 30 months using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (Fenson et al., 1993). The norms are available in the form of a database program, LEX, for MS-DOS-based computers.
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Infants acquire language with remarkable speed, although little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the acquisition process. Studies of the phonetic units of language have shown that early in life, infants are capable of discerning differences among the phonetic units of all languages, including native- and foreign-language sounds. Between 6 and 12 mo of age, the ability to discriminate foreign-language phonetic units sharply declines. In two studies, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions for reversing this decline in foreign-language phonetic perception. In Experiment 1, 9-mo-old American infants were exposed to native Mandarin Chinese speakers in 12 laboratory sessions. A control group also participated in 12 language sessions but heard only English. Subsequent tests of Mandarin speech perception demonstrated that exposure to Mandarin reversed the decline seen in the English control group. In Experiment 2, infants were exposed to the same foreign-language speakers and materials via audiovisual or audio-only recordings. The results demonstrated that exposure to recorded Mandarin, without interpersonal interaction, had no effect. Between 9 and 10 mo of age, infants show phonetic learning from live, but not prerecorded, exposure to a foreign language, suggesting a learning process that does not require long-term listening and is enhanced by social interaction.
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To determine the television-, DVD-, and video-viewing habits of children younger than 2 years. A telephone survey of 1009 parents of children aged 2 to 24 months. Parents in Minnesota and Washington state were surveyed. A random sample of parents of children born in the previous 2 years was drawn from birth certificate records. Households in which English was not spoken were excluded, as were children with major disabilities. The amount of regular television and DVD/video viewing by content, reasons for viewing, and frequency of parent-child coviewing. By 3 months of age, about 40% of children regularly watched television, DVDs, or videos. By 24 months, this proportion rose to 90%. The median age at which regular media exposure was introduced was 9 months. Among those who watched, the average viewing time per day rose from 1 hour per day for children younger than 12 months to more than 1.5 hours per day by 24 months. Parents watched with their children more than half of the time. Parents gave education, entertainment, and babysitting as major reasons for media exposure in their children younger than 2 years. Parents should be urged to make educated choices about their children's media exposure. Parental hopes for the educational potential of television can be supported by encouraging those parents who are already allowing screen time to watch with their children.
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This is a massive book by 171 contributors in 127 chapters. Rather than a textbook, it is more of a reference library of the field. As in other such books with multiple contributors, it does not have a unifying perspective, and there are many overlaps and repetitions. Certainly, any information in the field could be found, if not in a chapter itself, in the long list of references following each chapter.The first section is on normal development, including eight chapters on biological development. Although there is heavy emphasis on the biological, psychological theories are not neglected. There are expected sections on clinical syndromes, etiology, treatment, and the relationship of child psychiatry to education, pediatrics, the law, and public health. The last section is a grab bag of chapters on training, research, ethics, and history.In a book of this sort, besides repetitions, there are bound to be contradictions. It
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Book synopsis: Now in two volumes, the fully revised and updated second edition of The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development provides comprehensive coverage of the basic research and applied and policy issues relating to infant development Updated, fully-revised and expanded, this two-volume set presents in-depth and cutting edge coverage of both basic and applied developmental issues during infancy Features contributions by leading international researchers and practitioners in the field that reflect the most current theories and research findings Includes editor commentary and analysis to synthesize the material and provide further insight The most comprehensive work available in this dynamic and rapidly growing field
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Data from parent reports on 1,803 children--derived from a normative study of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--are used to describe the typical course and the extent of variability in major features of communicative development between 8 and 30 months of age. The two instruments, one designed for 8-16-month-old infants, the other for 16-30-month-old toddlers, are both reliable and valid, confirming the value of parent reports that are based on contemporary behavior and a recognition format. Growth trends are described for children scoring at the 10th-, 25th-, 50th-, 75th-, and 90th-percentile levels on receptive and expressive vocabulary, actions and gestures, and a number of aspects of morphology and syntax. Extensive variability exists in the rate of lexical, gestural, and grammatical development. The wide variability across children in the time of onset and course of acquisition of these skills challenges the meaningfulness of the concept of the modal child. At the same time, moderate to high intercorrelations are found among the different skills both concurrently and predictively (across a 6-month period). Sex differences consistently favor females; however, these are very small, typically accounting for 1%-2% of the variance. The effects of SES and birth order are even smaller within this age range. The inventories offer objective criteria for defining typicality and exceptionality, and their cost effectiveness facilitates the aggregation of large data sets needed to address many issues of contemporary theoretical interest. The present data also offer unusually detailed information on the course of development of individual lexical, gestural, and grammatical items and features. Adaptations of the CDIs to other languages have opened new possibilities for cross-linguistic explorations of sequence, rate, and variability of communicative development.
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Infants learn language with remarkable speed, but how they do it remains a mystery. New data show that infants use computational strategies to detect the statistical and prosodic patterns in language input, and that this leads to the discovery of phonemes and words. Social interaction with another human being affects speech learning in a way that resembles communicative learning in songbirds. The brain's commitment to the statistical and prosodic patterns that are experienced early in life might help to explain the long-standing puzzle of why infants are better language learners than adults. Successful learning by infants, as well as constraints on that learning, are changing theories of language acquisition.
To test the independent effects of television viewing in children before age 3 years and at ages 3 to 5 years on several measures of cognitive outcomes at ages 6 and 7 years. Using data from a nationally representative data set, we regressed 4 measures of cognitive development at ages 6 and 7 years on television viewing before age 3 years and at ages 3 to 5 years, controlling for parental cognitive stimulation throughout early childhood, maternal education, and IQ. Before age 3 years, the children in this study watched an average of 2.2 hours per day; at ages 3 to 5 years, the daily average was 3.3 hours. Adjusted for the covariates mentioned earlier, each hour of average daily television viewing before age 3 years was associated with deleterious effects on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test Reading Recognition Scale of 0.31 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.61 to -0.01 points), on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test Reading Comprehension Scale of 0.58 points (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.21 points), and on the Memory for Digit Span assessment from the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children of -0.10 points (95% CI, -0.20 to 0 points). For the Reading Recognition Scale score only, a beneficial effect of television at ages 3 to 5 years was identified, with each hour associated with a 0.51-point improvement in the score (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.85 points). There are modest adverse effects of television viewing before age 3 years on the subsequent cognitive development of children. These results suggest that greater adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines that children younger than 2 years not watch television is warranted.
Media in the home 2000: the fifth annual survey of parents and children
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