Involvement of γ-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis
Division of Gene Therapy Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
(Impact Factor: 2.3).
12/2007; 363(3):584-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.09.003
gamma-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of gamma-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), gamma-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that gamma-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC.
Available from: Harpreet Sidhu
- "In addition to APP, γ-secretase processes more than 20 other substrates that participate in a diverse array of biological functions  such as cell-to-cell adhesion , differentiation , , and angiogenesis . Vascular stability is one of the more consequential processes that rely on γ-secretase activity, by way of Notch signaling . "
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease research has been at an impasse in recent years with lingering questions about the involvement of Amyloid-β (Aβ). Early versions of the amyloid hypothesis considered Aβ something of an undesirable byproduct of APP processing that wreaks havoc on the human neocortex, yet evolutionary conservation--over three hundred million years--indicates this peptide plays an important biological role in survival and reproductive fitness. Here we describe how Aβ regulates blood vessel branching in tissues as varied as human umbilical vein and zebrafish hindbrain. High physiological concentrations of Aβ monomer induced angiogenesis by a conserved mechanism that blocks γ-secretase processing of a Notch intermediate, NEXT, and reduces the expression of downstream Notch target genes. Our findings allude to an integration of signaling pathways that utilize γ-secretase activity, which may have significant implications for our understanding of Alzheimer's pathogenesis vis-à-vis vascular changes that set the stage for ensuing neurodegeneration.
Available from: Rajarajeshwari Venkataraman
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the extremely fatal brain tumors. The main reason that makes it so lethal is its capability to invade and spread to other parts of CNS producing secondary tumors. Among other factors hypoxia, reduced oxygen availability, is linked to higher metastatic potential of cancers. Hypoxia causes numerous changes in genome and proteome of the cell. These changes help a normal cell to adapt to nutritional deficiency, but the same changes can increase the malignancy and metastasis in tumor cells. Extensive research by a number of curious scientists reveal that various pathways involving numerous proteins cross-talk and interact with each other and execute a response to hypoxia. We are trying to establish the link between two such pathways HIF1-alpha pathway and Notch pathway. Both, HIF1-alpha, which is a transcription factor that becomes active in hypoxic conditions and Notch, which is an evolutionarily conserved cell-fate determinant, are implicated in hypoxia-induced metastasis of cancer. In this given project, we confirm the cross talk between Notch and HIF1-alpha pathway and further continue our study to show that TrpC6 is the downstream mediator of this pathway, leading to metastasis of GBM. Expression analysis of hypoxia-induced U373 cells (Grade 3 glioblastoma cells), using Real-time PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry, revealed elevated levels of Notch, Hif1 and TrpC6 indicating that these proteins might be important for the cellular response to hypoxia. Blocking Notch and/or HIF1-alpha, either by DAPT or HIF1-inhibitor, confirmed the communication between these two pathways. Role of TrpC6 in metastasis was demonstrated by knocking down this gene using siRNA against TrpC6. Inhibition of TrpC6 markedly decreased cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in these hypoxia-induced Glioblastoma cells. In summary, all these results reveal that TrpC6 is indeed an important member of the Notch-mediated metastasis of Glioblastoma under hypoxic conditions. This role of TrpC6 can therefore be utilized for pharmacological intervention to prevent hypoxia-induced metastasis in GBM.
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