Longitudinal Patterns of Breakfast Eating in Black and White Adolescent Girls*

Northeastern University, Department of Counseling Psychology, 203 Lake Hall, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115-5000, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 10/2007; 15(9):2282-92. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2007.271
Source: PubMed


The objective was to describe the pattern of breakfast eating over time ("breakfast history") and examine its associations with BMI and physical activity.
This longitudinal investigation of patterns of breakfast eating included 1,210 black and 1,161 white girls who participated in the 10-year, longitudinal National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS). Three-day food records were collected during annual visits beginning at ages 9 or 10 up to age 19. Linear regression and path analysis were used to estimate the associations between breakfast history, BMI, and physical activity.
Among girls with a high BMI at baseline, those who ate breakfast more often had lower BMI at the end of the study (age 19), compared with those who ate breakfast less often. Path analysis indicated that energy intake and physical activity mediated the association between patterns of breakfast eating over time and BMI in late adolescence.
The association between regular breakfast consumption over time and moderation of body weight among girls who began the study with relatively high BMI suggests that programs to address overweight in children and adolescents should emphasize the importance of physical activity and eating breakfast consistently.

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Available from: Sandra G Affenito, Oct 13, 2014
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    • "Gender also appeared to influence food-related behaviours, such as having breakfast. Similarly to previous studies [34], we found that girls are more likely to skip the first main meal of the day, in all likelihood as a means to lose weight [35] "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary and lifestyle behaviors at young ages have been associated with the development of various chronic diseases. Schools are regarded as an excellent setting for lifestyle modification; there is a lack, however, of published dietary data in Cypriot school children. Thus, the objective of this work was to describe lifestyle characteristics of a representative segment of Cypriot school children and provide implications for school health education. The CYKIDS (Cyprus Kids Study) is a national, cross-sectional study conducted among 1140 school children (10.7 +/- 0.98 years). Sampling was stratified and multistage in 24 primary schools of Cyprus. Dietary assessment was based on a 154-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and three supplementary questionnaires, assessing dietary patterns and behaviors. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated by the KIDMED index (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents). Physical activity was assessed by a 32-item, semi-quantitative questionnaire. Analysis revealed that 6.7% of the children were classified as high adherers, whereas 37% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 20% of boys and 25% of girls reported "not having breakfast on most days of the week", while more than 80% of the children reported having meals with the family at least 5 times/week. Some food-related behaviors, such as intake of breakfast, were associated with socio-demographic factors, mostly with gender and the geomorphological characteristics of the living milieu. With respect to physical activity, boys reported higher levels compared to girls, however, one fourth of children did not report any kind of physical activity. A large percentage of Cypriot school children have a diet of low quality and inadequate physical activity. Public health policy makers should urgently focus their attention to primary school children and design school health education programs that target the areas that need attention in order to reduce the future burden of metabolic disorders and chronic diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · BMC Public Health
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    • "p < 2 0.05). Previous studies had also identified ethnicity, body weight status and eating companions as factors omission of breakfast (Pon et al., 2004; Moy et al., 2006; Albertson et al., 2007; Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2007; Boutelle et al., 2002). For instance, overweight adolescents were more likely to skip one or more meals Table 4: Distribution of participants by location and frequency of eating away from home (n=407) Participant (%) Eat at hawker centers, coffee shops or other food stalls Never/ Less than once a month "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined eating behaviors among female adolescents. A total of 407 female students aged between 13-19 years were randomly selected from two secondary schools in Kuantan district, Pahang, Malaysia. All participants were required to complete a self-administered Eating Behaviors Questionnaire and their weight and height were measured by the researchers. A majority of the participants were Malays (65.3%), followed by Chinese (28.3%) and Indians (6.4%). There were 5.9% underweight participants, 75.4% were normal-weight and 18.7% were overweight. About one third (35.9%) never skipped any of the daily three meals, but another half (52.6%) skipped at least one meal a day and the remaining (11.5%) had even skipped all three meals in a day. The most frequently missed meals were breakfast (47.4%). Half (51.4%) snacked between meals daily and three in four (76.9%) had their meals with family members. No differences were found between the socio-demographic variables (age, household members, parent’s total year of schooling, parental monthly income and living arrangement) and meal skipping behaviors. However, those who usually skipped meals were those who usually eat alone (Chi<sup>2 </sup>= 16.933, p < 0.0001), overweight (Chi<sup>2 </sup>= 15.943, p < 0.05) and were Malays (Chi<sup>2 </sup>= 33.827, p < 0.05). In conclusion, meal skipping, snacking and practicing various weight loss behaviors were some of the unhealthy eating behaviors depicted among adolescent girls. Focusing on promotion of healthy eating that stresses on the importance of regular intakes of main meals during adolescence is crucial for their current and future health and well-being.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
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    • "Consistent with previous research, adolescent girls ate breakfast on fewer days per week compared to boys [13,34,35]. Despite the evidence that adolescents who skip breakfast are more likely to be overweight than those who regularly eat breakfast [5], skipping breakfast may be a chosen method of weight control for girls, and in some individuals may be associated with dieting, or disordered eating [35]. Further research is needed to understand the gender differences in breakfast consumption. "
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    ABSTRACT: The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12-16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (>/= 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (>/= 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on >/= 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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